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Vol. I, Part 2.— PHILLIP. 


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A -1 

V.I . 


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The "Historical Eecords" of New South Wales are published 
with the object of affording the fullest information obtainable 
concerning the foundation^ progress, and government of the 
mother colony of Australia. It was with a similar purpose that 
the publication was commenced, more than two years ago, of the 
" History of New South Wales, from the Records." All the 
material that the Government could command was placed at 
tte disposal of the writer, and in the volume issued from the 
Government Printing Office in June, 1889, this reservoir of 
information was largely drawn upon. But when Vol. II of the 
History was in preparation it was considered desirable to make 
a change in the plan. It was determined that while the publica- 
tion of the History should go on, the records themselves, with the 
exception of those that are trivial or formal, should be printed 
in full, in separate volumes, so that the public might have, on the 
one hand, a historical work founded on official documents, and on 
the other, the material upon which the narrative is based. 

The adoption of this course serves a double purpose. In the 
first place, it enhances the value of the History, for it euablei-^ 
the reader to turn at any point from the narrative of the writer 
to the fuller information which the reports and despatches supply. 
The advantage gained by this treatment of the official papers is 
obvious. No matter how faithfully a writer of history may 
perform his task, he cannot cover all the ground ; no matter 


liow acutely lie may criticise tlie actors wlio take part in tlie 
scenes lie describes, lie cannot exliibit tliem in so clear a light 
as they are shown in their own writings. Thus the publication 
of the Records may be regarded as desirable from the historical 
point of view. 

In the second place, the printing of the Records gives immediate 
and lasting public value to State papers which would otherwise 
be of service to the few — only those, in fact, who have leisure 
to search the bulky manuscripts which have been collected by the 
Government. In the absence of printed records, the inquirer 
who endeavours to learn in what manner New South Wales was 
founded — how the settlement was governed in the early days — by 
what steps it grew — ^how difficulties were encountered and over- 
'Come — what mistakes were made, and how they were corrected — 
by whom injustice was perpetrated, and in what way retribution 
fell upon the oppressor — can command no better sources of 
information than tradition, and the accounts of writers who had 
to make history from insufficient material. He is in the position 
that a jury would occupy if it were required to give a verdict upon 
hearsay evidence. The publication of the Records will change 
all that. With the printed Records in the public libraries and 
on the book-shelves of all who care to purchase them, the student 
■of history will have the best possible material at his disposal. 
He will be able to read for himself^ and draw his own conclusions 
from direct testimony. 

It is not entirely a new departure that has been taken. The 
importance of preserving and reproducing national records is 
recognised in most civilised countries, and especially so in Great 
Britain. In earlier times, when Ministers of the Crown treated 
official despatches as their private property, and on quitting office 
tarried to their own houses manuscripts which belonged to the 
nation, little care was taken of the records, and such a thing as 
giving information to the public concerning them does not appear 
to have had any place in the minds of those in authority. This 
indifference no longer exists. All public documents are carefully 
preserved ; inventories of them are taken, and they are accurately 
described in printed calendars. With a few exceptions, the State 


papers are gathered together iu one place, the Public Record 
Office, London, and are kept in the custody of the Master of the 
Rolls, Avho by the Public Records Act (1 and 2 Vict., c. 94) is 
constituted Keeper of the Archives.* These stores of information 
are not simply hoarded up — they are treated in such a way as to 
be of use to the people, and to bring within easy reach of the 
historian the documentary evidence that he requires. Large 
volumes, entitled " Calendars of State Papers," consisting of 
condensations of the documents in the Public Record Office 
and elsewhere from the days of Henry VIII to the Eighteenth 
Century, are in course of publication, while some of the earlier 
records are printed in full. 

Under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, and by the 
authoi'ity of Her Majesty's Treasury, the publication was com- 
menced thirty-four years ago of "^ The Chronicles and Memorials of 
Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages." The first 
volume (published December, 1857) contained an official statement, 
which has been repeated in subsequent volumes, to the effect that 
on the 26th January of that year the Master of the Rolls submitted 
to the Treasury a proposal for the publication of materials for the 
history of Great Britain, from the invasion of the Romans to the 
reign of Henry VIII. The Lords of the Treasury adopted the- 
suggestion, and the work, conducted by a staff of editors, has 
gone on without interruption to the present time. Up to 1891 
over 200 volumes had been published. The care and elaboration 
with which the work is done may be seen from the copies of the 
books in the Free Public Library, Sydney. 

More than half a century before the publication of the 
" Chronicles and Memorials " was commenced, that is to say in 
the year 1800, a Select Committee of the House of Commons had 
recommended that the public records should be printed. This 
recommendation is referred to by the Honorable Board of Com- 
missioners on the Public Records in its report to the King-in- 
Council of 7th February, 1837. The Commissioners express 

* With tlic exception of certain iiiunuscripts in tlie Britit^h MuseuiM and a few 
public libraries, most of the public uiiininicnts of the realm are now placed in one 
repository, and under the supervision of the Master of the Kolls. — Kncyclopcedia 
Britaimiea, ninth edition, vol. xx, p. 313. 

viii PREFACE. 

their approval of fhe proposition in tlie following words : — " In 
this opinion [the opinion of the Select Committee that the Eecords 
should be printed] we have entirely coincided. We regard the 
press as at once the only perfectly secure preservative of the 
information which the National Archives contain, and the only 
means by which that information can be diffused beyond a very 
narrow circle of inquirers." The publication of the " Chronicles 
and Memorials " is the outcome of these recommendations. 

In Canada the Records are scrupulously kept, and their contents 
disclosed for the information of the public. In 1872 the Dominion 
Government appointed an Archivist, and founded an Archives 
Office at Ottawa, where all the public records, with the exception 
of those retained by the provincial authorities, are stored. The 
papers consist partly of original documents, and partly of copies 
of old despatches and other manuscripts transcribed by a staff of 
writers from originals discovered by the Archivist in the London 
Record Office and Departments of State, and in the archives of 
Paris and other European cities. From time to time reports are 
issued in which the Records are described, and when considered 
necessary, printed in full. In this manner the public is placed 
in possession of information of the highest interest and import- 
ance relating to the early history of Canada which had never 
before seen the light. 

In New South Wales, owing to the shorter period of time, 
and the smaller quantity of material to be dealt with, it is possible 
to do what would be impracticable under other circumstances, 
that is to say, to publish in full the Records of the Colony from 
its foundation. It has also been decided to publish all available 
correspondence concerning Captain Cook and his connection 
with Australian discovery. The Cook Papers form Part I of 
Vol. I. Part II of Vol. I contains the records relating to the estab- 
lishment of the Colony and its progress under Governor Phillip. 

When the settlement at Port Jackson was established the chief 
authority was vested in the Governor, who not only governed the 
Colony, but administered its affairs. The Civil business was 
conducted nominally by a staff, but much of the work fell upon the 
Governor, who was troubled with matters of a kind which would 


be settled in the present day by an ordinary clerk. He was also 
at tlie head of the naval and military forces, and was the principal, 
it may almost be said the only, channel of communication between 
the Colonial Government and the English authorities. The 
reasons which led the English Government to plant a convict 
settlement in New South Wales are only briefly indicated in the 
scanty papers discovered in the State Departments ; but when 
the Colony had been established its affairs formed the subject 
of periodical letters from the Governors, who wrote fully about 
the concerns of the settlement, receiving in reply despatches 
for their guidance and instruction. Most of this correspond- 
ence has been preserved in the English Departments of State 
either in the original or in official copies. Its value is inestimable. 
The despatches are full of information. The Governors were 
required by their instructions to keep the Home authorities well 
informed about matters great and small, and in the despatches 
sent to London almost every transaction that took place is minutely 
described. More than this, copies of all the proclamations and 
orders issued by the Governor and the military commander were 
forwarded for the information of the English authorities. These 
<locuments are recorded with the other State papers. 

The early history of New South Wales is founded mainly 
upon the despatches sent by the Governors to the authorities 
in England, and the despatches received by them in reply. The 
Records are comprised within measurable bounds, and as they 
fire the chief material out of which history must be made, it has 
been decided to print them as they stand. 

This course has been adopted on the recommendation of a 
Board, consisting of the late Hon. Geoffrey Eagar, Under Sec- 
retary for Finance and Trade from 1872 to 1891 ; Alexander 
Oliver, M. A,, Barrister-at-Law ; Professor G. Arnold Wood, B.A., 
Cballis Professor of History at the Sydney University ; and R. 
■C. Walker, Principal Librarian, Public Library. U'ho Board 
having ascertained the nature of the documents at the disposal 
of the Government, came to the conclusion that the design with 
which the publication of the Official History was commenced 
could not be fully carried out unless the State papei's and other 


oflEicial documents upou wliicli the work was based were made 
as accessible to the public as the History itself. They decided, 
therefore,, that the printing of the Records was not only desirable 
but necessary, and in the month of March, 1891, a recom- 
mendation to that effect was made to the then Colonial Treasurer, 
the Hon. William McMillan. The proposal received the cordial 
approval of the Minister, who gave the necessary authority to 
carry out th.Q work on the lines recommended by the Board. 
Arrangements were made accordingly for printing and publish- 
ing the despatches, reports, letters, and other papers which had 
been collected. 

While the best use has been made of the material at command, 
the Records of the early days of the Colony cannot be presented 
in an absolutely complete form. Every paper of consequence that 
has been discovered, or may be discovered hereafter, will be 
published ; but unfortunately manuscripts of great interest and 
importance, which are known to have existed, cannot now be 
found. The most valuable of the early Records are the despatches 
sent to England by the Governors, and the despatches received 
by the Governors from the authorities in London. At Govern- 
ment House, Sydney, there are a number of letter-books contain- 
ing copies of the despatches sent to England, and the original 
despatches received from the Home authorities; but these Records, 
instead of going back to 1788, the year in which New South Wales 
was founded, begin with 1800. Of the despatches received and 
sent before that date, during the Governorships of Phillip and 
Hunter, and the Lieutenant- Governorships of Grose and Paterson, 
there is no trace. What has become of them it is impossible to 
say. A hundred years ago State papers were not so carefully 
guarded as they are now ; the English system was loose, and it 
would have been surprising if greater care had been taken in 
Sydney than in London. Some of the early Australian Governors 
may have taken their papers with them when they left office. On 
that supposition the disappearance of the despatches from 1788 
to 1800 is readily explained ; but even then the whole case is not 
met, for public Records of which the Governors were not the 
custodians are also missing. 


Tliere are ch'cumstances, however, wlaicli discourage tlie view 
that Governors' despatches in the early days were treated as 
the property of those to whom they were sent. It is certain that 
they were not so treated by Governor King, and there seems to 
be no reason why Phillip and Hunter, Grose and Paterson, should 
have followed a different practice. We have the means of know- 
ing exactly the course pursued by Hunter's immediate successor. 
The Hon. Philip Gidley King, M.L.C., has placed at the disposal 
of the Government the books and papers left by his grandfather, 
Governor King ; but, while these manuscripts include copies of 
most, if not all, of the despatches received by King from the 
English Ministers and Under Secretaries of State, no originals 
are to be found. The despatches have been copied into letter- 
books, some by King himself, some by his secretary ; but, while 
many unofl&cial letters to King are among the papers, the originals 
of the Home despatches are vv^anting. The inference is plain. 
If King had at any time regarded the English despatches as his 
own property, he would not have gone to the trouble of copying 
them, and the originals would have been found among his 
papers. He was exceedingly careful about his correspondence, 
preserving communications of all kinds, Avhether trivial or im- 
portant, but duplicating nothing. When an original document is 
met with there is no copy. And the manuscripts at Government 
House show that when King relinquished the govei'nment he left 
the originals of the English despatches in the office. If in doing 
so he acted in accordance with the recognised practice, the pre- 
sumption is that his predecessors — Governors Phillip and Hunter, 
and Lieutenant-Governors Grose and Paterson — treated in the 
same way the despatches received by them. 

AVhat then has become of these manuscripts ? Most probably 
they have been destroyed ; but by whom or with what object 
can only be conjectured. That the missing despatches met with 
this fate is the more likely from the fact previously stated, 
that public records of corresponding dates, for which the Gover- 
nors were not responsible, have also disappeared. A strong- 
room in the Colonial Secretary's Office, Sydney, contains all the 
original records of New South AVales that can be found. These 


papers liave been examined and scliednled, and it may be seen 
at a glance of wliat tliey consist. Tliej begin witli a General 
Order, dated 7tli August, 1789, "Instructions to tbe Night 
Watcb..'^ Two otber orders of no particular importance follow, 
and these are all out of the many hundreds issued during Phillip's 
•Governorship that appear to have been preserved. There are no 
official papers whatever belonging to the administration of Lieut.- 
Oovernor Paterson — December, 1794, to September, 1795; and 
only one of the time in which Lieut -Governor Grose ruled — • 
December, 1792^ to December, 1794. Hunter's Governorshij:), 
^vhich covered more than five years — 11th September, 1795, to 
27th September, 1800 — is represented by one book containing 
copies of the orders made from September, 1795, to December, 
1797, and five or six papers of minor importance. Papers belong- 
ing to the King period, 1800 to 1806, are more numerous ; but the 
Kecords are scanty and intermittent until the term of Governor 
Macquarie is reached, January, 1810. There are no des- 
patches to or from the Governors during any period. The only 
manuscripts of this class in Sydney are in the Secretary's room 
at Government House. 

The Becords, so far as Sydney is concerned, are thus defective 
in two respects. In the first place, the despatches from the 
foundation of the Colony up to the beginning of 1800 are want- 
ing; in the second place, the orders, proclamations, and other 
•official papers showing how authority was exercised in the early 
■days are found only in fragments — in fact, they can scarcely be 
said to exist. 

But for the active search made in London by Mr. James 
Bonwick, F.R.G.S., the early Recoi'ds of New South Wales 
"would have been little better than a blank. The despatches sent 
to England by the Governors, as well as the despatches and 
letters transmitted to them, have been preserved, if not as com- 
pletely as could have been wished, yet to a very large extent, in 
the Departments of State. These sources of information have 
been thrown open to the Government, and the transcriptions that 
tave been made repair, so far as it can be repaired, the misfortune 
the Colony has sustained in the loss of its early Records. 

PREFACE. xiii 

Tlie first step to tap these valuable sources of iuformation was 
taken in April, 1887, when tlie Colonial Secretary, Sir Henry 
Parkes, G.C.M.G., through the Agent-General, authorized Mr. 
Bonwick to make copies of certain despatches which he had dis- 
covered. In the following year, in view of the publication of the 
" History of New South AVales from the Eecords," authority was 
given for the transcription of documents relating to the period 
during which Governor Phillip was at the head of affairs, i.e., 
1788-1792. The information obtained in this way proved so 
interesting and valuable that Mr. Bonwick was instructed to con- 
tinue his researches, and the work has since gone on without 
interruption. The purpose in view is to collect from every avail- 
able source all the authentic iuformation it is possible to obtain 
relating to the foundation of the Colony and its government 
during the early part of its existence. 

An awkward gap is thus filled up. The information, however, 
was not easily obtained. The manuscripts were not readily 
accessible ; they were gathered from many Departments. The 
Governors in the early days were not only responsible to the Home 
Office, which had the Colonies in its charge, but, as naval officers, 
they owed allegiance to the Admiralty. They had to correspond 
with the Home Secretary and the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty, and with the Under Secretaries of those departments. 
Each department and sub-department kept two letter-books, one 
for the Minister and the other for the Under Secretary, so that it 
was necessary to examine four different sources of infoi'mation for 
the purpose of discovering what had passed between the Governors 
and the English authorities. 

In dealing with the Eecords belonging to a still eavlier period — 
that in which the establishment of a settlement in New South 
Wales was discussed — the ground to be covered was wider still, 
though not so productive. In making preparations for the des- 
patch of the First Fleet many departments and sub-departments 
were engaged — the Home Office, which had general direction of 
the business; the Admiralty, which undertook the equipment and 
officering of the ships, and the appointment of the force of marines 
which guarded the transports and formed the garrison at Port 


Jackson ; tlie Treasury, whicli made tlie financial arrangements ; 
tlie Transport Office, whicli had to do witli the convict-ships; and 
the Victualling Department, which provisioned the ileet. When 
the marines were replaced by the special corps raised by Major 
Grose, known afterwards as the New South Wales Corps, another 
Department of State, that of War, was brought into operation; 
and, accordingly, correspondence between that department and 
the Home Office, and between the officials at the War Office and 
the officers of the corps, takes its place amongst the Records. 
Three of the transpoi-ts which constituted, with the warship 
Sirius and its tender the Supply, the vessels forming the 
First Fleet, were under charter to the East India Company to 
take cargoes of tea from China to London after landing convicts 
and stores at Port Jackson ; and at a subsequent stage, the 
Company, ov/ing to the obstacles it threw in the way of Australian 
trade with the East, figured largely in the official correspondence 
relating to New South Wales. The records of the India Office 
are therefore another source of information. 

The transcripts which have been despatched to Sydney are 
thus gathered from a wide field, embracing as it does the Public 
Record Office, the British Museum, the Home Office, the Colonial 
Office, the War Office, the Privy Council Office, the Admiralty, 
the India Office, and Somerset House. The documents had to 
be searched for, and the work was not without difficulty, owing 
to the imperfect and unsystematic way in which official records 
were kept in the early days. Some documents, the earlier Orders 
and Proclamations, for example, cannot be found at all ; others, 
which were believed to be missing, such as the commissions of 
the early Governors, have been discovered in the Home Office, 
after a patient search, in which valuable assistance was given 
by the officers of the Department. A number of the despatches 
copied by the transcribers in London escaped notice in the first 
instance because they had been placed amongst pajoers relating 
to the American colonies. 

While the principal storehouse of facts concerning the early 
days of the Colony is the Public Record Office and the Depart- 
ments of State in London, information has been obtained from 


other sources. Six years ago the Ageut-Geiieral, Sir Saul 
Samuel, acting under instructions from the Government at 
Sydney, purchased from Lord Brabourne a valuable collection 
of papers relating to the settlement and early history of New 
South Wales. They were once known as ''The Brabourne 
Papers "; they are now known as '' The Banks Papers." The 
grandfather of the present Lord Brabourne was related to Sir 
Joseph Banks, and in that way the papers came into the posses- 
sion of the Brabourne family. Sir Joseph Banks, as pointed 
out in Vol. I of the Official History, took an active part in the 
consultations and negotiations which led to the settlement of 
New South Wales ; and there can be no doubt that his represen- 
tations, founded upon what he saw of the country during his visit 
to Botany Bay with Captain Cook in the Endeavour, did a 
great deal towards bringing about the settlement of New South 
AVales. After the Colony had been established he watched its 
fortunes with a parental eye, and the deep interest which he 
took in its welfare is shown by the correspondence that has 
come, through Lord Brabourne, into the possession of the 
Government of New South Wales. These manuscripts are 
apparently only a part of the papers that Sir Joseph kept 
with regard to this Colony. The "Banks Papers'^ were dis- 
covered by accident in Sir Joseph Banks^ old house in Soho 
Square, but these manuscripts are only a portion of the corre- 
spondence which Sir Joseph had with English Ministers, and 
with Australian Governors, settlers, and explorers. Many of his 
manuscripts relating to Australian affairs have been lost or 
destroyed. The papers begin with four letters from Captain 
Cook (originals), and go up to 1814, six years before Sir Joseph's 
death. The absence of letters from or to Phillip, with whom Sir 
Joseph Banks corresponded, the fact that there are no manu- 
scripts of later date than 1814, and other considerations, indicate 
that the collection, precious as it is, is only the remnant of a 
large store of papers relating to the foundation and early history 
of New South Wales. 

The manuscripts of Governor King, referred to at page xi, 
which have been lent to the Government by the Hon. Philip 


Gidley King^ M.L.C., are extensive and important. They con- 
sist of a Journal, in two volumes, kept partly on board tlie 
Sirius"^ on the voyage from England to Botany Bay with the 
First Fleet of Transports, and partly at Norfolk Island, where 
King acted as Commandant and Superintendent from March, 
1788, to March, 1790, under a Commission issued by Phillip as 
Governor of New South "Wales and its Dependencies ; a letter- 
book, containing copies of despatches received and sent both 
during King's term as Commandant and during his subsequent 
command as Lieutenant-Governor, under commission from the 
Crown, from November, 1791, to October, 1796; four lettei'- 
books, kept during his term as Governor of New South Wales, 
from September, 1800, to August, 1806 ; and original letters and 
despatches, extending from 1799 to 1811. It should be pointed 
out with regard to the despatches recorded in the letter-books, 
that King during his first term at Norfolk Island corresponded 
with Governor Phillip, from whom he derived his authority, 
while during his Lieutenant-Governorship at Norfolk Island and 
his Governorship at Sydney he was in direct communication with 
the Home Office and other Departments of State in England. 
While acting as Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island, from 
November, 1791, to October, 1796, King wrote a Second Journal, 
a copy of which is amongst the transcripts sent from England to 
the Government in Sydney. 

Discoveries from time to time of manuscripts which were 
believed to have been lost, or the existence of which was unknown, 
may interfere to some extent with the consecutive printing of the 
Records ; but it has been considered better to begin publishing 
at once than wait an indefinite time to make sure that all 
possible sources of information have been exhausted. The plan 
of the work contemplates the publication of the Records in 
chronological order, and the rule will not be departed from 
except in cases where despatches of a given date contain 
enclosures of earlier dates. Under such circumstances, to jDlace 
the manuscripts in strict chronological order would cause con- 

* King came out to New South Wales as Second Lieutenant of the Sirius. 


fusion, instead of helping tlie reader. Tlie plan of arranging- 
matter according to subjects lias its advantages, but it is con- 
sidered that what might be gained in this way would be 
outweighed by the disadvantages of a system under which 
the reader would be obliged to look through half-a-dozen volumes 
to find one piece of information relating to a particular day in a. 
particular year. It is believed that by printing the Records in 
chronological order, and giving with each volume a comprehensive 
Index, the Records will be of greater value for purposes of refer- 
ence than if they were dealt with under separate heads. 

As the papers given in these volumes form the basis of the 
Official History which is published concurrently, they are pre- 
sented without comment, and without any^ attempt to explain 
the story they tell. The proper place for description, analysis_, 
a,nd comment is the History itself. The Records are given here 
as they were found, and they speak for themselves. Where it 
has been considei-ed necessary to explain the relation of papers 
to each other, or to give information concerning persons and 
places, as an aid to the reader in studying the Records, the Editor 
has written the necessary notes, which are printed at the foot of 
the page, but no alteration of the text has been made in any case. 
Errors of composition and spelling are allowed to go without 
correction ; in a word, the Records as printed are literal tran- 
scripts of the originals. This is the plan now generally adopted 
in the reproduction of manuscripts ; indeed no other course could 
be pursued without mutilating the originals, and depriving them 
of their historic value. 

It will be noticed in examining the Records from 1783 to 1789 
that duplicates are given of some of the documents printed in 
Yol. I of the Official History. It was impossible to avoid this; 
repetition. The Records stand by themselves, and they must be 
given intact. For this reason, the documents published in Vol. I 
of the History have been reprinted; in future issues, however, 
repetitions will not occur. In the Historical Records will be found 
the full text of the papers ; in the History they will bo digested 
and explained. The writer of Vol. I made such use of the manu- 
scripts as the space at his disposal allowed ; the broader plan 

xviii PREFACE. 

now adopted gives tlie simple facts in one set of volumes and the 
historical narrative in another. In this way the full Records 
will appear in print, while the History will not be burdened by 
long extracts and quotations. It is believed that by the adop- 
tion of this course the convenience of the reader will be consulted 
and the object which the Government has in view carried into 


Government Printing Office, 

Sydney, February, 1892. 

VOL. I, PART 2. 



The papers wliicli form tlie Second. Part of tlie First Volume 
of the Historical Eecords begin witli August^ 1783^ when the 
establishment of a convict settlement in New South Wales 
became for the first time a matter of serious consideration with 
the English Government, and end with December, 1792, when 
Phillip, the first Governor of the colony, left Sydney on his return 
to England."^ The manuscripts reproduced here represent a 
period of nine years and four months. During the first three 
years proposals and suggestions were under consideration, eight 
months were occupied in making preparations for the departure 
of the First Fleet of transports, and the voyage took up eight 
months. The remainder of the time, rather more than five years, 
belongs to the actual history of the Colony. 

The papers cover a great deal of ground. They relate to the 
proposals which led to the adoption of a plan under which New 

* Pliillip applied for a year's IcaTC of absence in April, 1790 (post, pp. 329, 330). 
He renewed the request on the 25th Mareh, 1791, on the ground of ill-health (post, 
pp. 483,481). On the 21st November, 1791, ho -n-rotc to Lord Grenville, requesting 
permission to resign the Government, so that he might return to England, "in hopes 
of finding that relief which this eountrv does not afford" (post, p. 559). The reply 
to this communication, which came from the Right Hon. Henry Dunda^, who had 
succeeded Lord Grenvillc at the Home Office, did not arrive until the 7th October, 
1792, but as permission to retire was not expressly granted, Phillip waited for more 
definite instructions, which, however, do not seem to have reached him. He sailed 
for England on the 11th December, 1792, leaving Major Grose, the Lieutenant- 
Governor, in charge. Soon after returning to England (July, 1793) he formally 
resigned the Governorship, on the ground that he suffered from a comx)laint which, 
could not be proiierly treated in the Colony. 


Soutli Wales became a convict settlement^ tlie arrangements 
made for tlie occupation of tlie country, the equipment and des- 
patcli of tlie vessels wliich formed tlie First Fleet, tlie voyage to 
Botany Bay, wliicli was chosen in the first instance as the site for 
the new colony, the rejection of Botany Bay by Phillip in favour 
of Port Jackson, the landing at Sydney Cove and the establish- 
ment there of the first settlement, the measures taken for the 
government of the Colony, the difficulties experienced by Phillip 
owing to the scarcity of food and the unfriendly attitude of the 
officers who commanded the garrison of marines, the efforts made 
to explore and cultivate the country, the formation of settlements 
at Parramatta and Toongabbe, the occupation of Norfolk Island, 
and other matters which need not be set forth in detail. 

The correspondence includes letters from Departments of State 
to other Departments, letters between Phillip and the Depart- 
ments while he was watching the arrangements for sending out 
the First Fleet, despatches sent by Phillip to the Home Office and 
the Admiralty after his arrival at Sydney, despatches sent from 
England to the Governor, Phillip^s correspondence with Major 
Ross and other officers of the Marines, arising out of questions 
of duty and discipline, despatches from the commandants of 
Norfolk Island to Phillip, despatches from the officer in command 
of the Marines to the Admiralty, and correspondence between 
Phillip and officers of the Civil Staff upon matters affecting the 
■welfare of the Settlement. There are also letters and papers 
showing what steps were taken during Phillip's Governorship 
to procure provisions and live stock from India, Batavia, and the 
Cape of Good Hope, and accounts written by responsible officers 
describing the loss of the Sirius and the Guardian when carrying 
supplies for the Settlements, the former for Norfolk Island, the 
latter for Sydney. 

This part of the Records contains the commissions given to 
Phillip and his staff, the Order of the King in Council (Geo. Ill) 
appointing New South Wales a place to which convicts might be 
sent, the Royal Instructions given to Phillip before he sailed, and 
the Additional Instructions sent to him after his arrival at Sydney, 
the Letters Patent constituting Law Courts and a Court of Vice- 


Admiralty in New Soutli Wales, the form of land grant given 
to the first settler, public orders promulgated at Sydney and 
Norfolk Island, and otlier official documents. 

Extracts from the Banks Papers are also given here, but the 
number is comparatively small. Although Sir Joseph Banks had 
a great deal to do with the foundation of the Colony, his name 
seldom appears in the official correspondence, and in the papers 
purchased from Lord Brabourne there is little trace of his connec- 
tion with the deliberations which led to the despatch of the 
First Fleet. But in papers of later date the active interest he 
took in the welfare of the new settlement and the influence he 
exerted are abundantly shown. That Sir Joseph Banks had 
access to Phillip's despatches may be inferred from the extracts 
in his own handwriting which have been found amongst his 
papers, and that he enjoyed the confidence of Ministers may 
be gathered from the fact that drafts of their despatches and 
instructions form part of the manuscripts jDurchased from Lord 
Brabourne by the Government of this Colony. 

The collection does not contain many papers relating either to 
the establishment of the Colony or the time of Phillij^'s Govern- 
ment, but some of them are of great interest, those, for example, 
which relate to the Mutiny of the Bounty. Captain Bligh, who 
commanded that vessel on its memorable voyage, owed his 
appointment to Sir Joseph Banks, to whom he wrote, according to 
his own statement, a fuller account of the affair than the official 
report which he sent to the Admiralty. In one respect this 
is true, for while the official report begins with the arrival of the 
Bounty at the Cape of Good Hope on the voyage from England 
to Otaheite, the account sent to Banks sets forth the object of 
the expedition — the carrying of the bread-fruit tree from the 
Society Islands to Jamaica — and gives a short statement concern- 
ing the fitting out of the Bounty and the instructions given to 
her commander. It also briefly describes the voyage from Eng- 
land to the Cape. But as regards the mutiny, and the adventures 
of Bligh and his companions after they had been cast adrift in 
the Bounty's launch, the official account is the fuller of the two, 
and carries the story to a later date. The account sent to Banks 

sxiv introduction: 

will be found at pp. 268-278. Bligli's official despatcli, wliicli 
was not received in time for insertion in the body of the volume, 
is given in Appendix A, together with four letters from Bligh to 
the Admiralty reporting the movements of the Bounty on tlie- 
voyage to the Cape. 

There are also among the extracts made from the Banks Papers 
some highly-interesting letters relating to the expedition of dis- 
covery and survey to the North-west Coast of America made- 
by Captain Vancouver, under instructions from the English 
Government. Another series of letters which passed between 
Mr. W. Eichards, junr.^ a navy contractor, and Sir Joseph 
Banks is valuable^ because of the light it throws upon the 
transportation arrangements of the early days. The correspon- 
dence also contains proposals on the part of Mr. Richards to go 
out to ISTew South Wales as a settler, and to open a public store 
in Sydney. About this time the emigration question was under 
Sir Joseph Banks's notice in another shape, as will be seen from 
a plan briefly sketched in his handwriting, for establishing a 
number of families on an estate in the new settlement to be 
allotted by the Grovermnent.'^ A memorandum found among the 
papers, occupying only three lines of type^ is of peculiar interest, 
for it records the fact that Sir Joseph Banks could have held 
office if he had chosen to do so^ and that he refused the distinction 
because he considered that his services would be of more value 
to the Colony if he kept aloof from political responsibilities.t A 
few other papers from the collection are also published, but they 
do not require special notice. 

The Historical Eecords relating to the foundation of the 
Colony begin with " A Proposal for Establishing a Settlement in 
New South Wales," written, in August, 1783 J, by Mr. James 
Maria Matra, of Marston House, Frome, Somersetshire, and No. 4 
Dake-street, Gri'osvenor Square, London. Little is known of this 
gentleman at the present day, beyond the fact that he was for a 
time the Consular representative of Great Britain in Morocco ; 
but he was undoubtedly a man of position and influence, or his 

* Post, p. 424. t Post, p. 229. J Post, pp. 1-6. 


proposal would not liave commanded tlie attention it received 
from English ministers. Matra is a name well-known in Corsican 
history ; and it is more than probable that James Maria Matra, 
who was certainly an English subject either by birth or natural- 
izatioUj was of Corsican origin. In the early part of the 
Eigliteenth Century the Marquis Matra occupied a position of 
political importance in Corsica. During the years 1741-48, 
according to BoswelFs "Account of Corsica/'* one of the 
Matras and his fellow-countryman, Gaffori, were joint Protectors 
of the Island, and led the Corsicans in their efforts to drive out 
the Genoese. According to the Nouvelle Biographie Generale, 
Marius Emmanuel Matra had a command under Pasquale de Paoli 
in 1754, but turned against his countryman. He joined the 
Genoese in an attack on Paoli, and was killed in the encounter. 
Another Matra (Colonel Antonio Matra), who had joined the 
Genoese, took part in an attack upon Corsica in 1767. The 
Marquis Matra had an hereditary enemy in the Marquis 
Hyacinthe, or Giacinta de Paoli, whose son, Pasquale de Paoli, 
became in 1755 Dictator of Corsica, a position which he occu- 
pied for fourteen years, when he was dispossessed by the French. i 
In an article published in the Nineteenth Century, July, 1891, Mr. 
Walter Frewen Lord sketches the career of Pasquale de Paoli, 
and tells the fate of the Matra family. The Marquis de Paol? 
maintained "^ a fierce vendetta all his life with the Marquis 
Matra,^'' and when Pasquale de Paoli came into power one of 
the jfirst steps he took was to " cut off the Matras root and 
branch.'' Mr. Lord puts the thing in another way; the Matras, he 
says, were "piously exterminated" by Paoli. It is not unreason- 
able to suppose, however, that some members of the family escaped 
from Corsica, and found their way to England, at that time the only 
safe shelter for political refugees. The circumstances are sug- 
gestive, but it cannot he assumed that James Maria Matra was 
one of the refugees of 1755, for in 1783, only twenty-eight years 
later, he appears to have been living as a well-established English 

* " An Account of Coraiea," by James Boswell. Tliird edition, London, 1709. 
t Paoli took refuge in England^ wliere lie became an intimate friend of Johnson 
and Boswell. 


gentleman. But Corsica was an uncomfortable place for tlie Matras 
long before tlie time of Pasquale de Paoli, and it is not unlikely 
that some brancli of the family made a liome for itself in England 
early in tbe eigliteentli century. In that case, there is nothing- 
improbable in the supposition that the author of the '' Proposal 
for Establishing a Settlement in New South Wales" was a 
descendant of one of the Corsican Matras, born in England. 
Nothing positive can be stated as to Matrass origin, but so much 
interest attaches to the writer of the Proposal, that his probable 
connection with the Matras of Corsica cannot be passed over. 

Mr. Matra's proposal was laid before the Coalition Government 
of Fox and Lord North, but the Ministry went out of office in 
December, 1783, and no action was taken. Mr. Matra's sugges- 
tions, however, were made use of by the Pitt Ministry, which 
succeeded that of Fox and North, in preparing the scheme which 
was ultimately carried out. In the proposal as originally submitted 
no allusion was made to sending out convicts, but after conversing 
with Lord Sydney, who had taken Lord North's place at the Home 
Office — the department which had the control of Colonial affairs 
— Mr. Matra wrote an addendum to his paper, in which he 
adopted the suggestion made by the Minister that New South 
Wales was a proper place for the reception of convicts condemned 
to transportation. The scheme thus amended seems to have 
formed the basis of the proposal of Admiral Sir Greorge Young, 
forwarded to Lord Sydney in January, 1785, through the 
Attorney- G-eneral, Pepper Arden."^ The same ideas appear in 
another form in a paper without name or date entitled " Heads 
of a Plan for effectually disposing of convicts by the establish- 
ment of a colony in New South Wales. "f This paper is official, 
as shown by Lord Sydney's letter to the Lords Commissioners of 
the Treasury, 18th August, 1786, J and his letter to the Lords of the 
Admiralty, 31st August, 1786§, and the settlement was established 
practically on the lines laid down in the " Heads of a Plan." 

Preparations for the despatch of the First Fleet were im- 
mediately begun, and the vessels sailed in May, 1787. In the 

* Post, pp. 10-13. + Post, pp. 17-20. 

X Post, pp. 14-16. § Post, pp. 20-22. 


interval correspondence took place between department and 
department and between Grovernor Phillip and tlie departments. 
Pliillip^ who was first captain of the Sirius, Hunter being second 
in command, had two important matters to look to — the general 
outfit of the expedition and the equipment of his own vessel — 
and during the time of preparation he wrote many letters to 
Ministers, Under Secretaries, and other officials. Most of these 
were sent from London, where he was detained, as stated in 
King's Journal, awaiting the decision of the Ministry on matters 
of importance relating to the expedition. He did not go on 
board the Sirius at the Motherbank until the 11th May, the day 
before the fleet got under weigh. From the Motherbank Phillip 
sent one letter, and three others were despatched by the Hyjena, 
which accompanied the Sirius a hundred leagues from the 
entrance of the English Channel. The papers next in order 
consist of a series of letters from Phillip written at Santa Ci-uz, 
Rio de Janeiro, and the Cape of Good Hope, at which ports the 
fleet put in for water and fresh provisions. 

On the 18th January, 1788, the Supply, having on board 
Governor Phillip, who had left the Sirius eighty leagues to the 
east of the Cape, entered Botany Bay, and on the 26th the whole 
fleet was at anchor in Sydney Cove. 

Phillip was not in a position to send any communication to 
England until one of the transports sailed on the return voyage, 
and his first despatch to the Secretary of State for the Home 
Department bears date 15th May, 1788. After this he sent 
despatches as opportunities arose. These despatches deal very 
fully with the condition and progress of the settlement ; they 
constitute, in fact, a history of the Colony from its establishment 
to the close of Phillip's Governorship. Phillip's first despatch, 
addressed to Lord Sydney, was replied to on the 20th June, 1789, 
by the Eight Hon. W. W. Grenville, afterwards Lord Grenville, 
who had succeeded Lord Sydney, and the correspondence was 
continued with regularity. At this time Ministerial changes 
and promotions were frequent, and as the passage to Australia 
was not usually made under six or eight months, Phillip 
sent despatches to England in ignorance of the actual state of 


affairs. He wrote to Lord Sydney after tliat Minister's place 
liad been taken by the Hon. W. W. Grrenville, and to G-renville 
■wlien lie in turn bad been superseded by the Rigbt Hon. Henry 
Dundas. Eight months after Grenville had been raised to the 
Peerage, Phillip addressed his despatches to " the Right Hon. 
W. W. Grenville." These things are not of great importance 
in themselves ; they are simply pointed out for the purpose of 
explaining apparent discrepancies. 

The despatches from Sydney to London are more numerous 
and more voluminous than the despatches from London to Sydney. 
This is what might have been expected. Phillip was required 
to transmit to the Home Office a full account of his proceedings 
and the affairs of the settlement, and he faithfully obeyed his 
instructions. His despatches, though not wordy, were frequently 
of considerable length. He had to deal with matters of detail as 
well as questions of importance, and it was sometimes necessary 
to treat special subjects in separate despatches. A large portion 
of this volume is taken up by Phillip's communications to the 
English Departments of State, while the replies, which in 
many instances contain little more than an acknowledgment of 
the intelligence received from Phillip and a brief intimation of 
opinion regarding his proceedings, occupy a comparatively small 

Although the English Government depended chiefly upon 
Phillip's reports it was not without information from other 
sources. Major Ross, who acted as Lieutenant-Governor until 
the detachment of Marines, which he commanded, was replaced 
by the New South Wales Corps, wrote official despatches to the 
Admiralty, as well as private letters to Evan Nepean, Under 
Secretary for the Home Department, and Phillip Stephens, 
Secretary to the Admiralty. Ross's private letters are of greater 
interest than his public ones, for they are written without reserve, 
and give his independent views of the condition and prospects of 
the Colony at the time. 

It may be as well to state here that other private letters will be 
found in the correspondence now published, but, although private, 
they are of such a nature that their right to a place in the 


Records cannot be disputed. Apart from tlie Banks Papers, few 
of whicli are official, althougli they relate to matters historically- 
important, the Records contain a number of private and quasi- 
private letters which are as much a part of history as the formal 
despatches. The correspondence of this class includes letters 
between Phillip and the English Ministers, and between Phillip 
and the Under Secretaries. With only a few exceptions these 
letters refer to matters of public concern, and some of them are 
of peculiar interest and importance. They are written with a 
freedom which is foreign to official communications, and they 
throw light upon points which without them would be obscure. 
Correspondence of this nature, written in confidence, need not 
be treated as confidential now. An examination of the Records 
will show that private letters, when they bore upon matters of 
public importance, were considered by the English Grovernment 
and frequently acted upon. The manner in which they were 
treated is indicated by the fact that private letters have been found 
among the papers preserved in the Departments of State. 

Other letters, private in form, but of public importance by 
reason of the information contained in them, are printed witht 
the Records. They include an unofficial letter from Captain 
William Hill, who commanded a detachment of the New South 
Wales Corps on board the Surprize, one of the vessels belonging- 
to the Second Fleet, which gives fuller information regarding 
the sufferings of the convicts on the voyage than can be found 
in the official despatches. There is also an unofficial letter from 
the Rev. R. Johnson, the first chaplain of the Settlement, des- 
cribing the sad condition of the convicts brought by the Neptune^ 
Surprize, and Scarborough — the Second Fleet — on their arrival 
at Sydney, which is valuable for a similar reason. Among other 
private letters of historical value is one from Captain Edward 
Manning, commander of the Pitt, in which an account is given 
of a severe outbreak of fever amongst the soldiers and seamen 
during the voyage. Major Grose, the Commandant of the New 
South Wales Corps, who was on board the vessel with a detach- 
ment of soldiers, wrote an official letter on the subject to Nepean, 
but Captain Manning's account, written without any restraint, is 


mucli fuller and far more interesting. In tlie same category may- 
be placed a letter from Lieutenant Fowell, of tlie Sirius, in wliicli 
lie sends to liis fatlier in England a full account of the loss of 
that vessel at Norfolk Island and King-'s voyage to Batavia in 
the Supply.^ A letter f I'om Mr. William Wilberforce, the philan- 
thropist^ to the Right Hon. Henry Dundas, as to the appointment 
of a second chaplain for New South Wales^ enclosing a note 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury, has been found among the 
Home Office Papers, and is reproduced. Though the latter was 
written in confidence, it is of great public interest. That it 
was considered and acted upon can scarcely be doubted, for a 
second chaplain, the Rev. Samuel Marsden, was soon afterwards 

The despatches written by Phillip at Sydney begin by announc- 
ing the arrival of the First Fleet in Botany Bay in January, 
1788, and carry the record of transactions to the 16th October, 
1792, two months before he took his departure for England. In 
the interval several fresh batches of convicts had been sent out, 
and notwithstanding the great loss of life on board some of the- 
transports, and the heavy mortality that took place after the con- 
victs were landed, the population of the settlements had increased 
to upwards of 4,000, of which number about one-fourth belonged 
to Norfolk Island. In the face of serious difficulties a good deal 
of work had been done. Buildings had been erected at Sydney, 
branch settlements had been established at Parramatta and 
Toongabbe, and 1,500 acres of land had been brought under culti- 
vation. Exploration had not been neglected. A knowledge of the 
country between Parramatta and the Nepean had been acquired, 
while the Hawkesbury had been explored from its mouth to 
Windsor, where a settlement was afterwards formed. The 
progress that was made may be traced step by step in the 
despatches, which also reveal the disadvantages under which the 
3"0ung community laboured, the privations and sufferings which 
all classes of the people endured, and the obstacles which were 

* King, who Wcas on his way to England with despatches from Phillip, parted 
company with Fowell at Batavia. The latter had instructions to hire a vessel at 
that place to take provisions to Sydney. While engaged in this service he caught 
a fever and died. 


placed in Pliillip's way by tlie perverse temper of some of the 
marine officers. To what extent the situation was realised in 
England, and what steps were taken to afford relief, may be 
discovered by examining the despatches sent to Phillip, beginning 
with Lord Grenville's communication of 20th June, 1789 (the 
first despatch from England), and ending with the despatch of his 
successor, the Eight Hon. Henry Dundas, 14th July, 1792. Other 
correspondence took place between the Home Office in London and 
the Governor in Sydney. There was a regular interchange of 
letters between Phillip and his friend, Under Secretary Nepean, 
who discussed at length matters which were briefly dealt with in 
the communications between Minister and Governor. The two 
sets of correspondence must be read together ; the one is the 
complement of the other. 

Although the official despatches from the Home Office to Phillip 
and fx'om Phillip to the Home Office, constitute the most import- 
ant part of the records, other papers of great interest connected 
with the affairs of the settlement are printed. There are, for 
example, the letters sent by Captain Hunter to the Admiralty 
about the voyage of the Sirius to the Cape of Good Hope, where 
she was sent for supplies in October, 1788, and her loss at Norfolk 
Island in March, 1790, while taking provisions to that settlement ; 
and the letters of Lieutenant Riou, who describes the accident to 
the Guardian, which struck an iceberg while on her way to Sydney 
under his command with supplies for the settlement, and was taken 
with difficulty to Table Bay, where she was abandoned. 

The steps taken to send out a special force (the New South 
Wales Corps) for service in the Colony, to replace the detachment 
of marines, which constituted the first garrison, and the conditions 
under which the corps was raised by Major Grose, are set forth 
in the coi-respondence which passed between that officer and the 
War Office, and between the War Office and the other Depart- 
ments of State. King, who went out as Lieutenant-Governor of 
Norfolk Island in 1791, purchased live stock at the Cape for the 
benefit of the settlement at Sydney, and a full account of these 
transactions is given in the letters which were sent by him to 
the Home Office. As previously stated, it became necessary very 


sliortly after tlie establisliment of the Colony to send to tlie Cape 
of Grood Hope, Batavia, and India for provisions, and amongst 
tlie papers will be found letters from the Home Office to the 
Governor-General of India, as well as correspondence between 
the Home Office and the contractors. Correspondence also passed 
between Phillip and the Indian authorities on the subject, and 
between Phillip and the contractors. 

Towards the close of 1791 and in the early part of 1792 the 
Home Office was in communication with John Sutton, a Quaker, 
who made proposals for sending fifteen Qviaker families to Sydney. 
The correspondence shows that the proposals were accepted with 
modifications, but owing to delays and other circumstances not 
clearly stated in the despatches, the persons who had been nomi- 
nated did not embark, and the first effort to place emigrants 
from England as free settlers on the soil of New South Wales 
came to nothing.* Accordiiig to Judge-Advocate Collins, the 
Quakers had "engaged to take their passages in the Bellona,'' 
which arrived at Sydney 16th January, 1793, "but it was said 
they had been diverted from their purpose by some misrepresen- 
tations which had been made to them respecting this country." 

A considerable portion of the correspondence relates to Norfolk 
Island and its affairs. A few weeks after the landinof of the 
expedition at Sydney Cove, Phillip despatched Lieutenant King to 
the island v/ith a batch of convicts ; and for a number of years 
intimate relations existed between the two settlements. Durino* 
Phillip's term of office the Government at Norfolk Island under- 
went several changes. King was replaced by Major Ross as Com- 
mandant in March, 1790, and in November, 1791, Ross was super- 
seded by King, who had been sent to England with despatches, 
and returned as Lieutenant-Governor of the island. During 
King's first command he corresponded Avith Phillip, from whom 
his authority was derived, and from whom he received his com- 
mission and instructions. Ross held office under similar conditions, 
and he also corresponded with Phillip. King as Lieutenant- 
Governor sent despatches both to PhilHp and the Home Office, 

* Sec note, post, p. 58 i. 

introduction: xxxiH 

but so far as tliis collectioii of papers goes tlie despatclics are to 
Phillip only. Tlie information received at Sydney from Norfolk 
Island was forwarded to tlie Home Office as opportunity arose. 
Sometimes Phillip contented himself with giving in his own 
despatches summaries of the reports he had received from the 
Commandant or Lieutenant-Governor; at other times he sent 
extracts from the Norfolk Island despatches, or the despatches 
themselves. The more important of the public orders and procla- 
mations made at Norfolk Island were sent to England as enclosures, 
and are printed with Phillip's despatches. Both Ross and King 
wrote descriptions of the place they had been called upon to 
govern, in which they offered their opinion of its capabilities as a 
settlement, and gave information regarding its climate, soil, and 
products. These reports form part of the reeords now published. 

As indicated in the Preface, the Records contained in these 
pages are not to be regarded as absolutely complete. There are 
blanks in the correspondence, and some of the enclosures which 
accompanied the despatches are absent. The omissions may 
perhaps be made good when the manuscripts in the Record Office 
and the Departments of State in London have been thoroughly 
exhausted, but all the papers that were procurable when this 
collection was prepared for the press been printed. Un- 
expected discoveries were made while the transcriptions were in 
progress, and early manuscripts, not now in the possession of the 
Government, may yet be brought to light. In the meantime, the 
best use has been made of the material at command. 

To prevent any misconception, it should be stated that the 
marginal notes do not form part of the manuscripts, but have 
been written as a guide to their contents. The object of the 
foot notes is to explain points not made clear in the text, and 
to assist the reader in finding papers having relation to the same 
subject but printed in chronological order in different parts of 
the volume. 

The Index contains lists of the despatches, together with full 
information on the subjects to which they relate. 





A Proposal for Establishing a Settlement in New South 

Wales. ^sau?. 

I am going to offer an object to the consideration of our Govern- 
ment what rthatl may in time atone for the loss of our Amexican ^^'^^^ °^ 

, . L J ./ Amenca. 


By the discoveries and enterprise of our officers, many new 
countries have been found which know no sovereign, and that New fields of 
hold out the most enticing allurements to Eui'opean adventurers. "^ "'"^'^ '°" 
None are more inviting than New South Wales. 

Capt. Cook first coasted and surveyed the eastern side of that 
line country, from the 38th degree of south latitude 'down to the Cook's 
10th, where he found everything to induce him to give the most New South 
favourable account of it. In this immense tract of more than ^^'^'^s- 
2,000 miles there was eveiy variety of soil, and great parts of it 
were extremely fertile, peopled only by a few lilack inhabitants, 
who, in the rudest state of society, knew no other arts than such 
as were necessary to their mere animal existence, and which was 
almost entirely sustained by catching fish. 

The climate and soil are so happily adapted to produce every 
various and valuable production of Europe, and of both the Indies, Climate 
that with good management, and a few settlers, in twenty or 
thirty years they might cause a revolution in the whole system of 
European commerce, and secure to England a monopoly of some 
part of it, and a very large share in the whole. 

* Mr. Matra and his proposal are noticed in the Introduction, ante pp. xxi\■-.\.\^ i. 



23 Aug. 



Its capabili- 
ties for 




Send a 
ship to 

Or two ships 

luariiios and 

Part of it lies in a climate parallel to the Spice Islands, and is 
fitted for the production of that valuable commodity, as well as 
the sugar-cane, tea, coffee, silk, cotton, indigo, tobacoo, and the 
other articles of commerce that have been so advantageous to the 
maritime powers of Europe. 

I must not omit the mention of a very important article, which 
may be obtained in any quantity, if this settlement be made the 
proper use of, which would be of very con>siderable consequence, 
both amonfj the necessaries and conveniences of life. I mean the 
New Zealand hemp or flax-plant, an object equally of curiosity 
and utility. By proper operations it would serve the vai'ious pur- 
poses of hemp, flax, and silk, and it is more easily manufactured 
than any one of them. In naval equipments it would be of the 
greatest importance ; a cable of the circumference of ten inches 
would be equal in strength to one of eighteen inches made of 
European hemp. Our manufacturers are of opinion that canvas 
made of it would be superior in strength and beauty to any canvas 
of our own country. The threads or filaments of this plant are 
formed by nature with the most exquisite delicacy, and they may 
be so minutely divided as to be small enough to make the finest 
cambrick ; in color and gloss it resembles silk. After my true, 
though imperfect description of this plant, I need not enlarge on 
it, as a very singular acquisition, both to the arts of convenience 
and luxury. 

This country may afford an asylum to those unfortunate 
American loyalists to whom Great Britain is bound by every tie 
of honour and gratitude to protect and support, where . they 
may repair their broken fortunes, and again enjoy their former 
domestic felicity. 

That the Government may run no risque nor be left to act in 
a business of this kind without sufiicient information, it is pro- 
posed that one ship of the peace establishment (to incur the 
least possible expence) be directly sent to that country, for the 
discovery and allotment of a proper district, for the intended 
settlement ; that one or two gentlemen of capacity and knowledge, 
as well in soil and situation, as in every other requisite, be sent 
in her, that there may be no imposition on the Government, nor 
upon the Americans, who, with their families, shall adventure 

If the Government be disposed to extend this plan, two vessels 
may be sent with two companies of marines, selected from among 
such of that corps as Ijest understand husbandry, or manu- 
facturies, and about twenty artificers, who are all the emigration 
required from the parent State ; these last to be chiefly such as 
are taken on board ships of war for carpenters' and armourers' 
crews, with a few potters and gardeners. 

J. M. matea's Proposal. 3 

These twenty men and the marines, under a proper person, to 1783 
be left at the new settlement, with materials and provisions, to 23 Aug. 
prepare for the reception of the intended settlers, that their wants 
may be as few as possible on their arrival. 

As the ship, or ships, stop at the Cape of Good Hope, a sufficient 
stock to begin with of cows, sheep, goats, hogs, poultry, and seeds 
may be obtained there. A supply of the like articles, as Avell as Live stock 
cotton seeds, plantains, grapes, grain, etc., &c.. may be had in any a"'ip-a"ts. 
quantity at Savu or any of the Moluccas, which are very near 
Kew South Wales. 

When the landing is effected the smaller vessel may be dis- One ship to 
patched home with the intelligence ; and while the party designed ^^^^™- 
to be left are superintending the gardens and increase of live stock, 
the other ship may, if thought proper, be despatched to New The other 
Caledonia, Otahite, and the neighbouring islands to procure a few ^^ \^^^^^^ 
families there, and as many women as may serve for the men left islands, 
behind. There is every reason to believe they may be obtained 
without diffictilty. If but one vessel goes, the party with their 
stock may be left without apprehension of danger from the 

Sir Joseph Banks is of opinion that we may draw. any number Banks 
of useful inhabitants from China, agreeal^ly to an invariable chhiese^"'"^ 
custom of the Dutch in forming or recruiting their Eastern 

As it is intended not to involve the Government in either a 
great or a useless expense (for the settlement is designed to increase 
the wealth of the parent country, as well as for the emolument of 
the adventurers), a sum not exceeding £3,000 will be more than rrobaWe 
adequate to the whole expense of Government. Most of the tools, 
saws, axes, (fee, &c., for the use of the party left may be drawn 
from the ordnance and other public stores, where at present they 
are useless ; and the vessels also, being part of the peace estab- 
lishment, neither can, nor ought to be, fairly reckoned in the 

That the Ministry may be convinced that this is not a vain. Scheme 
idle scheme, taken up without due attention and consideration, ^v^'the "' ^ 
they may be assured that the matter has been seriously considered Americans, 
by some of the most intelligent and candid Americans, who all 
agree that, under the j)atronage and protection of Government, 
it offers the most favorable prospects that have yet occurred to 
better the fortunes and to promote the happiness of their fellow- 
sufferers and countrymen. 

Sir Joseph Banks highly approves of the settlement, and is very and by 
ready to give his opinion of it, either to his Majesty's Ministry 
or others, whenever they may please to require it. 

Should this settlement be made, we may enter into a commerce Trade with 
that would render our trade to China, hitherto extremely against ^^"^'*- 



23 Aug. 

Trade with 
China and 
the islands. 

trade with 

and Korea. 

Nevi Zealand 
tiniher for 

Th" trade 
in spices. 

US, very favourable. The Aleutian and Foxes islands, situated 
between Asia and America, which abound with the choicest furs, 
lie nearly north of New South Wales. It is from these islands 
the Russians get the most and best of their furs, with which they 
carry on a very lucrative trade by land with the Chinese. Our 
ships that sailed under the command of Captain Cook and Clerke 
stopped at some of them, and the skins which they procured then 
sold in China at 400 hard dollars each, though for the few they 
brought home, of the same quality, they only received about ten 
pounds each. As our situation in ISTew South Wales would enable 
us to carry on this trade with the utmost facility, we should be 
no longer under the necessity of sending such immense quantities 
of silver for the different articles we import from the Chinese 

There is also a prospect of considerably extending our woollen 
trade. We know that large quantities of woollen cloth are 
smuggled to Japan by the Russians, which, as it is taken by land 
carriage from St. Petersburg to Kamschatka, and then to the 
islands by a very precarious navigation in boats, must be extremely 
dear. The Japanese, however, go in their junks to the islands 
and purchase great quantities of it. 

The peninsula of Korea, a kingdom tributary to the Chinese, 
and unvisited by Europeans, has its supply at second-hand chiefly 
from the Japanese. No ship has ever attempted this commerce, 
excepting once or twice that the Spaniards ventured thither from 
their American dominions ; but as the inhabitants of New Spain 
are but indifferent navigators for the high, cold latitudes, they 
could not oftener repeat the enterprise. 

It may be seen by Captain Cook's voyage that New Zealand is 
covered with timber of size and every quality that indicates long- 
duration ; it grows close to the water's edge, and may be easily 
obtained. Would it not be worth while for such as may be dis- 
patched to New South Wales to take in some of this timber on 
their return, for the use of the King's yards ? As the two countries 
are within a fortnight's run of each other, and as we might be of 
the utmost service to the New Zealanders, I think it highly pro- 
bable that this plan might become eminently useful to us as a 
naval power, especially as we might thus procure masts, a single 
ti-ce of which would he large enough for a first-rate ship, and 
planks superior to any that Euroi:ie possesses. 

By the preliminary articles of peace with Holland we are 
entitled to a free navigation in the Molucca Seas. A¥ithout a 
settlement in the neighbourhood, the concession is useless ; for the 
Dutch have an agent almost on every island in those seas. If we 
have a settlement, it is unnecessary ; for as spices are the only 
articles we could expect by it, it is probable we should stand in no 
need of their indulgence, for as part of New South Wales lies in 

J. M. matea's peoposal. 5 

the same latitude with the Mohiccas, and is even very close to 1783 
them, there is every reason to suppose that what nature has so 23 Aug. 
bountifully bestowed on the small islands may also be found on gpjg^T" 
the lai-ger. But if, contrary to analo<j;y, it should not be so, the may be 

c?t/' 1.1 ciiltiva.t6a 

defect is easily supplyecl, for, as the seeds are procured without 
diihculty, any quantity may speedily be cultivated. 

To those who are alarmed at the idea of weakening the mother Emigration 
countiy by opening a channel for emigration, I must answer that P° ^'^'' 
it is more profitable that a part of our countrymen should go to a 
new abode, where they may be useful to us, than to the American 
States. If we cannot keep our subjects at home, it is sound policy 
to point out a road by following of Avhich they may add to the 
national strength. 

The place which New South Wales holds on our globe might ^^^l^^ "^ ^ 
give it a very commanding influence in the policy of Europe. If station. 
a colony from Britain was established in that large tract of 
country, and if Ave were at war with Holland or Spain, we might 
very powerfully annoy either State from our new settlement. AVe 
might, with a safe and expeditious voyage, make naval incursions 
on Java and the other Dutch settlements ; and we might with 
equal facility invade the coast of Spanish America, and intercept 
the Manilla ships, laden with the treasures of the west. This 
check which New South Wales would be in time of war on both 
those powers makes it a very important object wdien we view it 
in the chart of the world with a political eye. 

Sir Joseph Banks' high approbation of the scheme which I have Banks's 
here proposed deserves the most respectful attention of every entitled to 
sensible, liberal, and spirited individual amongst his countrymen, attention. 
The language of encomium, applied to this gentleman, would surely 
be inequitably censured as the language of adulation. To spurn 
the alluring pleasures which fortune procures in a frivolous and 
luxurious age, and to encounter extreme difiiculties and dangers 
in pursuit of discoveries, which are of great benefit to mankind, is 
a complicated and illustrious event, as useful as it is rare, and 
which calls for the warmest publick gratitude and esteem. 

I shall take this opportunity to make a remark on colonization Colonis.v 
wliich has not occurred to me in any author, and which I flatter 
myself will contain some important civil and political truth. 

Too gi'eat a diminution of inhabitants of the mother country nepoimia- 
is commonly apprehended from voluntary emigration — an aj^pre- *''°" *^°'-^" 
hension wliich seems to me not to be the result of mature 
reflexion. That we almost universally have a strong affection for 
our native soil is an observation as true as it is old. It is founded 
on the affections of human nature. Not only a Swiss, but even 
an Icelander, when he is abroad, sickens and languishes in his Love of 
alxsence from his native country ; therefore, few of any country country, 
will ever think of settling in any foreign part of the world, from 




23 Au^. 

Poverty the 
source of 

and crime. 

a restless mind and from romantic views. A man's affairs are 
generally in a very distressed, in a desperate situation when he 
resolves to take a long adieu of his native soil, and of connections 
which must be always dear to him. Hence a body of emigrants,, 
nay a numerous body of emigrants, may in a commercial view he 
of great and permanent service to their parent community in 
some remote part of the world, who, if they continue at home, 
will probably live to see their own ruin, and will be very prejudicirJ 
to society. The politician of an expanded mind reasons from 
the almost invariable actions of human nature. The doctrine of 
the petty statesman is hardly applicable to a larger extent than 
that of his own closet. When our circumstances are adverse in 
the extreme they very often produce illegal and rapacious con- 
duct. If a poor man of broken fortunes and of any pretensions be 
timid in his natui^e, he most probably becomes a useless, if he 
has an ardent spirit, he becomes a bad and a criminal, citizen. 
There are indeed some epochs in a State when emigrations from 
it may be too numerous ; but when from some calamitous and 
urgent publick cause it must be unworthy of inhabitants. 

Ja3ies M. Matra. 
August 23rd, 1783. ' 


l{e)>ort on 




shotild be 
sent out to 

tion to 

When I conversed w^ith Lord Sydney on this svibject it was 
observed that New South Wales would be a very proper region 
for the reception of criminals condemned to transportation. I 
l)elieve that it will be found that in this' idea good policy and 
humanity are united. 

It will here be very pertinent to my purpose to give an extract 
from the report of the committee appointed to consider the 
several returns relative to goals [gaols].* 

1st Resolution: — "That the plan of establishing a colony or 
colonies in some distant part of the globe, and in new discovered 
countries, where the climate is healthy, and where the means of 
support are attainable, is equally agreeable to the dictates of 
humanity and sound policy, and might prove in the result advan- 
tageous to navigation and commerce." 

2d. Resolution. — " That it is the opinion of this committee that 
it might be of publick utility if the laws which now direct and 
authorize the transportation of certain convicts to his Majesty's 
colonies and plantations in N. America were made to authorize 
the same to any part of the globe that may be found expedient." 

The following facts will particularly corroborate the second 
resolution : — 

Seven hundred and forty-six convicts wei'e sent to Africa from 
the year 1775 to 1776. The concise account of them given into 
the committee exhibits an alarming expenditure of human life. 

* Committee of the House of Commons, appointed in 1T77. 

J. M. matea's phoposal. 7 

33-i died, 271 deserted to no one knows where, and of the 1783 
remainder no account could be given. Governor O'Hara, who 23 Aug. 
had resided in Afilca many years, was o£ opinion that British 
convicts could not for any time exist in that cHiiiate. 

The estimate of the expence, given in by Mr. Roberts, necessary Expense of 
to estabHsh a settlement there, to receive them, amounted to i,f Af^^ica?*^ 
£9,865. Afterwards the annual charge to the publick for each 
convict would be about £15 14s. Government pays annually to 
the contractor for each con"\'ict who is employed in the hulks 
£26 15s. lOd. The annual work of each man is valued at a third 
of the expense. 

I am informed that in some years more than 1,000 felons are Cost of 
convicted, many of whom are under 18 years of age. The charge i^,°"^e? * ^ 
to the publick for these convicts has been increasing for the last 
seven or eight years ; and, I believe, now amounts to more than 
£20,000 per annum. 

When the convicts were sent to America they were sold for a 
servitude of seven years. A proposal has been made for the 
alteration of this mode, respecting those sent to Africa, by con- Two plans 
demning them to some publick work there. They were to be [.°^j|'f(!|g*"'^ 
released from servitude, and some ground was to be given them 
to cultivate in proportion as a reformation was observed in their 

Neither of those plans can I approve. 

Give them a few acres of ground as soon as they arrive in New Another 
S(3uth Wales, in absolute property, with what assistance they may !',.ants oF 
want to till them. Let it be here remarked that they cannot fly lan^^. 
from the country, that they have no temptation to theft, and 
that they must work or starve. I likewise suppose that they are 
not, by any means, to be reproached for their former conduct. 
If these premises be gi'anted me, I may reasonably conclude that 
it is highly probable they will be useful ; that it is very possible 
they will be moral subjects of society. 

Do you wish, either by private prudence, or by civil policy, to Rcfoi-matioa 
reclaim offenders ? Show by your treatment of them that you 
think their reformation extremely practicable, and do not hold "ry^'"^* ^'^'"" 

!• ii'i 1 -J?- men. 

out every moment before their eyes the hideous and mortiiying 
deformity of their own vices and crimes. A man's intimate and 
hourly acquaintance with his guilt, of the frowns and severities of 
the woi'ld, tend more powerfully, even than the immediate effects 
of his bad habits, to make him a determined and incorrigible 

By the plan which I have now proposed a necessity to continue 
in the place of his destination and to be industrious is imposed 
on the criminal. The expence to the nation is a1)solutely imper- Kionomy 
ceptible, comparatively, with what criminals have hitherto cost humanity 


1783 Government ; and thus two objects of most desirable and beautiful 
23 Aug. union will be permanently blended — economy to the publick, and 
humanity to the individual. 

James M. Matra. 


1 Oct. 

Dc Lancey'i 
proiiosal to 
send out 

.South .Sea 

The China 

J. M. Matra to Under Secretary Nepean.* 

Marston House, Frome, Somersetshire, 
Dear Sir, 1st October [November], '84. 

Of the many letters that I have long been pestered with 
on the subject of New South "Wales, the enclosed is the only one 
that I am now desirous of answering, foi' which reason I take the 
liberty of sending it to you. I know that Mr. De Laneey, who 
is very sanguine on the business, has been active in procuring the 
consent of many people to go ; and as a settlement somewhere is 
essentially necessary to them, I wish to be authorized to give him 
a decisive answer, which, whatever my private opinion may be, I 
think, would be improper till I hear from you. You will, there- 
fore, do me a particular pleasure, if to the great trouble you have 
already taken in pushing forward this business for me you would 
be so obliging as to tell me if the Ministry have come to a decided 
resolution to reject the plan, or if there be any chance of its 
being entered on in the spring season. I shall go next Thursday 
for a few days to Ld. Craven's, Benham Place, Berks., where your 
letter to me, under Ld. Cork's cover, will safely reach me. My 
company, to be sure, is not politically orthodox, but when I assure 
you that I am not contaminated by their heresies, you will excuse 
the direction. I shall always be extremely cautious of obtruding 
on your time ; and, were you to see but a list of the fiftieth . part 
of the letters I am perplexed with about the S. Seas, I know you 
would pardon this instance. I am, &c., 

James M. Matra, 

Thursday morning. 

The Attorney-General, I believe by his own desire, has had com- 
municated to him an observation on the passage of our China 
ships that I imagine will remove the only difficulty that I can 
think of in the way of the South Sea scheme. 

It is a better rout and shorter for the ships bound to China 
to pass by the coast of New South Wales — 2row that it is so well 
known — than that which they at present pursue. Sir George 
Young has spoken to several of them on this subject, and it 

•'■ Evan Nepean, Under Secretary of the Home Department, which was charged with the 
administration of Colonial affairs. He was created a baronet in 1802. Mr. Matra's letter 
and enclosure refer to a proposal to send American lo.yalists as emig-raiits to New South 
Wales. The American loyalists were the colonists who" remained loyal to Great Britain in 
the War of Indepcndonce, and were punished by beinf,^ driven from their homes. Mr. 
De Lancey's suggestions did not meet with the approval of the British Government. 


appears that the Goverment may send out convicts at about 1784 
£15 a head, and as Mr. Pitt's Commutation Bill will considerably i Oct. 
increase the number of China ships, twenty being taken out by 
each yearly, will rid you of as many as are on hand. As perhaps 
the Attorney-General may not receive this in time, you will 
oblige me by communicating it to Ld. Sydney before he goes to 
the Cabinet Council. 

As there are officers of some consideration in the service who 
are willing to go on this duty, and as the number of convicts officers 
taken out at the beginning are few, and chosen, I think the im- sery",^' ^'^ 
propriety of employing King's ships in the first instance suffi.- 
ciently removed. 


James De Lancey to J. M. Matra.* 

Dear Sir, Southampton, October the 12th, 1784. 12 Oct. 

I should have answered yours of the 31st of August 
sooner, but waited in expectation of another letter from you, 
which would have contained something decisive in regard to New 
South Wales. 

My brother will deliver this to you. He wishes much to have 
this business determined one way or the other, in order that, if j- c'ecisiou 

t/ ' ' (losircti, 

the plan of making a settlement in the Southern Hemisphere 
should 1)6 given up, he may think of some other way of I'endering 
himself usefull, as he has an active mind, and does not chuse to 
remain idle. 

The season for a voyage to that country will soon be elapsed, ^,^g 
and unless the equipment is speedily sett on foot, another year Loyalists, 
will be lost, and my prospect of procuring settlers from the 
loyalists in Nova Scotia rendered less favourable, for by next 
year I should suppose most of them who have gone thei'e 
will have procured some kind of habitation for themselves, and 
will not chuse to quit them for an uncertain settlement in N.S. 
Wales, and I would like to have among the emigrants some Superior 
of the better sort, and should not chuse to have the colony etu'Ri-ants". 
composed only of such persons who would not get their living 
anywhere else. 

I find that the Treasury Board have met, and therefore hope 
that now the Ministers have returned to town some final deter- 
mination will Ije liad on this Inisiness, and flatter myself that a 
measure which aj^pears to meet with general approbation will 
not be abandoned. I am, itc, 

James De Lancev. 

* Thi? letter was addressed to James Maria Matra, Esq., No. 4, Duke-street, Grosvenor 
Square. No further correspondence on the subject has been found amongst the Kecords. 


1784 Lord Howe* to Lord Sydney. 

^^^^°- Admiralty, 26th Dec, 1784. 

I RETURN, my dear Lord, the papersf you left with me to-day, 

which are copies oialy of the former sent to me on the same 

subject on Friday evening. 

Matra's Should it be thoua;ht advisable to increase the number of our 

^ settlements on the plan Mr. Matra has suggested, I imagine it 

would be necessary to employ ships of a diiierent construction. 

Frigates are ill adapted for such services. I conceive that ships 

of burthen to contain the various stores, provisions, implements, 

&c., wanted for the first colonists meant to be established there, 

and composing the chief part of the company of the ship, should 

be provided for the purpose, tho' an armed vessel of suitable 

dimensions might be previously appointed to inspect and fix on the 

preferable station for fonning the intended establishment. The 

Unfavour- length of the navigation, subject to all the retardments of an 

e opinion, jj^^^g^ voyage, do not, I must confess, encourage me to hope for a 

return of the many advantages in commerce or war which Mr. M. 

Matra has in contemplation. I am, &c., 



2785 The Attorney-General to Lord Sydney. 

13 Jan. Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

My Lord, Jan'ry 13th, 1785. 

Sir George Inclosed you receive a scheme of Sir George Young, of the 

pian"^'^ ^^vy, for settling New South Wales, which he has desired me to 
transmit to your Lordship for your consideration, to which I 
take the liberty of recommending it. Lord Mansfield mentioned 
the subject to me, and desired Sir George Young would call upon 
me and explain his ideas. I profess myself totally ignorant of 
the probability of the success of such a scheme, but it appears to 
A likely me, Upon a cursory view of the subject, to be the most likely 
method of effectually disposing of convicts, the number of which 
requires the immediate interference of Government. As your 
Lordship and Sir George Yonge were desirous that the Lord Chan- 
cellor should be consulted respecting the removal of the soldiers 
from Hastings, and as I understood your Lordship was to see 
the Chancellor to-day, I shall be obliged to you if you, as soon as it 

* Admiral Howe, First Lord of the Admiralty, 
t Matra's proposal. 

t The names Young- and Yonge, which both occur in the Attorney-General's letter, must 
not be confounded. Sir George Young, who proposed a plan for settling convicts on the 
New South Wales coast, was a naval officer of distinction (Admiral of the White). Sir George 
Yonge was Secretary at War. 


Sm GEORGE young's PLAN. 11 

is determiued whether an application shall be made for their I'^'^S 
removal, inform me, and I will give immediate orders for the 13 Jan. 
proper steps to be taken for that purpose. I have, jfec, 

R. P. Aeden. 

The "Plan." 

The following is a rough outline of the many advantages that 
may result to this nation from a settlement made on the coast 
of Kew South Wales : — 
Its great extent and relative situation with respect to the Geograprii- 
eastern and southern parts of the globe is a material considera- ^^ ^°''' '""' 
tion. Botany Bay, or its vicinity, the part that is proposed to be 
first settled, is not more than sixteen hundred leagues from Lima 
and Baldivia [Valdi^da], with a fair open navigation, and there Trade v.ith 
is no doubt but that a lucrative trade would soon be opened with America. 
the Creole Spaniards for English manufactures. Or suppose we 
were again involved in a Avar with Spain, here are ports of 
shelter and refreshment for our ships, should it be necessary to 
send any into the South Sea. 

From the coast of China it lies not more than about a thou- Commercial 
sand leagues, and nearly the same distance from the East Indies, p°s'*^'°"- 
from the Spice Islands about seven hundred leagues, and near a 
month's run from the Cape of Good Hope. 

The variety of climates included between the forty -fourth and ^>riet.v of 
tenth degrees of latitude gives us an opportunity of uniting in one productions. 
territory almost all the productions of the known world. To 
explain this more fully I will point out some of the countries 
which are situated within the same extent of latitude, on either 
side of the Equator. They are China, Japan, Siam, India, 
Persia, Arabia-felix, Egypt, Greece, all Turkey, the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, Italy, Spain, South of France, and Portugal, with 
Mexico, Lima, Baldivia [Valdivia], and the greatest part of 
the Pacific Ocean, to which may be added the Cape of Good 
Hope, &c., &c. 

From this review it will, I think, be acknowledged that a Facilities 
territory so happily situated must be superior to all others for ^°^ ^^aAv.. 
establishing a very extensive commerce, and of consequence 
greatly increase our shipping and number of seamen. Nor is it 
mere presumption to say the country is everywhere capable of 
producing all kinds of spice, likewise the fine Oriental cotton, Tropical 
indigo, coffee, tobacco, with every species of the sugar-cane, also P^'oi'^'^^^^s. 
tea, silk, and madder. That \evy remarkaljle plant known by the 
name of the New Zealand flax-plant may be cultivated in every riax. 
part, and in any quantity, as our demands may require. Its uses 
are more extensive than any vegetable hithei'to known, for in its 
gross state it far exceeds anything of the kind for cordage and 




Metals of 
every kind. 

Settlers from 
the islands 
and China. 




1785 canvas, and may be obtained at a much cheaper rate than those 
13 Jan. materials we at present get from Russia, who may perhaps at 
some future period think it her interest to prohibit our trade for 
such articles, and the difficulties that must arise in such a case 
are too ol^vious to mention, but are everywhere provided against 
in this proposal. 

With but a trifling expence and a little industry we may in 
the course of a few years establish a commercial mart on one 
island comprehending all the articles of trade in itself and every 
necessary for shipping, not to mention the great probability of 
finding in such an immense country metals of every kind. 

At a time when men are alarmed at every idea of emigration I 
wish not to add to their fears by any attempt to depopulate the 
parent state. The settlers of New South Wales are principally to 
be collected from the Friendly Islands and China. All the people 
required from England are only a few that are possessed of the 
useful arts and those comprized among the crews of the ships sent 
on that service. 

The American loyalists would here find a fertile, healthy soil, 
far preferable to their own, and well worthy their industry, where, 
with a very small part of the expence the Crown must necessarily 
be at for their support, they may be established now comfortal^ly, 
and with a greater prospect of success than in any other place 
hitherto pointed out for them. 

The very heavy expence Government is annually put to for 
transporting and otherwise punishing the felons, together with 
the facility of their return, are evils long and much lamented. 
Here is an asylum open that will considerably reduce the first, 
and for ever prevent the latter. 

Upon the most liberal calculation the expence of this plan can- 
not exceed ^3,000, for it must be allowed that ships of Avar are as 
cheaply fed and paid in the South Seas as in the British Channel. 
Had I the command of this expedition, I should require a ship 
of wax- — say, the old Rainbow, now at Woolwich, formerly a ship 
of forty guns — as the best constructed for the purpose of any in 
the Navy, with only half her lower-deck guns and 250 men, one 
hundred of which should be marines ; a store-ship, likewise, of 
about 600 tons burthen, with forty seamen and ten marines, and a 
small vessel of about 100 tons, of the brig or schooner kind, with 
twenty men, both fitted as ships of war and commanded by proper 
Guard-ship The large ship is necessary for receiving fifty of the felons, pro- 
visions, and stores, with a variety of live stock and plants from 
England and the Cape of Good Hope. She is more particularly 
Avanted as a guard-ship, to i-emain in the country at least two 
years after her arrival, or longer, as may he found necessary, to 
protect the settlers, &c. The store-ship is required for taking an 





additional quantity of provisions, to serve until wc are about to I'^'^S 
raise some for ourselves. The brig or schooner is principally isjan. 
wanted to explore the coast on our arrival, for notwithstanding a £xpioriii''- 
convenient place is already mentioned for the purpose, nature ship. 
and experience inform me a navigable river may be found on such 
an extensive coast, which, when discovered, she may be then dis- 
patched to England with an acccount of our proceedings. In the 
nieantune, the store-ship may be sent to the Fi'iendly Islands for 
inhabitants and useful plants. 

The settlement being thus established, any difficulties that may 
arise from the great distance of New South "Wales are obviated 
in the mamier following : — The China ships belonging to the East 
India Comjoany, after leaving the Cape of Good Hope, and keeping 
more to the southerd than usual, may land the felons on the Route for 
coast, and then proceed to the northerd, round New Ireland, ghips!'^'"^ 
ifcc, or through Saint George's Channel, and so on to the island 
Formosa for Canton. With a little geographical investigation, 
this passage will be found more short, easy, and a ^afer navigation 
than the general route of the China ships — from Madrass through 
the Streitfhts of Malacca. 

Perhaps the number of the felons, after the present are disposed 
of, may not require more than two shijDs in the coarse of a yeai\ 
The expence thereof attending the transporting of them by this cheap trans- 
method must certainly be much less than by any other whatever, poi't^'^'^'o"- 
without even the most distant probability of their return. Every 
ship may take any number of felons not exceeding seventy. 

Necessary Implements : — implements. 

Iron in bars Soap 

Forges and anvills Hatts and caps 

Spades and shovels Wheels of barrows 

Mattocks Seeds and plants 

Spikes and nails Articles of trade with natives 

Pitchforks of the islands, &c. 

Axes of sorts Window glass 

Iron crows and wedges Grain of sorts 

Saws of sorts Fishing tackle 

Large hammers Gardening too 

Mills Carpenters' do. 

Grindstones Smiths' tools 

Cutlery Shoemakers' do. 

Cooking utensils Bricklayers' do. 

Iron pots of sorts Masons' do. 

Shoes and leather Coals as ballast 

Linnen and woollen cloth Some leaden pumps, &c. 

Tinware Scythes 

Thread, needles, &c. Pewter and earthenware. 






18 Aug-. 

Gaols over- 

Lord Sydney to The Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 

Convicts to 



to Rotany 

Order for 
fii-st fleet. 


My Lords, 

Whitehall, 18th August, 1786. 

in this kingdom 

The several gaols and places for the confinement of felons 
being in so crowded a state that the greatest 
danger is to be apprehended, not only from their escape, but from 
infectious distempers, which may hourly be expected to break out 
amongst them, his Majesty, desirous of preventing by every 
possible means the ill consequences which might happen from 
either of these causes, has been pleased to signify to me his royal 
commands that measures should immediately be pursued for 
sendino- out of this kingdom such of the convicts as are under 
sentence or order of transportation. 

The Nautilus, sloop, which, upon the recommendation of a 
committee of the House of Commons, had been sent to explore 
the southern , coast of Africa, in order to find out an eligilile 
situation for the reception of the said convicts, where from their 
industry they might soon be likely to obtain means of subsistence, 
having lately returned, and it appearing by the report of her 
officers that the several parts of the coast which they examined 
between the latitudes 15° 50' south and the latitude of 33° 00' 
are sandy and barren, and from other causes unfit for a settle- 
ment of that description, his Majesty has thought it advisable 
to fix upon Botany Bay, situated on the coast of New South 
Wales, in the latitude of about 33 degi'ees south, which, according 
to the accounts given by the late Captain Cook, as well as the 
representations of persons who accompanied him during his last 
voyage, and who have been consulted upon the subject, is looked 
upon as a place likely to answer the above pui'poses. 

I am, therefore, commanded to signify to your Lordships his 
Majesty's pleasure that you do forthwith take such measures as 
may be necessary for providing a proper number of vessels for the 
conveyance of 750 convicts to Botany Bay, together with such 
provisions, necessaries, and implements for agriculture as may be 
necessaiy for their use after their arrival. 

In order that a proper degree of subordination and regiTlarity 
may be preserved in this new intended settlement, his Majesty 
has been pleased to give orders that an officer and proper assistants 
shall be appointed to superintend it, and that three companies of 
the Marine Corps shall be stationed there so long as it may be 
found necessaiy. The officers and marines will be embarked on 
board a ship of war and a tender, which the Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty have been directed to provide for this service, 
the commanders of which will be instructed to take under their 
protection the ships on board of which the convicts may be em- 
barked, and to regulate their sailing to the place of destination. 

The crews of the ship of war and the tender, as well as the 
Marine Corps, will be victualled by the Naval Department during 


their passage ; but your Lordships will please to take notice that 1786 
the marines are to be provided for after their landing, and supplies is A-ag. 
of provisions, as well as implements for agricnlture, should also be 
procured for their use. The number may amount to about 180, 
to which is to be added the stafiF establishment, consisting of 
fifteen, and perhaps 200 females, which yovir Lordship will see by island 
a sketch of the plan for forming this new settlement, herewith women, 
transmitted,''^ are likely to be procured from places in its neighbour- 
hood, as companions for the men.f 

If the persons who may contract for the passage of the convicts Guard for 
should be desirous of obtaining military assistance for their greater transports, 
security, they may be accommodated with a part of the marines, 
who would otherwise be conveyed to the new settlement in the 
ship of war and the tender. 

According to the best opinions that can be obtained, it is Two years' 
supposed that a quantity of provisions equal to two years' con- 1"°^'^*^°"^- 
sumption should be provided, which must be issued from time to 
time, according to the discretion of the superintendent, in the 
expenditure of which he will, of course, be guided by the 
proportion of food which the country and the labour of the new 
settlers may produce. 

From the length of the passage to New South Wales, the 
commanding ofhcer will most likely find it necessary to call at 
the Cape de Verd Islands, as well as at the Cape of Good Hope, 
for the purpose of recruiting the water. At the latter of these 
places he will, in all probability, be enabled to obtain cattle and 
hogs, as well as seed grain, all of which must be procured for grain from 
the new settlers, with a view to their future subsistence, and ^iie Cape, 
as expenses will thereby, of course, be incurred, it will be 
necessary that your Lordships should authorize the naval 
commander, or the superintendent, to draw upon you for the . 
amount ; and that, in addition thereto, a quantity of merchan- 
dize should be put on board the ship of war or the tender 
previous to their sailing, sufficient to obtain supplies of live Barter, 
stock by the means of bai'ter with the inhabitants of the islands 
contiguous to the new intended settlement, from whence such 
suj)plies may at all times be obtained. 

A small quantity of garden seeds should be sent out from Garden 
hence, together with some seed grain, to prevent inconveniences and grain, 
that might happen should any difficulties arise in procuring a 
supply, particularly of the latter, at the Cape of Good Hope. 

The tools for erecting habitations, and implements for agri- Tools and 
culture, which it is supposed will be most useful in the 
.settlement, are specified in the list accompanying this, and with 

* Post, p. 17. 
t Women from the Islands. This part of the plan was not carried out. 




18 Aug. 






Tools and 

which it will be proper to supply the marines and the convicts 
after their landing at the settlement. It is, therefore, his 
Majesty's further pleasure that these articles he also jDrovided 
and sent out, together with l^edding for each of the convicts, 
and a proportion of cloa thing agreeably to the estimate enclosed. 
The marines will be supplied with bedding from the ship of war. 

I have it in command from his Majesty only further to 
acquaint your Lordships that a quantity of surgical instruments 
and medicines and necessaries for the sick Avill likewise be 
wanted, and as soon as an estimate can be formed it shall be 
transmitted to your Lordships, together with the staff establish- 

In the meantime, I have only to recommend it to your 
LoixTships to cause every possible expedition to be used in pre- 
I^aring the shipping for the reception of the said convicts, and 
for transporting the supplies of 2:)rovisions and necessaries for 
their use to the place of their destination.* I have, &c., 



Livi of Tools, Utensils, etc., necessary for the Convicts and 3Iarines intended 
to proceed to Neiu South Wales. 

Spades, 1, @ 3s. ; shovels, 1, @ 3s. ; hoes, 3 for each man, @ 9d. ; felling 
axe, 1, @ 3s. ; hatchet, 1, @ Is. ; knife, 1, @ 6d. each ; gimblet, wooden bowls, 
platters, and spoons, 6d. for each man. 

The articles necessary to each man amounts to 12s. 6d. 
which for 700 men will be . . . 

General StocJ:. 
Crossciit saws, 40 @ 10s. each ... 
Hand saws, 1 for every 4 men, @ 5s. each ... 
Frame saw.s, 40, @ 16s. each 
Adzes, 100, @ 2s. each ... 
Broad axes, 100, @ 2s. 6d. each 
Hammers, 1 for every 4 men, @ Is. each 
Augers, 140, @ Is. each 
Drawing knives, 149, at Is. 
Chissels and gouges, 300, @ 7d. each ... 

Planes, 100, @ 2s. 6d. each 

Iron forges, anvils, and hammers, 10, @ £3 ... 
Grindstones, 30, @ 10s. 6d. each 
Wheelbarrows, 40, @ 10s. each 
Pickaxes, 50, @ 5s. each 

Ploughs, 12, @, £4 each 

Iron hand mills, 40, @ £2 each... 
Coopers' tools, 10 setts, @ £1 15s. each 

Carried forivard 

* The King's Speech (George III) read at the opening of Parliament, on the 23rd .Januarj-, 
1787, contained the following- passage :—" A plan has hfcn formed, b.v no' direction, 
for transpoi-ting a number of con\icts in order to remove tlie incon\enience which arose 
from the crowded state of the gaols in different parts of the kingdom ; and you will, 
doubt not, take such further measures as may be necessary for this purijose." 

£ s. 


437 10 


43 15 



12 10 

8 15 



8 15 

12 10 


15 15 


12 10 



, 17 10 

£823 10 

£ s. 
82S 10 



IS Aug 


6 13 


Tools and 



33 6 



£1,268 10 

ne year. 


£ s. 















Brougld forward 
Nails of difft sizes, (a; 2s. 9d. p'r 1,000, ab't 10 barrels 

Spikes, 2,000, @ £1 10s. p'r 100 

Hinges, 200 pairs, @ 8d. each ... 

Locks, 100, @ Is. each ... 

Bar iron, flat and square, 10 ton, @ £17 

G hiss, 1,000 S(|uares, (5 8d. per doz. ... 

Fishing lines, hooks, nets, needles, twine, &c. 

Estimate of clothing to serve a male convict for one year 

Jackets, 2, @ 4s. 6d. ... 

Wollen drawers, 4, @ 2s. 

Hat, 1, @ 2s. 6d. 

Shirts, 3, (S) 3s. 

Worsted stockings, 4 p'r, (a; Is. 

Frocks, 3, (a 2s. 3d 

Trousers, 3, @ 2s. 3d 

Shoes, 3, @ 4s. 6d. 

£2 19 6 
The expence of clothing female convicts may be computed to amount to 
the same sum. 
A proportion for two years to be provided. 

Heads of a Plan.* 
Heads of a plan for effectually disposing of convicts, and Proposal for 
rendering their transportation reciprocally beneficial both to settlement. 
themselves and to the State, by the establishment of a colony in 
New South "Wales, a country which, by the fertility and salubrity 
of the climate, connected with the remoteness of its situaticm 
(from whence it is hardly possible for persons to return without 
permission), seems peculiarly adapted to answer the views of 
Government with respect to the providing a remedy for the evils 
likely to result from the late alarming and numerous increase of 
felons in this country, and more particularly in the metropolis. 

It is proposed that a ship of w'ar of a proper class, with a part 
of her guns mounted, and a sufficient number of men on board 
for her navigation, and a tender of about 200 tons burthen, Ships. 
commanded by discreet officers, should be got ready as soon as 
possible to serve as an escort to the convict ships, and for other 
purposes hereinafter mentioned. 

That, in addition to their crews, they should take on board Marines. 
two companies of marines to form a military establishment on 
shore (not only for the protection of the settlement, if i-equisite, 
against the natives, but for the preservation of good order), 
together with an assortment of stores, utensils, and implements, stores and 
necessary for erecting habitations and for agriculture, and such provisions, 
quantities of provisions as may be proper for the use of the crews. 

C * Ante, p. 15. 




18 Aug-. 

Live stock 
and seed. 


Two years' 

Ituards for 

. Surgeons. 




As many of the marines as possible should be artificers, such as 
carpenters, sawyers, smiths, potters (ifpossible), and some husband- 
men. To have a chaplain on board, with a surgeon, and one mate 
at least ; the former to remain at the settlement. 

That these vessels should touch at the Cape of Good Hope, or 
any other places that may be convenient, for any seed that may 
be requisite to be taken from thence, and for such live stock as 
they can possibly contain, which, it is supposed, can be procured 
there without any sort of difficulty, and at the most reasonable 
rates, for the use of the settlement at large. 

That Govei'nment should immediately provide a certain number 
of ships of a proper burthen to receive on board at least seven or 
eight hundred convicts, and that one of them should be properly 
fitted for the accommodation of the women, to prevent their inter- 
course with the men. 

That these ships should take on board as much provisions as 
they can possibly stow, or at least a sufficient quantity for two 
years' consumption ; supposing one year to be issued at whole 
allowance, and the other year's provisions at half allowance, which 
will last two years longer, by which time, it is presumed, the 
colony, with the live stock and grain which may be raised by a 
common industry on the part of the new settlers, will be fully 
sufficient for their maintenance and support. 

That, in addition to the crews of the ships appointed to contain 
the convicts, a company of marines should be divided between 
them, to be employed as guards for preventing ill consequences 
that might arise from dissatisfaction amongst the convicts, and 
for the protection of the crew in the navigation of the ship from 
insults that might be offered by the convicts. 

That each of the ships should have on board at least two 
surgeons' mates, to attend to the wants of the sick, and should 
be supplied with a proper assortment of medicines and instruments, 
and that two of them should remain with the settlement. 

After the arrival of the ships which are intended to convey the 
convicts, the ship of war and t'ender may be employed in obtain- 
ing live stock from the Cape, or from the Molucca Islands, a 
sufficient quantity of which may be brought from either of those 
places to the new settlement in two or three trips ; or the tender, 
if it should be thought most adviseable, may be employed in con- 
^■eying to the new settlement a further number of women from 
the l^-iendly Islands, New Caledonia, etc., which are contiguous 
thereto, and from whence any number may be pi'ocured without 
difficulty ; and without a sufficient proportion of that sex it is 
well-known that it would be impossible to preserve the settlement 
from gross irregularities and disorders. 

The whole regulation and management of the settlement should 
be committed to the cai^e of a discreet officer, and provision 


should be made in all cases, both civil aiul military, by special 1786 
instructions under the Great Seal or otherwise, as may be thought ^g ^^,„ 

Upon the whole, it may be observed with great force and truth 
that the difference of expence (whatever method of carrying the 
convicts thither may be adopted) that this mode of disposing of 
them and that of the usual ineffectual one is too trivial to be a Expense not 
consideration with Government, at least in comparison with the considered, 
great object to be obtained by it, especially now the evil is in- 
creased to such an alarming degree, from the inadequacy of all 
other expedients that have hitherto been tried or suggested. 

It may not be amiss to remark in favour of this plan that con- 
siderable advantage will arise from the cultivation of the New 
Zealand hemp or flax-plant in the new intended settlement, the Flax, 
.supply of which would be of great consequence to us as a naval 
power, as our manufacturers are of opinion that canvas made of 
it would be superior in strength and beauty to any canvas made of 
the European material, and that a cable of the circumference of 
ten inches made from the former would be superior in strength 
to one of eighteen inches made of the latter. The threads or 
ti laments of this New Zealand plant are formed by nature with 
the most exquisite delicacy, and maybe so minutely divided as to 
j)e manufactured into the finest linens. 

j\Iost of the Asiatic productions may also without doubt be Tropical 
cultivated in the new settlement, and in a few years may render '"^° "'^'"'' 
< lur recourse to our European neighbours for those productions 

It may also be j^roper to attend to the possibility of procuring New Zealand 
from New Zealand any quantity of masts and ship timber for the *™ ^'' 
use of our fleets in India, as the distance between the two 
countrys is not greater than between Great Britain and America. 
Ft grows close to the water's edge, is of size and quality superior to 
any hitherto known, and may be obtained without difficulty. 

Staff Establishment for the Settlement at New South Wales : — Estimate of 

Yearly Salary. 

The Naval Commander to be appomted Governor or Super- £ s. d. 1— Staff. 

intendent-General ... ... ... ... 500 

The Commanding Officer of the Marines to be appointed 

Lieut. -(iov. or Dept. Superintendent ... ... ... 250 

The Commi.ssary of Stores and Provisions, for himself and 

assistants (to be appointed or named by tlie contractors 

for the provisions) 200 

Pay of a .surgeon £182 10 

Ditto of two mates 182 10 

:mri o o 

Chaplain 182 10 

£1,497 10 




18 Aug. 
2— Clothing. 

Estimate of clothing to serve a male convict for one year : — 

21 Aug. 

Terms for 



Value each 

s. d. 


4 6 




2 6 



4 pr. 



2 3 


2 3 


4 6 


Woolleu drawers ... 



Worsted stockings 




£2 19 6 

The expence of clothing female convicts may be computed to amount to 
the like sum. 


















Sir, London, 21st August, 1786. 

If Government should determine to send the convicts to 
South Wales, we beg leave to offer to undei'take to convey them 
thither, and provide what may be wanting for them, on the 
following terms : — 

To provide sufficient vessels for transporting them thither, and 
to remain two months with them after their arrivals ; accomodation 
on. board ; and sufficient provisions for the voyage, and two months 
after ; at the rate of twenty-eight guineas each person. 

To deliver in South Whales sufficient provisions, in proportion, as 
the troops are victualled, for such number of men and such length 
of tune as maybe required, at the rate of Tg-d. sterling p'r man p'r 
day ; freiglit and insurance to South Wales therein included. 

To purchase on the most reasonable terms whatever tools, 
utensils, &c., may be wanted, without charging any commission 
thereon. W^e have, ttc, 


Lord Sydney to the Lords of The Admiralty. 

31 Aug. My Lords, W^hitehall, 31st August, 1786. 

The King having been pleased to signify his Royal Com- 
mands that 750 of the convicts now in this kingdom under 
sentence of transportation should be sent to Botany Bay, on 
the coast of New South Wales, in the latitude of 33° south, at 
which place it is intended that the said convicts should form a 
Convicts to settlement, and that the Lords of the Treasury should forthwith 
Botany Bay. provide a Sufficient number of vessels for their conveyance thither, 
together with provisions and other supplies for their subsistence, 
as well as tools to enable them to erect habitations, and also 


implements fur agriculture ; and it being his Majesty's intention 1786 
that a ship of war of a proper class, with part of her guns only ^i Aur'. 
on board, commanded by an able and discreet officer, and a suffi- . — 
cient establishment of inferior officers and men, together with a required, 
vessel of about 200 tons burthen, commanded also by an officer, 
should, as soon as the convict ships are ready, proceed with them 
to the new settlement, for the purpose of regulating their sailing, 
and for the preservation of peace and good order during the pas- 
sage, as well as for other purposes after their arrival — 

I am commanded to signify to your Lordships the King's plea- ^^]P°^ J'^^ 
sure that you do forthwith cause a ship of war and a tender for 
those services to be fitted for sea with all possible expedition, and 
when the said convicts shall be put on board the ships which are 
preparing for their reception in the river Thames, to instruct the 
commander of the ship of war to take the convict ships under his instructions 
protection, and proceed with them and the tender (which he will c^„*^i|„jgr 
employ as he shall find occasion) to Botany Bay, calling off Ply- 
mouth, on his way thither, for another convict ship, the master of 
which will be directed to join the convoy from thence upon its 

From the length of the voyage to New South Wales, the convoy 
will, of course, find it necessary to put into port on their way 
thither, for the purpose of recruiting their water. Your Lordships 
will, therefore, give instructions accordingly, only taking care that 
one of the places to be fixed upon for a rendezvous may be the i^endezyous 
Cape of Good Hope, from whence it is intended that as many '^ ^ '^'^*^' 
.supplies as possible for the new settlement shall be procured. 

. As it has been thought advisable that some military establish- <5arrison. 
ment shall be made at the new intended settlement, not only to 
enforce due subordination and obedience, but for the defence of 
the settlement against incursions of the natives, and as from the 
nature of the service to be performed it is highly expedient that 
it should be composed of men accustomed to and under proper 
discipline, his Majesty has been pleased to direct that 160 
private marines, with a suitable number of officers and non-com- Marines, 
mission officers, shall proceed in the ship of war and the tender 
to tlie new settlement, where it is intended they shall be disem- 
barked for the purposes before mentioned. They will be properly 
■s'ictualled by a connnissary immediately after their landing, and 
provision has been also made for supplying them with such tools, 
implements, and utensils as they may have occasion for, to render xhe soldiers 

their situation comfortable during: their continuance at the new ^o be niade 
-,11 , , . , . P , . 1 coiufortable. 

intended settlement, which it is designed siiall not exceed a 

period of three years. 

AVhen these circumstances are known, it is very probable that Volunteers. 

many of the non-commissioned officers and men may express a 

desire of embarking upon this expedition ; if the whole number 




yi Aug. 

Marines to 

to volunteer. 

Heads of a 

sions and 

Officers to be 
under the 

3 Sept. 


to be employed upon it were to consist of persons of that descrip- 
tion, it would upon many accounts be advisable to give them 
a preference. It is therefore his Majesty's pleasure that their 
wishes in this respect should as much as possible be attended 
to, and that your Lordship should, if there should be occasion, 
hold out such further indulgences to them as may induce them to 
embark voluntarily upon this service, either by bounty or promise 
of discharge should they desire it upon their return, or at the 
expiration of three years, to be computed from the time of their 
landing at the new intended settlement should they prefer the 
remaining in that country. 

I enclose to your Lordships herewith the heads of a plan* upon 
which the new settlement is to be formed, for your further infor- 
mation, together with the proposed establishment for its regula- 
tion and government; and as soon as I am acquainted by your 
Lordships with the names of the officers intended to command 
the ship of war and the marine corps I shall receive his 
Majesty's further pleasure for preparing their commissions, and 
such instructions as may be requisite for their guidance. 

From the nature of the services they are to execute under these 
insti'uctions, entirely unconnected with maritime affairs, it would 
be proper that they should be immediately subordinate to the 
direction of this office, and upon that ground it is his Majesty's 
pleasure that they should be directed after their arrival at New 
South Wales to follow such orders and directions as they may 
receive from his Majesty thro' his Principal Secretary of State 
for this department. I have, kc, 


Lord Howe to Lord Sydney. 

Langar, 3rd September, 1786. 
The benefit of the King's service being our common object, I am 
persuaded, my dear Lord, it will never suffer for want of our ready 
concurrence when a necessary facility can be rendered by us, on 
either part, to promote the advancement of it on any occasion. 

In the present instance, the settlement of the convicts, as you 
have determined, being a matter so immediately connected with 
your department, I could never have a thought of contesting the 
choice you would make of the officer to be entrusted with the 
conduct of it. 

I cannot say the little knowledge I have of Captain Philips! 
would have led me to select him for a service of this complicated 
nature. But as you are satisfied of his ability, and I conclude 
he will be taken under your dii-ection, I presume it will not 
be unreasonable to move the King for having his Majesty's 

* Ante, p. 17. 
t Phillip's name was frequently mis-spelt by the public men of the time. 


pleasure signified to the Admiralty for these purposes as soon as 1786 
you see proper, that no time may be lost in making the requisite 
preparations for the voyage. I am, &c., 


The Marines and their term op Service. 

Extract from a letter written to the Commanding Marine Officei's 

at the Divisions, respecting a detachment to be sent out to 

New South Wales : — r, , ^ i i-,.« o-^ ^ 

8th October, 178G. s.Oct. 

The non-commission ofticei's and private marines to be 'allowed 

their discharge^ if they desire it, on their return to England, 

after they have been relieved (which it is intended shall take 

place at the expiration of 3 years), provided their good behaviour Three years' 

shall entitle them to such favor ; or will be discharged abroad service. 

upon the I'elief, and be permitted to settle in the country, if they 

prefer it. 

To be victualled by a commissary, and to have such tools, Victualling 

implements, and utensils as they may have occasion for whilst 

employed for the protection of the new settlement. 

Sir a. S. Hamond* to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Dear Sir, Gillingham, 8tli Octr., 178G. 

I do not exactly know what plan Grovernment may have 
in view with respect to Botany Bay, but if colinizeation may be 
intended, perhaps it may be thought necessary to have the 
countrv surveyed and explored. Lieut. Bray, of the Navy who is a volunteer 
a very ingenious draftsman, is very desirous of being a volunteer 
on the expedition. He says he can be well recommended to 
Lord Sydney by several noblemen of rank, but before he makes 
his application he wishes to know if any draftsmen are intended 
to be sent out.f If you can give him this, or any other infor- 
mation that may be useful to him in his persuit, it will be serving 
a man of merit, and oblige. Yours, <kc., 

A. S. Hamond. 

The Lords of the Admiralty to Lord Sydney. 
My Lord, Admiralty Office, 12th October, 178G. 12 Oct. 

Your Lordship having acquainted us in your letter of the 
31 of August last that his Majesty has signified his royal com- 
mands that 750 of the convicts now in this kingdom under 
sentence of transportation should be sent to Botany Bay, on the 
coast of New South Wales, where it is intended they should form 
a settlement ; and at the same time signified the King's pleasure 

' Sir Andrew Snape HaiiionJ, one of the Commissioners of the Na\-J'. 
t Lieut. Bray's services were not accepted. 


1786 that a ship of war of a proper class, with a proper vessel for a 

12 Oct tender, and a detachment of marines, should be got in readiness to 

proceed with the convicts for the purposes mentioned in your 

Lordship's letter, — we are to acquaint your Lordship that, in 

obedience to his Majesty's commands, we immediately ordered 

TheSiriusto the Sirius,* one of his Majesty's ships of the sixth rate, with a 

e got ready, p^^pg^ yessel f or a tender, to be fitted for this service ; and that 

the ship will be ready to receive men by the end of this month. 

We are further to acquaint your Lordship, in answer to that part 

' of your letter desiring to be informed of the names of the officers 

intended to command the ship of war and the marine corps, that 

Phillip and Captain Arthur Phillipf will be appointed to command the Sirius, 

and Major Robert Ross the detachment of marines. 

We are, &c., 
Chs. Brett. 

12 Oct. Governor Phillip's First Commission. | 

George R. 

George the Third, &c., to our trusty and well-beloved Captain 

Arthur Phillip, greeting : — 
We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, 
Phillip courage, and experience in military affiiirs, do, by these presents, 
Goveruor^ constitute and appoint you to be Governor of our territory called 
New South Wales, extending from the northern cape or ex- 
tremity of the coast called Cape York, in the latitude of 10° 37', to the southern extremity of the said territory of New 
South Wales or South Cape_, in the latitude of 43° 39' south, and 
of all the country inland to the westward as far as the one 
hundred and thirty-fifth degree of longitude, reckoning from the 
meridian of Greenwich, including all the islands adjacent in 
the Pacific Ocean, within the latitude aforesaid of 10° 37' south 
and 43° 39' south, and of all towns, garrisons, castles, forts, 
and all other fortifications or other military works, which now 
are or may be hereafter erected upon this said territory. You 
are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of 
Governor in and over our said territory by doing and performing 
all and all manner of things thereunto belonging, and we do 

* Philip Gidlej' King, Second Lieutenant of the Sirius, who afterwards held the offices of 
Lieut. -Governor of Norfolk Island and Governor of New South Wales, states in his 
journal: — " The construction of a King's ship not being deemed proper for the serxice, 
the Berwick, storeship, was pitclied on by the Admiralty, and her name changed to the 
Sirius, so called from the bright star in ye southern constellation of the Great Bog." 

t Appointed first Governor of New South Wales by Commission, 12th October, 1786. 

t This commission is dated 12th October, 1786, and the Records show that it was acted 
upon almost at once. It was replaced, however, by a fuller conunission, 2nd April, 1787. 
Post, p. 62. According to the Annual Register for 1787, Phillip's apjiointment was not 
publicly announced until 17th April. Instructions were issued, 25th April, 1787. Post, p. 85. 
Additional Instructions, post, p. 256. 


hereby strictly charge and command all our officers and soldiers 1786 
who shall be employed within our said territory, and all others lo oct. 
whom it may concern, to obey you as our Governor thereof ; and 
you are to observe and follow such orders and directions from 
time to time as you shall receive from us, or any other your 
superior officer according to the rules and discipline of war, and 
likewise such orders and directions as we shall send you under instmc- 
our signet or sign manual, or by our High Treasurer or Com- 
missioners of our Treasury for the time being, or one of our 
Principal Secretaries of State, in pursuance of the trust we 
hereby repose in you. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the twelfth day of October, 
1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 


Sir a. S. Hamond to Under Secretary JSTepean. 
Dear Sir, Chatham, 16th Oct., 1786. 16 Oct. 

Mr. White,* the surgeon of the Irresistible, is a candidate sm-geon. 
for Botany Bay. He is a young man of much credit in his 
profession, and of that sort of disposition and temper that render 
him a very proper person for such an establishment. If no 
surgeon is yet appointed, and you will do me the favor t(j recom- 
mend him to Lord Sydney, I shall think myself much obliged to 
you, and shall consider myself bound to Government for his 
good behaviour. I am, &c., 

A. S. Hamond. 

Under Secretary Rose! to Secretary Stephens. | 

Sir, Treasury Chambers, 2Lst Oct., 1786. 2iOct. 

The Commissioners of the Navy having, in their letter of swps^ 
the 18th instant, represented to the Lords Commissioners of his ®""^°'^ • 
Majesty's Treasury that they have agreed for a sufficient quantity 
of shipping to convey the convicts, &c., to Botany Bay, and that 
they will l3e ready to proceed from Gravesend in a month at 
furthest ; and stated that if the ships get to New Holland so early 
as to be able to reach China by the 1st of January, 1788, they 
are to be discharged, but if they are unnecessarily delay'd on the 
passage, or detained in Botany Bay after the convicts are landed, 
so as to be prevented from proceeding in time for China, they 
will be under the necessity of continuing them in their pay till 
their return to Deptford, — I am commanded by their Lordships to 
desire that you will move the Lords of the Admix'alty to direct — 

* >Ir. .John White, a]ipointed Chief Surgeon of the Settlement, 24 October, 17S6. 
Returned to Eiii^land, 17'J4. 

t Mr. George Rose, Under Secretary of the Treasury. 
I PhiHp Stephens, Secretary of the Admiralty. 




1786 the captain of the King's ship who accompanies them to take care 

"1 Oct that no unnecessary delay happens on the passage to Botany Bay, 

or on their departure from thence, and that he uses his best 

endeavours to enable the ships under his command to reach China 

by the 1st January, 1788. I am, tfec, 

Geo. Rose. 

Major Ross's Commission as Lieutenant-Governor.* 
24 Oct. George R. 

George the Third, &c., to our trusty and well-beloved Major 

Robert Ross, greeting : — 
We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, 
courage, and experience in military affairs, do, by these presents, 
constitute and appoint you to be Lieutenant-Governor of the 
settlement within our territory called New South Wales. You 
are therefore, as Lieutenant-Governor, to take the said settlement 
into your care and charge, and carefully and diligently to dis- 
charge the duty of Lieutenant-Governor thereof, by doing and 
performing all and all manner of things thereunto belonging ; 
and we do hereby strictly charge and require all our officers and 
soldiers who shall hereafter be in our said territory, and all 
others whom it may concern, to obey you as our Lieutenant- 
Governor thereof, and you are to observe and follow such orders 
and instructions from time to time as you shall receive from us, 
our Governor of our said territory for the time being, or any 
other your superior officer, according to the rules and discipline 
of war, in pursuance of the trust we hereby repose in you. 

Given at our court at St. James's, the twenty-fourth day 
of October, 1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 


Judge- Advocate Collins's Commission.! 

George R. 

George the Third, etc., to our trusty and well-beloved Captain 

David Collins, greeting : — 

We do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be Deputy 

Judo-e- Judge-Advocate in the settlement within our territory called 

Advocate. ]*;rew South Wales. You are therefore, carefully and diligently 

to discharge the duty of Deputy Judge-Advocate, by doing 

^ Major Ross was in command of the detachment of marines sent out to guard the con\icts. 
He was Lieut. -Governor of Norfolk Island from March. 1790, to October, 1791. 

t Captain of marines, afterwards colonel. He acted as Judge-Advocate and Secretary 
to the Governor at Sydney, until Sept., 1790, when he sailed for England, on leave of 
absence. He did not resume the position of Judge-Advocate, but was appointed, Dec, 
1803, Lieut. -Governor of the proposed settlement at Port Phillip. The place, however, 
displeased him, and he established a settlement instead on the Derwent, Van Diemen's 

officers' commissions. 27 

and performing all and all manner of things thereunto belonging ; 1786 
and you are to observe and follow such orders and directions from ^i Oct. 
time to time as you shall receive from our Governor, of our said 
territory for the time being, or any other your superior officer, 
according to the rules and discipline of war. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the twenty-fourth day 
of October, 1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 


First Chaplain's Commission.* 
George R. 
George the Tliird, &c., to our trusty and well-beloved Richard 

Johnson, clerk, greeting : — 
We do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be Chap- 
lain to the settlement within our territory called New South 
Wales. You are, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge 
the duty of chaplain by doing and performing all and all manner cimplain. 
of things thereunto belonging ; and you are to observe and 
follow such orders and directions from time to time as you shall 
receive from our Governor of our said territory for the time 
being, or any other your superior officers, according to the rules 
and discipline of war. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the twenty-fourth day of 
October, 1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 

Surgeon White's Commission. 

George R. 

George the Third, &.c., to our trusty and well-beloved John White, 

greeting : — 
We do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be 
Surgeon to the settlement witliin our territory called New South 
Wales. You are, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge 
the duty of surgeon by doing and performing all and all manner chief 
of things thereunto belonging ; and you are to observe and follow surgeon. 
sucli orders and directions from time to time as you shall receive 
from our Governor of our said territory for tlie time being, or 
any other your superior officer, according to the rules and disci})- 
line of war. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the twenty -fourtli day 
of October, 1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 


* The Rev. Richard Johnson acted as Chief Chaplain of tlie Settlement until 1800, wlien 
he retired. 




• 24 Oct. 


31 Oct. 

Assistant-Surgeon Balmain's Commission. 

George R. 

George the Third, &c., to our trusty and well-beloved William 

Balmain, gent., greeting : — 
We do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be 
Assistant-Surgeon to the settlement within our territory called 
New South Wales. You are, therefore, carefully and diligently 
to discharge the duty of Assistant-Surgeon, by doing and per- 
forming all and all manner of things thereunto belonging ; and 
you are to observe and follow such orders and directions from 
time to time as you shall receive from our Governor of our said 
territory for the time being, or any other your superior officer, 
according to the rules and discipline of war. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the twenty-fourth day of 
October, 1786, in the twenty-sixth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens.* 
Sir, [London] October 31, 1786. 

The Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty having ordered his Majesty's ship Sirius, under my 
■Armament command, to be supply'd with six caronades and four six-pounders, 
of the Sirius 1 am to request that you will please to move their Lordships to 
order ten more of the six-pounders to be put on board, with the 
ironwork necessary for the cariages. Having the ironwork, the 
guns can at any time be mounted, and may, I presume, in future 
be of great use to us, on board or on shore, as the service may 
require. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 

Sir, [London] November 3, 1786. 

I acknowledge the receipt of the Right Honourable the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty's orders for surveying 
and making the necessaiy obseiwations in the different harbours, 
roads, &g. — the orders for salutes — for bearing widows' men — ■ 
the copy of the Act of Parliament for preventing abuses in the 
payment of seamen's wages, prize-money, etc. — abstracts of the 
said Act and orders, to affix them in a public place on board his 
Majesty's ship under my command, as likewise orders for receiving 
such additional stores and provisions as can be conveniently stored. 

Their Lordships' orders on these heads will be duly comply'd 
with. I have, &c., , A. Phillip. 

* This is the first of a series of letters written from London. Lieut. Philip Gidley King, of 
the Sirius, afterwards Governor of New South Wales, says in his juunial : — " It was not till 
ye 11th of May [17i7] that the Governor Joined us, he havinic been detained in town until 
the Ministry had arranged and fixed the different orders, settling- a number of t.hin),'s so 
incident to ye great voyage we were about to undertake." 

3 Nov. 

from the 



The Lords of The Admiralty to Lord Sydney. 1785 

My Lord, Admiralty Office, 21st Nov., 1786. 21 Nov. 

Your Lordship having, in your letter of the 31st August The 
last, acquainted us that it is his Majesty's pleasure a party of '"^""^s. 
marines, consisting of 160 private marines, with a suitable number 
of officers and non-commissioned officers, shall proceed to Botany 
Bay, on the coast of New South Wales, not only to enforce due 
suljordination and obedience in the settlement intended to be 
formed there, but for the defence of the settlement against the 
incursion of the natives; and that they shall, immediately after 
their landing, be properly victualled by a commissary, and supply'd 
with such tools, implements, and utensils as may be necessary to 
render their situation comfortable during their continuance there 
— we beg leave to inform your Lordship that the marines, while 
they serve on board his Majesty's ships, are victualled in like 
manner as the seamen, without any deduction from their pay on 
that account, and do therefore humbly submit to his Majesty Their pay. 
whether any stoppage should be made from the pay of the marines 
going to Botany Bay upon the present occasion towards defraying 
the expence of the provisions with which they are to be supply'd 
by the Commissary while on shore. 

And as it is usual when any regiments are sent upon service to 
his Majesty's colonies or plantations to allow them to take with 
them a certain number of women, we beg leave to propose that the 
wives of the marines going to Botany Bay, not exceeding ten to each Marines' 
company, which will not in the whole amount to more than forty wives, 
women, may be allowed to embark with them. "We are, &c., 


Chas. Brett. 
Rd. Hopkins. 

FiATiONS provided for the Marines during their passage to Botany Rations for 

T)„„ marines. 




Wednesday ... 




































Per week when on shore.— 7 lb. of bread or 7 lb. of flour, 7 lb. of beef 
or -1 lb. of pork, 3 pints pease, 6 oz. butter, and 1 lb. flour or i lb. rice. 




23 Nov. 



Sir, Sirius, Deptford, 23rd November, 1786. 

From the experienced utility of Peruvian bark in ships 
stationed on the coast of Guinea and in similar climates, it would 
seem a very necessary article in the present intended expedition ; 
but from the high price of the drug Navy sui'geons cannot afford 
the vast quantity required to do justice to the men without 
wronging themselves ; therefore I humbly beg, sir, that you will 
move for a proportionate supply to the number of men on Ijoard 
the Sirius. I am, &c., 

G. B. WoRGAN, Surgeon of the Sirius. 

6 Dec. 

tion Act. 

Captaix Phillip to Uxder Secretary Nepean. 

2 Dec. Sir, [London] December 2nd, 1786. 

„,. , As I fear much discontent in the garrison if there is no 

Wine and n • • • / i • i i i 

spirits for allowance of wine or spirits (to which they have ever been accus- 
egarrison. ^Qj^jg^^j^ until spruce beer can be procured for them, I beg that 
you will please to lay this circumstance before the Lords of the 

I shall he able to receive a certain quantity of wine on board 
at Teneriffe, or the Cape, if judg'd necessary, and which I hope 
will be the case. I have, &c., 

■ A. Phillip. 

Order for Transportation.* 

Whereas by the Act passed in the twenty -fourth year of the 
reign of his present Majesty, intituled 'An Act for the effectual 
transportation of felons and other ojffenders, and to authorize 
the removal of prisoners in certain cases, and for other purposes 
therein mentioned,' it is enacted that from and after the passing of 
the said Act when any person or persons at any session of oyer and 
terminer or gaol delivery or at any Quarter or other General Session 
of the Peace, to be holden for any county, riding, division, city, 
town, borough, liberty, or place within that part of Great Britain 
called England, or at any great Session to be holden for the 
county palatine of Chester, or within the Principality of Wales, 
shall be convicted of fraud or petty larceny, or any other offence 
for which such person or persons shall be liable by the laws t)f this 
Recital. realm to be transported : It shall and may be lawful for the 
court before which any such person or persons shall be so con- 
victed as aforesaid, or any •subsequent court holden at any place 
for the said county, riding, division, city, town, borough, liberty, 
or place, respectively, with like authority to order and adjudge 
that such person or persons so convicted as aforesaid shall be 
transported beyond the seas for any term of years not exceeding 

* New South Wales was first jianied as a place of transportation at tlie Council held at 
the Court of St. James's, 6th of December, 1786. 


the number of years or term for -which such person or persons is 1786 
or are or shall be liable by any law to be transported; and in 2 Dec. 
every such ease it shall and may Ije lawful for his Majesty, by 
and with the advice of his Privy Council, to declare and appoint 
to what place or places, part or parts, beyond the seas, either 
within his Majesty's dominions or elsewhere out of his Majesty's Transporta- 
doininions, such felons or other offenders shall be conveyed or 
transported, and such court as aforesaid is thereby authorized 
and empowered to order such offenders to be tx-ansported to the 
use of any person or persons and his or their assigns, who shall 
contract for the due performance of such transportation ; and 
when his Majesty, his heirs and successors, shall be pleased to 
extend mercy to any offender or offenders who hath 01 have been 
or shall be convicted of any crime or crimes for which he, she, or 
they is, are, or shall be by law excluded from the benefit of 
clergy, upon condition of transportation to any place or places, 
part or parts, beyond the seas, either for term of life, or any 
numlier of years, and such intention of mercy shall be signified 
])y one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, it shall 
1>e lawful for any court having proper authority to allow such 
offender or offenders the benefit of a conditional pardon, and Conditional 
(except in cases where such offender or offenders shall he author- i^*''''°"- 
ized by his Majesty to transport himself, herself, or themselves) 
to (jrder the transfer of such offender or offenders to any j^ei'son 
or persons who shall contract for the due performance of such 
transportation, and his or their assigns, for such and the same 
terms of years for which such offender or offendei-s shall have 
l)een ordered to be transported, or for such term of life or years as 
shall be specified in such condition of transportation as aforesaid. 

And whereas it hath been represented to his Majesty that the 
several offenders whose names are contained in the list hereunto 
annexed have been transported or ordered to be transported to 
parts beyond the seas, his Majesty doth hereby judge fit, by and 
with the advice of his Privy Council, to declare and appoint the 
place to which the several offenders shall be transported for the 
term or terms in their several sentences mentioned to be the 
eastern coast of New South Wales, or some one or other of the Convicts to 
islands adjacent ; and all persons whom it may concern are to southWalea. 
give the necessary directions for causing the said several offenders 
to be conveyed or transported tf> the eastern coast of New South 
Wales, or some one or other of the islands adjacent, in the manner 
directed by the said Act. 

[The list contains many hundreds of names. At the Council 
held December 22, 1786, a similar order was made with regartl 
to women. These, and others previously sentenced to he trans- Women, 
ported to America, " shall be transported to the eastern coast of 
New South Wales, or some one or other of the islands adjacent."] 



Estimate of 

1786 Memo, from Uxder Secretary Kepeax to Sir C. Middletox. 

]\Ir. Nepean presents his compliments to Sir Charles Middle- 
ton. Is desired by Mr. Pitt* to request that he will order a 
statement to be made of the expences which it is supposed will 
be incurred under the direction of the Navy Board for the pro- 
viding of provisions, clothing, implements, &c., for the convicts, 
and sending them out to Botany Bay, including the expenses 
incurred for the detachment of marines. It is not expected that 
any statement which can n ow be made will be an accurate one, but 
INIr. Pitt wishes to obtain within a few days some information 
upon the business which may lead him to form an opinion to 
what expence this establislnnent may be likely to amount. 

Mr. Kepean has applied to the Admiralty for information 
respecting the equipment of the Sirius and the tender, and the 
annual expence of their crews, as well as with regard to the pay 
of the marines. He has likewise applied to Mr. Rogers for an 
account of the value of the stores which have been supplied by 
the Board of Ordnance. 

of the 

Sirius and 
Supply — 
cost of 

Equipment of the Sirius and Supply. 

An estimate of the expences which will attend the equipment of 
the Sirius and the tender that will accompany her to Botany 
Bay ; of the annual expence of their establishment, including 
the victualling ; of the probable value of the stores that may 
be annually expended on board the Sirius and Supply ; and 
also of the annual pay of the marine establishment. 

First Yeai-^s Equipment — Sirius. Supply. 

Hull, mast, yards, furniture, and stores 7,072 3,*i70 

Wages 3,3-22 1,123 

Victuals 1,981 681 

Second Year — 

Wages and victuals as before . 

Third Year — 

Wages and victuals as before 

12,. 375 


5,303 1,804 

Annual Pay and Clothing of the , ^, t>f\n i^ oj 
Marine Establishment ^ ^^^^^^ ^^- ^^' 

Three Years .. 





Total £45,752 

1 No charge for stores included in the last two years, it being supposed 
that what is carried out will last the whole term. 

* The Prime Minister, the Right Hon. William Pitt. 


Estimate of the Expence of Ordnance Stores ordered to be sent ^"^^^ 
to the intended Settlement at Botany Bay. 

G iron guns, 12 and 6 pdrs. 

2 brass guns, mountetl on travelling carriages, 

6 pdrs. ... 
6 standing carriages, 12 and 6 pdrs 
2 travelling carriages, 12 pdrs. 
Round shot and other stores necessary 

above mntd. guns 
500 tents for the convicts ... 
160 tents for the marines ... 
200 musquets for barter 
200 cutlasses for barter 
200 stand of arms for marines 

for the 

1/ c/ 


Estimate of 






























First Year's Civil Salaries. 

Estimate proposed for defraying the establishment in New South ^,*ii'estab/ 
Wales from the 10th of October, 1786, to the 10th of October, lishment. 
1787 :— 

Allowance to the Governor 

,, Lieut. -Governor ... 

„ Depy. Judge-Advocate ... 

„ Provost-Marshal ... 

,, Chaplain 

,, Surgeon 

,, Three Surgeon mates, each £91 5s, 

„ Surveyor of lands 

„ Agent 

„ Upon account for paj^ment of fees 

ui)on the receipt and audit 


,, Commissary 

























Captain Teer to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Sir, Deptford, Dec. the 9th, 1786. 9 Dec 

I am desired by Sir Charles Middleton* to acquaint you 
that the following arrangement is made by him, agreeable to your 
letter, and that an othcial one will be sent on Monday to the 
Treasury, and that the ships will be sent accordingly as soon as 
the charge of provisions and other necessarys can be made. 
Some spirits must Ije sent from the Lady Pem-hyn to the Char- The 
lotte and Friendship, for the marines that were lirst intended for t'''"'°P<'»'*s 
her now ordered to the two last. Therefore, as this is absolutely 
necessary now, you will take care to indemnifie the masters of 

* Comptroller of the Na\-y ; afterwards Rear- Admiral of the White. 




9 Dec. 

these transports, who will act by my orders for the good of the 
service, from all harm, as no fraud is or shall be done by this 


The women' 

A mistake 
to dinde 

The Lady 
could ac- 

for safe 


change to the excise. 


Lady Penrhyn to carry 
Scarborough ... 







... to go to Gallons. * 

40 to go to Plymouth. 
32 to go to Spithead. 

600 150 

Besides the marine ofBcers, surgeon, &c. 





Under Secretary Kepean to Sir C. Middleton. 

Dear Sir, December 9th, 1786. 

Since I was favor'd with your letter yesterday I have 
received a note from Captain Teer, containing an arrangement 
which you have made for sending out the women, by which I 
observe that instead of embarking the whole hundred and fifty 
in the Lady Penrhyn, or, if that could not be done, to put on 
board of her a hundred and twenty-four, and to let the remaining 
twenty-six now on board the Dunkirk at Plymouth go out in one 
of the ships intended to take away the male convicts from thence, 
you have order'd the women to be divided on board of tliree ships. 
I ought not, to be sui'e, to presume to offer any opinion to you, as 
you must, for many reasons, be a better judge of these matters 
than I am, but it strikes me very forcibly that they should not, 
if possible, be divided. 

Prom the tonnage of the Lady Penrhyn I should imagine that 
with scarce any alteration she could be made to contain the whole 
of the women, tho' they might be a little crowded, with less in- 
convenience than most of the transports which are to contain the 
men, and would most likely be more healthy, as there would be 
no danger from the allowing the women to be constantly upon 
deck. Howevei', this business must remain with you to deter- 
mine, and I hope that you will forgive me for starting an opinion 
upon it. 

I hope that it has occurr'd to you in your engagements for 
the transports that the owners, as well as the masters and mates, 
must enter into the bonds which the Acts of Parliament require 
for the safe custody of the convicts whilst on board the trans- 
ports. If that has not been done new difficulties will arise, for 
the courts will not vest them with the custody of the convicts 
without it. 

Pei-haps some of the victuallers! might take a part of the 
marines. I am, tfcc, 

Evan Nepean. 

* The Galleons in the Thames. 

t Store ships. 


Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 1786 

Sir, [London] December 11, 1786. " Dec. 

You will please to inform the Right Honourable the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty that his Majesty's ship Sirius, Sirius. 
under my command, left her moorings at Deptford, and went 
down to Long Reach the 9th instant, where she now remains, to 
receive on board her guns and the remainder of her stores. 
I enclose a weekly account, and have the honour to be, — 

A. Phillip. 

Sir C. Middleton to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Dear Sir, December 11, 1786. 

It is absolutely impracticable to arrange the transports in 
any other manner than we have done without unloading and Too late to 
new filling all the ships, and which would require at least three ^''^'' ^ ^"*" 
weeks from this time. The Lady Penryhn being intended for 
seventy women, the number we were ordered to provide for, was 
made a pro\'ision ship, and fitted accordingly for the women. The 
others, being for males, had the disposition of provisions, &c., 
suitable to that arrangement. I do not, however, see any force 
in the objection you have mentioned of putting male and female 
in the same ship, as it is done continually in all the African African and 
(Xegro) cargoes that are carried to the West Indies. Each have preceJentd^" 
their separate rooms, and, though both in the same vessell, have 
no communication with each other. It will be the same in the 
two ships who are to go to Plymouth, and who by a new arrange- 
ment of the marines will just caiTy the number of males and 
females intended to embark from that place, with this only 
difference, that a few supernumeraries will be carried out in them 
to the other ships. The women have separate rooms from the no com- 
men, and no communication whatever with each other. This munication 

D6t'W6Gn tllG 

restriction must be strongly enforced to the officers who embark sexes, 
as the guard, and to ye agent who conducts them, and from the 
example which I have been a witness of for some weeks in a 
Guinea ship I see no reason for apprehension in this disposition. 

The women cannot be more crowded than they are, having Women 
only 1 k ton allowed to each, and which is as little as possible for to'.rethe'r 
so long a voyage.* 

On the subject of security I see a real difficulty, unless the Security. 
King's authority [is given] to supersede the usual practice of the 
courts in dispensing with it. 

I have never been employed in sending out convicts till now, i^gal forms, 
and of course have made no enquiry into the law forms, and which 
sliould have been conveyed to us in the original order. I must, 
however, observe that, as far as I remember concerning this 
business, those who formerly carried out convicts had not only 

* See Phillip's letters to Nepean, post pp. 46, 77. 




11 Dec. 


of contract. 

State of tlie 

Talveii by 

an allowance pr. head, but an interest in them after they were 
embarked. This makes a wide diflerence, and will account for ye 
security, which, under present circumstances, cannot be expected 
from owners of ships, who haA'e no other advantage but the freight 
and victualling, and take the risk of their ships (which, by the 
Ijye, is no small one) upon themselves. 

I send Captain Teer with this, who will explain to you more 
particularly by word of mouth than I can by letter of the present 
state of the ships and the difficulties that will attend any further 
alteration in them. 

I trust and hope that when any business of this kind is agitated 
again that I may have some notice of it before it is sent officially. 
This was the practice in the last war, and prevented all difficulties, 
and saved much expence to ye public. We must now do as well 
as we can,'and I shall be very [particulai'] in following every mode 
that can be pointed out for putting an end to this disagreeable 
and troublesome business ; being with much regard, Yours, &c., 

Chas. Middleton. 

P.S. — I write in great haste, 
before me. 


great load of business 

12 Dec. 

Guns for 
the Supply. 

15 Dec, 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 
Gent'n, Admiralty, 12th Deer, 1786. 

My Lords Commissioners of the Adm'ty having received a 
letter from Lieut. Ball, commander of his Majesty's arm'd tender 
the Supply, representing that he is of opinion four-pounder 
guns will be too heavy for her, and desiring that they may 
be exchanged for three-pounders, I am commanded by their 
Lordships to send you the said letter enclosed for your considera- 
tion and opinion whether it may be proper to comply therewith. 

I am, &c., 

P.S. — You will please to return the enclos'd with your ans'r. 

Second Captain of the Sirius. 
At the Court at St. James's, the 15th of December, 1786. 

Present : — 
The King's Most Excellent Majesty, 
Viscount Howe, Lord Hawkesbury, 

Viscount Gallway, William Pitt, Esq., 

Lord Sydney, Sir George Yonge. 

Whereas there was this day read at the Board a memorial 
from the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, dated the 1 4th of this instant, in the words following, viz. : — 
"Lord Sydney, one of your Majesty's Principal Secretaries of 
State, having, in his letter of the 31st of August last, signified to 

* Pliilip Stephens. Copied from the letter-book at tlie Admiralty, in which only the 
initials of the name are given. 


us your ^Majesty's pleasure that one of your ships of war should 1786 
proceed with the transport vessels appointed to convey convicts to is Dec. 
Botany Bay, on the coast of Ne^\■ South Wales, with a view to form warlhTp for 
a settlement at that place ; and it appearing by the stalf of the Botany Bay. 
intended settlement, which accompanied his Lordship's said letter, 
tliat it is your royal intention to appoint the captain of your 
Majesty's ship employed upon this service to be Governor or Super- Governor. 
intendant-General of the said settlement, we beg leave to represent 
to your Majesty that, as it will probably be found expedient for 
the ships to proceed to some other parts of the coast, or to some 
of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, while the residence of the 
captain, in the quality of Governor or Superintendant, may be 
requisite on shore, for the better forming and maintaining the 
settlement, we are of opinion it will be for the advantage of your 
Majesty's service that an officer of supei'ior rank to a lieutenant 
should upon such occasions, and at all times in the absence of the 
captain, have the charge and command of the said ship, and we 
do therefore humbly propose that your Majesty will be pleased, 
by your Order-in-Council, to authorize us to appoint an additional 
officer to the said ship, under the denomination of second captain, second 
with the rank of post-captain, and with power to command her in Captain. 
the absence of the principal captain, subject, nevertheless, to his 
control, and to such orders and directions as he may, from time 
to time, think fit for the regulation of his proceedings ; that the 
pay of the second captain be equal to the pay of a captain of a 
.sixth-rate, and that he be allowed four servants." 

His Majesty, taking the said memorial into consideration, was 
pleased, with the advice of his Privy Council, to approve of what 
is therein proposed, and to order, as it is hereby ordered, that the Order in- 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty do appoint an additional ^*'""'=''' 
officer to the man-of-war that shall proceed with the transport 
vessels appointed to convey the convicts to Botany Bay, under 
the denomination of second captain, with the rank of post- 
captain, and with the poAver to command the said ship in the 
absence of the principal captain, subject nevertheless to his con- 
trol, and to such orders and directions as he may, from time to 
time, think fit to give him for the regulation of his proceedings ; 
that the pay of the saifl second captain be equal to the pay of a 
captain of a sixth-rate, and that he be allowed four servants.* 


Dear Sir, 27, Church-street, Soho, Dec. 21st, 1786. 21 Dec. 

Should the accompanying letter and plan meet your appro- better and 
bation, you will do me a favour by laying them before Lord Sydney. p'=^"- 

* The vessel chosen was the Sirius, and the appointment of second captain was g-iven to 
Captain .lohn Hunter, afterwards Governor of Mew South Wales— 1795-1800. 

t Marlhoroutjh Parsons Stirling,', Captain of .%th Foot, July Sth, 1773 ; Major, Feh. lOtli, 
1783 ; local rank of Lieut. -Colonel in the East Indies. 



21 Dec. 


A corps for 
New South 

Six months' 

Permit me to acknowledge how sensibly I feel your kind atten- 
tion, and shall esteem it an additional obligation your giving me 
a few lines when at Leisure to say how my proposals are received. 

I am, &c., 

M. P. Stirling. 


My Lord, December 21st, 1786. 

I beg leave to submit the accompanying proposal for your 
Lordship's consideration, and from my long and faithful services 
to solicit your interest in my behalf. 

I am certain it will strike your Lordship most forcibly the 
necessity of having a corps ready for that service by the time 
accounts arrive from thence, and flatter myself the terms will be 
found advantageous to Government, moderate, and consistent with 
my claims to your Lordship's attention. 

Should the measure be instantly adopted, I could not pledge 
myself for the perfect discipline of the corps under six months 
from their being assembled, wherever it may be thought con- 
venient, and am convinced less time would only disappoint the 
expectations which might be formed ; nor would I, my Lord, 
however alluring the greatness of the object to a soldier, risk 
some little reputation, hardly acquired during many years' servi- 
tude, with an undisciplined multitude. 

I have, ifec, 

M. P. Stirling. 
[Enclosure. ] 


As it is probable the present body of marines destined for the 
protection of the colony intended to be formed at Botany Bay, 
in New South Wales, may be found on their arrival there inade- 
quate to the service, both from the increasing number of the 
colonists, who will require a strong force to keep them in subjec- 
tion, as well as from the uncertain dispositions of the natives, 
who may be naturally presumed hostile to strangers forming 
a settlement among them, and are certainly formidable and 
numerous, fi-om the inmiense tract of country they possess — in 
order to obviate any difficulty that may arrive when a reinforce- 
ment shall prove necessary, Lieut.-Colonel Stirling, of his 
in'irciand^'^ Majesty's 36th Ilegt., proposes to raise a corps in Ireland, to be 
ready in every respect for that service by the time accounts shall 
arrive from the Governor either to relieve or reinforce the 
marines now going out, as may be thought most proper, 
strength The corps to consist of the following number: — One lieut.- 

o corps. colonel comdg., (without a company), eight captains, eight lieut- 
enants, eight ensigns, one chaplain, one quarter-master, one 

18 Doc. 

Plan for 



COLONEL Stirling's proposal. 39 

adjutant, one surgeon, one mate, twenty-four sergeants, twenty- ^'''^j 
four corjjorals, sixteen drummers, twenty -four contingent, five is Dec. 
hundred and four privates. 

The men to be enlisted for seven years from the time of their Seven years' 
landing in New South Wales ; at the expiration of that time, the enlistment. 
corps to be compleated in whatever manner shall be judged most 
eligible, and to be recruited from time to time by having a 
captain, lieutenant, and ensign in Ireland. 

The corps to be raised without any expense to the State, and if f » f-^'P?"^^^ 

T • /^ 1 1 CI • 1- • 11 11 • • !■ 1 if to the State. 

Lieut.-Lolonel btirlmg is allowed the nommation oi the omcers, 
taking them from the Line, and giving each a step, their former 
commission remaining at the disposal of Government, he will be 
responsible for the corps being compleated in three months from 
the date of his beating orders. 

If Government think proper to appoint the officers, he will give in 
an estimate of quotas for each officer, they taking the responsibility 
for fulhlling their agreement and adhering to their Instructions. 

Lieut. -Colonel Stirling begs leave to add that he has been Lieut. - 
upwards of four-and-twenty years an officer in his Majesty's g"jr°",f .^ 
service — has been on trying service in both East and West Indies, services. 
and being obliged by loss of health to return lately from the former, 
had the mortification to have a junior officer put over his head, as 
major to the 52nd Regt., although he was by five years the oldest 
captain in his Majesty's army in India, and the officer who suc- 
ceeded was actually on his passage to Europe at the time of his 

He also, at a very critical period in the year 1783, when the a former 
troops in general were found averse to the service in India, °^^^' 
received the then commander-in-chief's approbation to an offer of 
raising five hundred men immediately for that service, and had 
his orders on this head, when the 33 rd Regt. being ordered out, 
he suffered a severe disappointment. 

From these circumstances, and his long services, is inclined Success 
to hope that should this, his plan, be deemed expedient, he will 
be favoured with a preference,* his connexions in Ireland ensuring 
success, and his most sanguine wishes leading him to promote, by 
every exertion, an undertaking so useful to his country. 

M. P. Stirling, 
Major in the Army and Lieut.-Colonel in India. 
December 18th, 1786. 

Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, Craven-street, 22nd Dec, 178G. " 1"" 

As there is a certainty that the marine detachment intended Themarines. 
for Botany Bay will be under a necessity of encamping on their 

* Colonel Stirling's proposals were not accepted. A commission to raise a special corps, 
afterwards known as the New South Wales Corps, was g-iven to Major Francis Grose. Post, 
pp. 24U-251. 



22 Dec. 




arrival there, and that they must unavoidably continue so until 
such time as proper places of security can be found, as well for 
their own safety as for the safety of the convicts, — 

I have, as commanding officer of the detachment, to request 
you will be pleased to demand camp equipage for them agreeable 
to the enclosed list : — For one field officer, four captains, one 
adjutant, one quarter-master, twelve subalterns, twelve Serjeants, 
twelve corporals, eight drummers, and one hundred and sixty 
privates — the actual number the detachment consists of. 

I must again request your attention to this demand, as our 
leaving England without them may be attended with the most 
alarming consequence to the detachment. 

I submit it to you, sir, whether it will be proper to demand a 
greater quantity than will on our first arrival be wanted for the 
service, as the having but the bare quantity mentioned in the 
enclosed list will put it out of your power to supply what may, 
from the many accidents such articles are liable to, be from time 
to time absolutely wanted. 

This may appear to you the more necessary on reflecting that 
you may sometimes have occasion to detach from the main body. 

I am, (fee, 

R. Ross, Major. 

■27 Dee. 

The Sirius — 
asked for. 

GovERXOR Phillip to Secretary Stephexs. 

Sir, [London] 27 December, 178G. 

I am to request that you will please to move the Right 

Honorable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty to give 

me such orders for my conduct as they may judge proper when 

the following circumstances occur : — 

1. When his Majesty's ship Sirius, under my command, is 
supply'd with fresh meat in any foreign port, am I to order the 
same for the marines on board the transports 1 

2. And is such provision to be paid for by bill on the Victualling 
Board or on the Treasury ? 

3. Am I to bear the marines' wives that go out as super- 
numerarys on board the Sirius on the supernumerary list with 
their husbands, that they may be victualled 1 

4. If it should be necessary to land any marine that may be 
sick in a foreign port, in what manner is he to be landed and 
paid foi" 1 

5. Am I to order wine to be purchased for the Sirius and the 
tender ? and 

6. If when I arrive at the Cape or such port as I intend 
to take my departure from for the intended settlement, am I 
at liberty to order the provisions that have been expended on 


the passage on board the Sirius and on board the tender, to be 1786 
replaced, particularly bread and beef, supposing the same may be 27 Dec. 
purchased at a reasonable price 1 

7. Are the convicts to be supply ed with fresh meat when the 
marines on board the transports are ; and is it to be paid for by 
bill on the A^ictualling Board or on the Treasury 1 

8. Should it be necessary to land any of the convicts, either 
from the loss of limbs, or from any fatal distemper on board the 
transports, am I at liberty to do it, and is the expense to be paid 
by bill on the Yictualling Board or on the Treasury 1 

9. If in a foreign port any of the masters of the ships under 
my convoy should be obliged to purchase stores or provisions 
that may be absolutely necessary to enable them to proceed on 
their voyage, and the merchants should refuse to take their bills, 
am I at liberty to draw on the Navy Board bills to purchase 
.such stores. 

10. If from the particular conduct of any marine belonging to 
the garrison, I judge it for the good of the service to exchange 
such marine for a marine belonging to the Sirius or to the tender, 
am I at liberty to make such exchange 1 

11. If I judge it necessary hereafter to order the Sirius or the 
tender to England, in order to lessen the expense to Government, 
or for any other just reason, I presume I am at liberty to do it ; 
but if I send home the Sirius or the tender, in what manner 
am I to be paid as captain, in full pay, after such ship is paid 
off in. England ? 

12. In case of sending home the Sirius or the tender, am I at 
lil;)erty to discharge such men as may desire to remain in the 
.settlement, and who are not absolutely necessary for the navigating 
the ship home 1 

13. May any commission or warrant officer be permitted to 
remain when his ship is ordered home 1 

14. When I put his Majesty's ship Sirius under the command 
of Captain Hunter, that officer of course should take charge of 
the ship's books, sign the officers' monthly expenses, &c. In that 
case, as I shall have no accounts to pass for the time, in what 
manner am I to be paid?* I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Under Secretauy Nepeax to Mr. Thomas. 

Whitehall, 30 Dec, 1786. 
Mr. -Nepeax presents his compliments to Mr. Thomas; begs 
be will he so good as to favor him with an account of the 
number of persons which each of the transport ships is to contain. 

* Replies to these questions are given in a letter from Secretary Stephens. Post, 
pp. 48, 49. 

30 Dec. 



1786 gjg setting down the numbers upon this paper will be quite 
30 Dec. sufficient.* 



The first 

Alexander — in the river 
Scarborough — at Portsmouth 

Friendship— at Plymouth 

Charlotte — at Plymouth 

Lady Penrhyn — in the river 

Ship to be taken up 

















. 40 










Sir C Middleton to 

Dear Sir, 

As Mr. Wilberforce is not in town himself, I introduce for 
a few minutes' conversation Mr. Johnson, who is nominated as 
minister for Botany Bay. He has settled his business with the 
Treasury, and therefore comes to you for his appointment, and 
an order for a few parish things, which are perfectly proper, and 
not paid for by individuals. He may procure them himself, and 
they may be brought into one list of necessaries. 

I am, lire, 

Chas. Middleton. 


1 Jan. 

tion orders. 

Bonds and 

Under Secretary Nepean to Mr. Shelton. 

Sir, Whitehall, 1 Jany., 1787. 

I send you herewith attested copies of four Orders of 
Council, which passed on the 6h and 2 2d days of last month, fixing 
the destination of the several convicts therein named,§ now under 
sentence of transportation. These attested copies are intended 
for your use. 

I understand from Mr. Campbell i| that you have already been 
furnished with a list of such convicts as are to be sent out in the 
Alexander, and as it is wished that they may be removed as soon 
as possible from the hulk to make room for the "people now in 
Newgate, I will beg of you to get the bonds and contracts (if 
necessary) executed with as little delay as may be. 

* The reply to this note Ir the return which accompanies it. 

t Wives of marines. 

J The name is omitted, and also the date, but the letter is evidently intended for Under 
Secretary Nepean. Mr. William Wilberforce, the philanthropist had interested himself in 
the appointment of a chaplain for the settlement. 

§ The Order-in-Conncil appointing New South Wales as a place to which convicts might 
be sent was made on the 6th December, 1780. Ante, p. 30. 

U Mr. Duncan Campbell, Superintendent of Convicts, on the Thames. 


The Lady Penrhyn, now in the river, will receive all the female 1787 
convicts now in Newgate under sentence of transportation, and j jj^j,^ 
her commander, with Mr. Richardson, will enter into the bonds 
the latter will contract. 

There will be a further list sent to you, I hope, to-day, of other The Scar- 
convicts now in the hulks who are to be sent to the ship Scar- ^*^''^"=-^' 
borough at Portsmouth, to be conveyed from thence to the 
intended settlement at Botany Bay, and which will include all 
that are to go out in the first convoy. I am, &c., 

Evan Nepean. 

Articles to be provided, puix-hase of stock, &c., for the intended 
settlement at Botany Bay.* 

The wine to be procured from the Cape de Verd Islands must wine, 
be paid for in bills of exchange. 

Live stock and grain to be procured at the Cape of Good Hope Live stock 
must be paid for in the same manner. and grain. 

At Java and all the Molucca Islands, from whence black cattle, cattie and 
goats, and hogs are to be procured, a Dutch factor resides, who is ^°^' 
the only European usually on the island. By a comjoact between 
the Raja and the Dutch, the factor controuls the whole of the 
commerce, and it is probable that he will not permit any trade a bribe 
with foreigners until he is bribed. About £10, in addition to necessary, 
some English beer (perhaj^s a few dozen), will satisfy him. 
Ducats to the amount of £50 will be sufiicient for this purpose, 
with two or three casks of beer. 

The cattle, hogs, and goats are to be obtained from the natives Barter, 
for cutlasses and firearms, and it is supposed that 200 musquets 
and the same number of cutlasses would purchase a sufiicient 
quantity. Those arms might be taken from the Ordnance Depart- 
ment, as a great number of them are now in store, daily de- 
creasing in value. 

As there will most likely be occasion to keep up an intercourse Trade with 
with the Society Islands, from whence, indeed, various supplies ^'^^ islands. 
may be obtained, about £150 laid out in small hatchets, some of 
them made in the Otaheite fashion, glass beads (chiefly white), 
pocket looking-glasses, nails and gimlets, and a few real red 
feathers, will answer that purpose. 

Admiralty Warrant for Captain Collins as Judge-Advocate. 

Whereas we have thought fit to appoint you to olficiate as Judge- 
Advocate to the detachment of his Majesty's marine forces ordered 
to proceed to Botany Bay, on the coast of New Soutli Wales, for 
the protectioi> of the settlement intended to be formed at that 
place, you are hereby autliorized and directed to ofiiciate as 
Judge- Advocate accordingly at all such courts-martial as shall be Advocate. 

* No date or sigDature. 


1787 there lielcl for the trial of any officers, non-commiss'cl officers, or 
1 Jan. private men belonging to the said detachment, pursuant to an 
Act of Parliament now in force for the regulation of his Maj's 
marine forces while on shore, and any other Act of Parliament 
in that behalf which shall hereafter be in force, and to such 
rules, articles, and regulations as now are or shall hereafter be 
established by the Lord High Admiral or Commiss'rs for executing 
the office of Lord High Admiral for the time being, during the 
continuance of the power and authority hei'eby given to you as 
aforesaid. And for your care and trouble in executing the said 
employment we do hereby grant unto you an allowance after the 
I'ate of ten shillings per day, to be paid to you quarterly by the 
Paymastei" of Marines, and to commence on the date hereof. 

Given, &c., and the seal, &c., the 1st of Jan'y., 1787. 

C. Brett. 
j. l. goaver. 

Warrant for Transportation. 

George R. 

3 Jan. Whereas a contract has l)eou entered into for transporting to New 
8outh Wales, or some other of the islands adjacent, the several 
convicts now in your custody on board the hulks in the river 
Thames whose names are contained in the list hereunto annexed* : 
Our will and pleasure is that you forthwith do deliver over to 
the contractors, Mr. William Richards, shipbroker, and Mr. 
Duncan Sinclair, master of the transport ship called the 
The Alexander, the said convicts whose names are specified in the 

convicts. said list, in order that they may be transported to the said coast 
of New South Wales, or some one or other of the islands 
adjacent, on board the said ship Alexander, for the terms of years 
for which said convicts are severally sentenced or ordered to be 
transported. And for so doing this shall be your warrant. 
Given at our Court at St. James's, the third day of January, 
1787, in the twenty -seventh year of our reign. 

To our trusty and well-beloved Duncan Campbell, Esq., 
Superintendaut of the Convicts on the river Thames. 

By his Majesty's command, 


4 Jan. 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board, 
Gent'n, Admiralty, 4 Jan'ry, 1787. 

Having communicated to my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty your letter of the 2d inst., informing them that being 
under orders to hire transports to carry convicts to Botany Bay 

* The list is not attached to the warrant in the Record Oflfice. 


at the time of Lieut. Shortland's* return with the troops from 1787 
Halifax, and an agent being requisite for superintending the i Jan 
same, yuu appointed him, as being conversant in the business, to Lieu~ 
take charge of the said ships, I am commanded by their Lord- shortiand. 
ships to acquaint you that they have no objection to Lt. Short- 
land's being employed to superintend these transports, but that 
you should have obtained their Lordships' permission before you 
app'd him to that employment. I am, Arc, 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sir, [London] Jan. 4, 1787. 

As it has been found necessary to add additional securities Alterations 
to the hatchways and to alter the handcuffs on board the Alex- po^s. 
•■ nder, the same will be necessary to be done on board the different 
ships as they arrive at Portsmouth, consequently orders should be 
sent down to that port, to inform your ofhce, or the Navy Board, 
when such alterations are made, otherwise the convicts may be sent 
from town l^efore the ships are ready to receive them. 

I likewise beg leave to observe that the number of scythes (only Scythes, ^ 
6), of razors (only 5 dozen), and the quantity of buck and small shot. ' 
shot (only two hundred pounds) now ordered is very insufficient, 
and that 20 scythes, 12 dozen of razors (at 12s. a dozen), and oftj. 
[! cwt.] of small shot, chiefly buck, in addition to the above, is very 

I have likewise to request that you will please to inform me in Supennten- 
what manner those people are to be paid who superintend the con^^cts^ 
convicts in their various occupations, for some people there must 
be named for that purpose, and no one will undertake this business 
without some reward, tho' it may be very small, being held out 
to them, as likewise those who must he employed in issuing the 
daily provisions — these people cannot well be taken from the 
garrison — I think they may from the ship. 

The knowing what provisions, cloathing, itc, are on board the 
different ships is very necessary, as I find there are some things 
put on board the transports by the agent that cannot possibly 
remain there. I therefore beg that I may have the account as 
soon as it can possibly be given. 

Several (jf the staff' have rec^uested that I would once more -^^J^^ ^°'' 
apply to you for a twelvemonth's advance, as they find themselves 
much distress'd in fitting for the voyage, and the uncertainty of 

* Lieut. John Shortiand. He sul)sequently Vjecame Master and Commander in the Navy. 
His eldest son, .John Shortiand, went (jut to New South Wales with Covenior Phillip, 
at midshipman of the Sirius, and was on hoard that vessel when she was wrecked at 
Norfolk IslaiKl. He went back to Knf,'Iand with Cajit. Hunter, and returned with him to 
Port Jackson in 1793, as First Lieutenant of the Relianee. In 179" he diseovcrcd Hunter 
River. He was made C'onnnander i/i ISOO. 

t Copied from the Letter-book at the Admiralty, in which the initials, instead of the name 
in full, are frequently pfiven. 


1787 which makes their agents unwilling to advance the sum they find 

4 Jan. absolutely necessary to set out — and they feel it the more as the 

officers of marines have now received a year's advance. Indeed, 

I doubt if one or two of the assistant surgeons will be able to 

leave town without the advance. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 

11 Jan. 

Gent'n, Admiralty, 11th Jan'y, 1787. 

I am commanded by my Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty 
to signify their direction to you to transmit to them a list of 
the names of the ships you have taken up for the conveyance 
The First q£ ^]^g convicts, the marine establishment, provisions, tools, &c., 
to Botany Bay, on the coast of New South Wales, with the 
names of their masters, distinguishing which of them are intended 
to receive the convicts and the marine establishment and which 
are to receive- the provisions, &c., the state of readiness which 
they are in, and to what ports they are ordered, and whether 
any and which of them have already received any convicts on 
board. I am, 


Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Sir, [London] Jan. 11, 1787. 

By letters from Lieut. Shortland and the surgeon's assistant 
on board the Alexander, I find that 184 men are put on board 
that ship, and 56 women on board the Lady Penrhyn, that there 
Overcrowd- are amongst the men several unable to help themselves, and that 
pwts^ *'^°^ ^^ kind of surgeon's instruments have been put on board that 
ship or any of the transports. You will, sir, permit me to observe 
that it will be very difficult to prevent the most fatal sickness 
amongst men so closely confined ; that on board that ship which 
is to receive 210 con\dcts there is not a space left for them to 
move in sufficiently large for 40 men to be in motion at the same 
time, nor is it safe to permit any number of men to be on deck 
while the ship remains so near the land. 
Removal to Qn this Consideration, I hope that you will order the Alex- 
ander and Lady Penrhyn to join his Majesty's ship Sirius 
immediately, and proceed to Spithead, where more liberty may be 
allowed the convicts than can be done with safety in the river, 
and those that are wanting to compleat the number to be sent 
out in those ships may be sent round to Portsmouth with the other 
convicts, for the most fatal consequences may be expected if the 
full number is kept on board any length of time before we sail. 
Surgical You will, I presume, see the necessity of ordering some surgeon's 

required. " instruments to be sent on board the ships that carry the convicts 


— and I do hope that no more will be embarked till the ships are 1787 
ready to sail, and which they cannot be for a week after they get ii Jan. 
to Spithead. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 
Gent'n, Admiralty, 16 Jan'ry, 1787. i^Jan. 

I am commanded by my Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty 
to signify their direction to you to direct the masters of the Alex- 
ander and Lady Penryhn, transports, taken up to carry convicts 
to Botany Bay, to put themselves under the comm'd of Capt. 
Phillip, or in his absence Captain Hunter, of his Majesty's ship 
Sirius, in Long Reach, and to follow his orders for their further 
proceedings. I am, <kc., 


Secretary Stephens to Under Secretary Nepean. 

18 Jan. 

Sir, Admiralty, 18 Jan'ry, 1787. 

Having laid before my Lords Commiss'rs of the Admi- 
ralty a letter from Mr. Rose, Secretary to the Lords Commr's of 
the Treasury, desiring that directions may be given to the captain 
of the ship which is to conduct to Botany Bay the ships taken 
up to proceed with convicts to that place, to take care that no 
unnecessary delay happens on the passage thither, or in sending no 
the ships from thence after the convicts are landed, and that he ^"i"^,*^®^^*""^ 
uses his best endeavours to enable them to reach China by the 
1st Jan'ry, 1788, as they must otherwise be continued in pay till 
the return to Deptford, I am commanded by their Lordships to 
send you the enclosed copy of the said letter,* and to desire you 
will lay the same before Lord Sydney, they not thinking them- 
selves at liberty to give any directions to Capt. Phillip for his 
proceedings after his arrival at Botany Bay. I am, etc., 


29 Jan. 

Superintendent Campbell to Under Secretary Nepean. 

My Dear Sir, Adelphi, 29 Jan., 1787. 

It cost me some time to find out a paper which would 
enable me to answer your letter effectually,! and which I have this 
moment laid my hand on, which caused my delay in answering 
yours sooner. 

It appears by a calculation I made for the information of the Trans- 
House of Connnons some years since that upon an average of f°J^^^ '°" 
seven years, viz., from 1769 to 1775, both inclusive, I transported England 
547 convicts annually from London, Midx., Bucks, and the four 
counties of the Home Circuit, and that 117 of these transports 
were women. I always looked upon the number from the other 
parts of the kingdom to be equal to what was transported by me- 
With regard, &c., Dun. Campbell. 

• Ante, p. 25. t The letter to which this is a reply is not available. 



1787 Surgeon White to Governok Phillip. 

7 Feb. Sir^ [London] 7 February, 1787. 

Marines I beg leave to inform you that in case of ilhiess prevailing 

and convicts amonji: the marines intended for Botany Bay there has been no 

without » 1 n » 1 11 1 • 1 T 

medicines, necessaries supply ed. As they are equally subject to the diseases 
and accidents to men embarked on board the King's ships, I am 
inclined to think and hope the Lords Commissioners of the Admi- 
ralty, on your representation, would order them to be supply'd 
in proportion, and in the usual manner of the Navy. I think it 
my duty to add that the convicts are in a similar position. 

I have, itc, 
John White. 

The Transports and the East India Company.* 

At a Court of Directors, held on Friday, the 9th February, 1787, — 
Order'd, that in case the ship Lady Penrhyn should be pre- 
vented arriving in China by the time prescribed in her charter- 
party, she be allowed to remain there till the next season, and 
then receive her loading for London, provided the Company shall 
not incur any addititional expense thereby. 


The trans- 
and the 
East India 

At a Court of Directors, held on Wednesday, the 4th April, 
1787, — Order'd, that the owners of the ships chartered for China 
from Botany Biiy be excused from the obligation of those ships 
being in China by the 15th January, 1788, free of expence to the 

23 Feb. 

No direc- 



Secretary Stephens to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, Admiralty Office, 23d February, 1787. 

My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having taken 
into their consideration the several queries stated in your letter 
of the 27th of December last,t I am commanded to acquaint you, 
in answer to the — 

1 and 2. That as the Board of Treasury have given directions 
to the Navy Board for victualling the marines who are to embark 
on board the transports, my Lords cannot give any directions 
respecting the furnishing them with fresh provisions. 

3. The wives of marines who are permitted to embark on board 
the Sirius must be victualled in like manner as the wives of land 
forces embarked on board transport ships, of which you will 
obtain information from the Victualling Boaixl. 

4. If it be absolutely necessary to send any marines sick on 
shore in foreign parts, they must be treated in the same manner 

Tlie paragraphs wliich follow are extracts from records in the East India Company's 
Office. The transports Charlotte, ScarVjorough, and Lafly Penrhyn were under charter to 
the Company from Botany Bay to Ciiina, wlience they were to carry cargoes of tea to 
t Ante, p. 40. 


as seamen ; but the expence to be kept separate, and bills drawn 1787 
on the Commissioners for Sick and Hurt for the amount. 23 Feb. 

5 and 6. You are at liberty to purchase wine for the use of ^y^^^l 
the crews of the Sirius and Supply tender, and to cause the pro- allowed, 
visions they may have exj^ended on the passafje to be replaced, 
particularly bread and beef, if the same can be purchased at a 
reasonable rate. 

7 and 8. Their Loi'dships cannot give any directions respecting Nodirec- 
the victualling of the convicts, nor for the treatment of them, in v"ctuamiig. 
case it should be found necessary to land any of them. 

9. Nor can their Lordships authorize you to interfere in the Governor 
purchasing any stores or provisions that may be wanted for any SlitM-fJie. 
of the transports in the course of the voyage. 

10. You are at lilDerty to exchange marines from the garrison Marines 
to the Sirius or Supply tender if you judge it for the good of the "xdianacd. 
service so to do. 

11. 12, and 13. As you will be instructed to follow such orders Fhiiiip to 
as you receive through the channel of one of his Majesty's Prin- '^"'''' ^' 
cijaal Secretaries of State, on your arrival at Botany Bay, their 
Lordships decline answering these articles, not considex-ing them- 
selves at liberty to give directions for your conduct subsequent to 

your arrival at that place. 

14. When Captain Hunter takes charge of the ship's books 
and accounts, his certificate thereof to the Navy Board will be 
their justification of paying you without passing any further 
account. I am, ifec, 

Philip Stephens. 

Surgeon White to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Hungerford Coffee House, Strand, 
Sir, Feb'y 27th, 1787. 27Fob. 

Finding that the Revd. Mr. Johnston is to be allowed the Appikatir.n 
piivaledge of taking with him to Botany Bay a servant, I hope it ''J'' servant., 
will not be deemed unreasonable or improper if I solicite a like 
indulgence, whose situation during the voyage will require some 
assistance, having no mate on board the ship I take my passage in 
— indeed the number of mates will by no means admit of it. The 
marine officers generally (and of course will) have servants out of 
the ranks, an advantage I can by no means lay claim to or expect. 
Being in a ci\il capacity, .and without a servant, my situation 
must be truly uncomfortable, onwhich lam persuaded it is needless 
to say more, when addressing you, who must know and admit the 
inconveniences I shall lie subject to, not only on the passage, but 
after landing without one. I have apply'd to Captain Phillip, PiiiHip's 
who has no objection, and admits the propriety, if not necessity, 
of the re(iuest, Ijut can do nothing in the matter without yr. per- 
mission being first obtained The obligation I already owe you 


1787 would prevent my asking any further, were I not encouraged liy 
others, and satisfied in my own mind, it cannot meet your dis- 
approbation ; with a hope of that being the case, I beg leave to 
assure you of my gratitude, esteem, and respect. 

I am &c., 

John White. 

28 Feb Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

My Lord, [London] February 28th, 1787. 

Having received the inclosed reports* respecting the 
marines and convicts 2iow embarked on board the Alexander and 
Lady Penrhyn transports, I beg to submit it to your Lordship 
whether it may not be advisable to make some alteration in the 
A more provisions, by allowing the marines a proportion of flour in lieu 
ration. of a Certain proportion of salt meat, and some addition to the 

provisions served to the convicts ; at present a convict has only, 
for forty-two days, sixteen pounds of bread, as will appear to 
your Lordship by the inclosed list. 
Fresh food And I likewise beg leave to solicit your Lordship that orders 
Strom' wine ^^^Y ^^® given for the supplying both marines and convicts with 
for the siek. f resh meat and vegetables while they remain at Spithead, and that 
a small quantity of wine may be allowed for the sick. 

I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 
P.S. — I likewise beg leave to represent to your Lordship that 
the contractors having a power of substituting half-a-pound of 
rice in lieu of one pound of flour will be very severely felt by the 

Phillip's Views on the Conduct of the Expedition and 
THE Treatment of Convicts.! 

IhipjTshouM ^"^ arriving at the settlement two or three months before the 

prececiethe traiisports many and very great advantages would be gained. 

lanspor ■. jj^^^ wovdd be ready to receive the convicts who are sick, and 

they would find vegetables, of which it may naturally he 

Phillip-s supposed they will stand in "reat need, as the scurvy must make 

«or6si"'nt i. i. •/ o ' ./ 

" ■ a great ravage amongst people naturally indolent and not cleanly. 
Huts would be ready for the women ; the stores would be 
properly lodg'd and defended from the convicts in such manner 
as to pre\ent their making any attempt on them. The cattle and 
stock would be likewise properly secured, and the ground marked 
out for the convicts; for lists of those intended to be sent 
being given to the commanding officers, mentioning their ages, 
crimes, trades, and characters, they might be so divided as to 
render few changes necessary, and the provisions would be 

* The reports are not available, 
t Phillip's handwritin":, on small sheets of paper. 

Phillip's suggestions. 51 

ready for issuing without any waste. But if convicts' provisions, 1787 
&c., must be landed a few days after the ship's arrival, and 
consequently mostly at the same time, great inconvenience will 
arise, and to keep the convicts more than a few days on board 
after they get into a port, considering the length of time which 
they must inevitably be confined, may be attended with conse- 
([uences easier to conceive than to point out in a letter. Add to 
this, fevers of a malignant kind may make it necessary to have a 
second hospital. 

A ship's company is landed, huts rais'd, and the sick provided Convicts not 
for in a couple of days ; but here the greatei- nunaljer are convicts, tn,stc<l. 
in whom no confidence can be placed, and against whom both 
person and provision is to be guarded. Everything necessary for 
the settlement should be received at the Cape on board wdth the 
commanding officer, and nothing left for the transports but a 
certain proportiim of live stock. 

I may add, the short space of time left to choose a proper 

The confineing the convicts on board the ships requires some probabio 
consideration. Sickness must be the consequence in so long a- ♦{[g'^yo** ,?? 
%'oyage (six months may be allow'd for the voyage — that is, 
from the time of leaveing England to the arrival in Botany Bay) 
and disagreeable consequences may be feared if they have the 
liberty of the deck. The sooner the crimes and behaviour of 
these people are known the better, as they may be divided, and 
the greatest villains particularly guarded against in one trans- 

The women in general I should suppose possess neither virtue Care of the 
noi* honesty. But there may be some for thefts who still retain ^™'"<'"- 
some degree of virtue, and these should be permitted to keep 
together, and strict orders to the master of the transport should 
be given that they are not abused and insulted by the ship's 
c<^impany, which is said to have been the case too often when 
they were sent to America. 

At the ports we put int(» for water, &c., there may be some What is to be 
sick that may have fever of such a nature that it may be neces- i5°"aks outT 
sarv for the sake of the rest to remove them out of the shij). In 
such a case, how am I to act? 

The greatest care will be necessary to prevent any of the con- 
victs from being sent that have any venereal complaints. 

During tlie passage, when light aii's or calms permit it, T shall .".'jftl^g'""" 
visit the transports to see that they are kept clean and i-eceive voya^'c. 
the allowance ordered by Government ; and at these times shall 
endeavour to make them sensible of their situation, and that 
their happiness or misery is in their own hands, — that those who 
l)ehave well will be rewarded by being allow'd to work occa- 

*The MS. is continued, on foolscap, in another hand— evidently a copy of Phillip's pai)er. 



ajrainst the 

with them, 
if possible. 

1787 sioually on the small lotts of land set ajDart for them, and which 
they will be put in possession of at the expiration of the time for 
which they are transported. 

On landing in Botany Bay it will be necessary to throw up a 
slight work as a defence against the natives — who, tho' only seen 
in small numbers by Captn. Cook, may be very numerous on other 
parts of the coast — and against the convicts ; for this my own 
little knowledge as a field engineer will be sufficient, and will be the 
work of a few days only ; but some small cannon for a redoubt 
will be necessary. Within the lines the stores and provisions will 
be secured ; and I should hope that the situation I should be able 
to take may admit of having the small rivers between the garrison 
and the convicts so situated that I may be able to prevent their 
having any intercourse with the natives. 
Jiaivc friends I shall think it a great point gained if I can proceed in this 
business without having any dispute with the natives, a few of 
which I shall endeavour to pursuade to settle near us, and who I 
mean to furnish with everything that can tend to civilize them, 
and to give them a high opinion of the new guests, for which 
purpose it will be necessary to prevent the transports' crews from 
having any intercourse with the natives, if possible. The convicts 
must have none, for if they have, the arms of the natives will be 
very formidable in their hands, the women abused, and the natives 

The keeping of the women apart merits great consideration, 
and I don't know but it may be best if the most abandoned are 
permitted to receive the visits of the convicts in the limits allotted 
them at certain hours, and under certain restrictions ; something 
of this kind was the case in Mill Bank formerly. The rest of the 
women I should keep apart, and by permitting the men to be in 
their company when not at work, they will, I should suppose, 
marry, in which case they should be encouraged, if they are 
industrious, by one day in the week more than the unmarried on 
their own lotts of ground. 

The natives may, it is probable, permit their women to marry 
and live with the men after a certain time, in which case I should 
think it necessary to punish with sevei^ity the men who use the 
women ill, and I know of no punishment likely to answer the 
purpose of deterring others so well as exiling them to a distant 
spot, or to an island, where they woxild be ol^liged to work hard 
to gain their daily subsistance, and for which they would have the 
necessary tools, but no two to be together, if it could be avoided. 

Rewarding and punishing the convicts must be left to the 
Governor; he will be answerable for his conduct, and death, I 
should think, will never be necessary — in fact, I doubt if the fear 
of death ever prevented a man of no principle from committing a 
bad action. There are two crimes that would merit death — 

hhould lie 

inj,' with 

and i)uriisl'.' 

Phillip's srcGESTioxs. 53 

murder and sodomy. For either of these crimes I would wish to 1767 
conline the criminal till an opportunity offered of deliverincr him 
as a prisoner to the natives of ^^ew Zealand, and let them eat him. 
The dread of this will operate much stronger than the fear of death. 

As the getting a large quantity of stock together will be my Preservation 
first great object, till that is obtained the garrison should, as in °^ ''*°'^^- 
Gibraltar, not be allowed to kill any animal without first report- 
ing his stock, and recei^dng permission. This order would only 
be necessary for a certain time, and I mention it here only to 
show the necessity of a military government ; and as I mean in 
every matter of this kind to sett the example, I think that I can 
say this will never occasion any uneasiness, but if it should, it 
will be absolutely necessary, otherwise we shall not do in ten 
years what I hope to do in four. 

Women may be brought from the Friendly and other islands, Womenfrom 
a proper place prepared to receive them, and where they will be *^® >^iands. 
.'supported for a time, and lots of land assigned to such as marry 
with the soldiers of the orarrison. 

As I v\^ould not wish convicts to lay the foundations of an Convicts 
empire, I think they should ever remain separated from the £,'latea*- 
garrison, and other settlers that may come from Europe, and not 
be allowed to mix with them, even after the 7 or 14 years for 
which they are transported may be expired. 

The laws of this country will, of course, be introduced in [New] Xo slavery, 
.South Wales, and there is one that I would wish to take place 
from the moment his IMajesty's forces take possession of the coun- 
try : That there can be no slavery in a free land, and conse- 
quently no slaves. 

The cloathing for the convicts will last for a certain time, after How are the 
which ^\•hat means should I have of furnishing them with materials brclo*thed"? 
for their making their own cloaths ? 

It will be necessary to know how far I may permit the seamen Land grants. 
and mariiies of the garrison to cultivate spots of land when the 
duty of the day is o^•er, and how far I can give them hopes that 
the grounds they cultivate will be secured to them hereafter ; 
likewise, how far I may pemiit any of the garrison to remain, 
when they are ordered Home in consequence of relief. 

By what I am infoi-med, hatchets and beads are the articles for 
liarter — a few small gr'indstones for the chiefs ; and as they use a JheTatfvTs. 
light they hold it in their hands, small tin lamps on a very simple 
construction must be very acceptable. 

Ships may arrive at Botany Bay in future. On account of ^ . ^ 
the convicts, the orders of the port for no boats landing but in reJuTatlous. 
particular places, coming on shore and returning to the sliips at 
stated hours, must be sti-ictly inforced. 

The saddles I mentioned will be absolutely necessary, for two ^^ .„„,.„ 

r, -n • 1 • 1. 1 ■ Exploration, 

Jiorsemen will examine the country to a certam distsmce, when it 





Articles for 

might be dangerous to attempt it Avith half the garrison, for I am 
not of the general opinion that there are very few inhabitants in 
this country, at least so few as have been represented — but this 
article I take upon myself, as likewise the knifes, &c., that I 

Such fruit trees and cuttings that will bear removing should be 
added to the seeds carried from England, as likewise roots that 
will bear keeping that length of time out of the ground. 

Two or three of the houses in question will be highly necessary, 
and there is no time to lose in giving the orders, if intended. 

A certain quantity of the articles of husbandry, stores, corn, 
seeds, &c., of the articles for traffick, should be put on board the 
Berwick,* that in case of an accident we may not be in immediate 
want of those things, and the same on board the store-ship in 
which the Lt.-Gouvrnour goes. 

1 March. 

The Gover- 



Purcliase of 

A hospital 

Fresh meat 
.ind vege- 

Exchange of 


Discharge of 



Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sir, [London] March 1st, 1787. 

From the letter I have i-eceived from the Admiralty, and 
of which I enclose a copy,! y<»ii "^^ill see that respecting my 11th, 
12th, 13th queries the Board decline giving any answer. As I 
am to be entirely under the direction of the Secretary of State, 
immediately after I arrive on the coast of New South Wales, for 
what regards the Naval Department, as well as respecting the 
settlement, from the Board's answer to these queries, as well as 
snnilar answers to several others of the same nature, I must re([uest 
your particular attention to the following circumstances in draw- 
ing up my instructions : — 

That I am directed to order wine to be purchased in the passage, 
at Tenerifie, or where it can be procured; for circumstances may 
prevent my taking on board the quantity intended, at Teneriffe, or 
perhaps any part of it, and it may be got at the Cape or elsewhere. 

That I may employ one of the transports as an hospital ship, if 
I find it necessaxy on the passage. 

To order the marines and convicts to be supply'd with fresh 
meat and vegetables at such places as I may stop at in the passage, 
and to order the Commissary to draw bills on the Treasury for 
such supplies. 

That I have the power of exchanging any part of the garrison 
with the marines embark'd on board the ships, or of incorporating 
the marines now Ijelonging to the ship with those of the garrison, 
if the service requires it. 

That I am directed to appoint officers to fill such stations as 
may become vacant by death or otherwise. 

That I am directed to discharge from the ship such officers and 
men as may not be necessary for the navigating of the ships, and 

* Renamed the Sirius. Ante, p. 24. f Ante, p. 48. 

Phillip's suggestions. 55 

which may be necessaiy in the garrison, such people being desirous 1787 
of remaining in the settlement. i March. 

That I make the settlement in such port as I may find the"most The place of 
convenient and best to answer the intentions of Government. settlement. 

That I send one of the ships to Charlotte Sound, in the Island Bread-fmit 
of New Zeland, for the flax-plant, and to the Friendly Islands ^vomelr*^ 
for the bread-fruit, and, as women will be there procured, that 
I put an oflicer on board such transport. 

That the terms by which lands are to be granted are pointed Land grants, 
out by the article which gives me the power of granting lands. 

That I have a power of exiling to New Zealand or the neigh- Power of 
bouring islands any convict that may be condemned to death. ^^^^^ 

That I have the power of emancipation. ^"Jf""'^*" 

The power of suspending and sending home such officer who suspension, 
from his situation cannot be tried by a court-martial. 

That in case of sending home the Sirius I have orders from x^e naval 
the Secretary of State to take the command of such ships or commami. 
vessels as remain on the coast, by hoisting a distinguishing pendant 
on board such ship or tender as I may judge necessary (such 
pendant not to give me any claim to the pay of a commanding- 
officer), in order to retain the command by sea, to be more at 
liberty to visit the coast, and to retain the command of the ships 
or vessels that I'emain. 

That I have a power to change the species of provisions served A better 
to the marines and convicts, for if salt meat is issued, without [j^g^gj^ 
any pi'(jportion of flour, as has been hitherto done by the con- 
tractor to the marines embarked on board the Alexander, the 
scurvy must prove fatal to the greatest part. Of the marines 
already embarked two months, one in six are sent to the hospital 
since that ships arrival at Spithead.* I am, ifec, "* 

A. Phillip. 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 
Gentlemen, 2nd March, 1787. 2 March: 

I am commanded by my Lords Commrs. of the Admty. to 
signify their direction to you to order the masters of the several 
transports and store-ships named on the other side hereof to put 
themselves under the command of Capt. Philip (or in his absence. The First 
of Capt. Hunter), of his Majesty's ship the Sirius, and fijllow his ^^ ' 
orders for their future proceedings. I am, tfec, 

Vessels : — 
Alexander Borrowdale 

Lady Penryhn Golden Grove 

Scarborough Fishburn 

Chailotte Prince of Wales 


• See Lord Sydney's reply ; post, pp. 82-83. 




3 March. 


Secretary Stephens to Captain Marshall.* 
Sir, 3rd March, 1787. 

Having communicated to my Lords Commissioners of the 
Adm'ty your letter of yesterday's date, acquainting them that 
. . fearing the weather might continue bad you had applied to Com- 
Thc Gordon, missioner Martin for the Gorgon, the ship which he had appointed 
for the reception of the convicts, to be fitted with as much security 
as the time would possibly admit, and that you had been obliged to 
embark them on board her, and had given orders for their guard and 
security, similar to those issued when the Firm hulk receives such 
people, I am commanded by their Lordships to acquaint you that 
they approve thereof, and Lord Sydney, one of his M'y's. Princi- 
pal Sec'rys of State, having desired that as the said convicts, as 
well as the marines who have been appointed to guard them, will 
stand in immediate need of a supply of provisions for their subsist- 
ence until they can be sent out to the Motherbank, which Mr. 
Townshend, who is charged with the care of them, cannot 
conveniently procure, orders may be given for the said marines 
and convicts being supplied with such provisions from one of his 
Majesty's ships in Portsmouth harbour, as Mr. Townshend shall 
require, upon his settling with the purser for the amount thereof, 
and that as the boiling of the meat with which they are supplied 
on board of the ship wherein they are now confined will most 
likely be attended with difficulty, the meat may l^e dressed on 
board the ship from whence the same shall be supplied, I am 
comra'd by their Lordships to signify their direction to you to give 
the necessary orders conformable thereto. 

The enclosed letter from Lord Sydney to Mr. Townshend, f upon 
the subject, you will be pleased to cause to be delivered to him. 

I am, &c., 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

My Lord, [London] March 12th, 1787. 

As the Navy Board have informed me that no alteration 
can be made respecting the victualling of the marines during the 
passage, it is to prevent my character as an officer from being 
called in question, should the consequences I fear be realized, that 
I once more trouble your Lordship on this subject. 

The contracts for the garrison and convicts were made before 
I ever saw the Navy Board on this business, and tho' I never 
have had it in my power officially to interfere in any respect, yet 
I have repeatedly pointed out the consequences that must be 
expected from the men's being crowded on board such small 
ships, and from victualling the marines according to the contract, 

* One of the Commissioners of the Victualling Department, 
t Not recorded. 

12 March. 

Bad victual 
ling— a 

Phillip's iiemoxstr\nces. 57 

which allows no flour, as is customary in the Navy. This must 
be fatal to many, and the more so as no anti-scorbutics are allowed 17S7 
on board the transports for either marine or convict ; in fact, my ^o March 
Lord, the garrison and convicts ai'e sent to the extremity of the 
globe as they would be sent to America — a six-weeks' passage. 

I see the critical situation I may be in, after losing part of the 
garrison that is at present very weak when the service for which 
it is intended is considered ; but I am prepard to meet difficulties, 
and I have only one fear — I fear, my Lord, that it may be said 
hereafter the officer Avho took charge of the expedition should 
have known that it was more than probable he lost half the 
garrison and convicts, crowded and victualled in such a manner 
for so long a voyage. And the public, believing it rested with Phillip 
me, may impute to my ignorance or inattention what I have never l-ei^ponsl. 
been consulted in, and which never coincided with my ideas, to ^'■^^^y- 
avoid which is the purport of this letter ; and I flatter myself 
your Lordship will hereafter point out the situation in which I 
have stood thro' the whole of this business should it ever be 
necessary. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sir, Portsmouth, Uth March, 1787. uiiardn 

I yesterday muster'd the convicts on board the different Muster of 
transports at the Mother Bank. The enclosed lists* are exact as convicts. 
to numbers, and the most correct I could get from them of their 
names. I hope it will answ'r all your purposes, and if there is 
anything else wanted you will please to let me know, and I shall 
have pleasure in obeying your commands. Perhaps you would 
wish to have similar lists of those on board the ships from 
Plymouth ; if you do, you have only to let me know. 

I have great pleasure in informing you that the convicts seem The convicts 
perfectly satisfied and obedient. They wish, if possible, to be o'[fjj^e,^t^"'^ 
allowed more bread than is at present served them — taking off as 
much, if so, of the allowance of their salt provisions, as may be 
equal in value. 

You are too well acquainted with the consequences attending Xheirhealih. 
the being kept long upon a diet of salt provisions to need my 
saying anything upon that head, being well convinced that what- 
ever can be done for the preservation of health will be done by 

I likewise beg to observe to you that the contractors for No flour, 
victualling the marines have not put any flour on board the 
transports for their use, and of course, as they are the only people 
deprived of that necessary article, which I have reason to Ijelieve 
was never intended to be the case, may I request that. you will 

* In the lists are given fictitious and real names. Among the fictitious are — " Black Jack," 
" Bone," " Gash," " Major," ^c. 



1787 use your endeavours to get the uiistake rectified, as you know that 
14 Jiaivh. the preservation of their health is of the utmost consequence on 
the present occasion. I have, &c., 

R. Ross. 

17 March 

Sick men 
be dis- 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 
Gent., Admiralty, 17 March, 1787. 

Having communicated to my Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty 
your letter of yesterday's date, informing them of the arrival of 
the two convict ships from Plymouth, of the Cynet [Cygnet], sloop, 
having made the signal for sailing, and of Captain Hunter, of the 
Sirius, having applied to you to know what to do with respect to the 
eleven men sick on shore, should he go to sea, having very little 
reason to expect their return to their duty, and requesting, there- 
fore, that you may know their Lordships' pleasure thereon, and 
Avhether you are to consider the Supply, tender, in the same 
situation • and, in return, I am comm'd by their Lordships to 
to signify their direction to you to cause the men sent sick on shore 
from the said ship and tender to l^e discharged, and to endeavour 
to supply their jjlaces by volunteei's from the guard-ship, agreeable 
to what is contained in my letter to you of the 26th of last month. 

I am, «fcc., 

18 March. 




Bad pro- 

GovERXOR Phillip to Under Secretary Nepeax.* 
Dear Sir, [London] March 18th, 1787. 

A letter which I have received from the surgeon states 
the situation of the convicts to be such that I am under the 
necessity of requesting you to lay their case before Lord Sydney, 
that directions may be given to the Commissioners of the lISTavy 
for ordering lighters from Portsmouth yard to the Alexander, to 
i^eceive the convicts while the ship is cleaned and smoaked, and 
tho' I have so often solicited that essence of malt or some anti- 
scorbutic may lie allowed, I cannot help once more repeating the 
necessity of it ; and, putting the convicts out of the question, 
wliich humanity forbids, the sending of the marines that are on 
board the transports such a voyage as they are going, in a worse 
state than ever troops were sent out of the Kingdom, even to the 
nearest garrison (for taking off the tonnage for the provisions 
of stores, they have not one ton and a half a man) cannot, I 
am certain, be the intention of liis Majesty's Ministers, yet it is 
absolutely the case, and I have repeatedly stated this fact. Fresh 
meat for all the convicts and wine for the sick I was informed had 
been ordered in consequence of the representation I made as soon 
as the ships got round to Portsmouth, but the sick only have fresh 
meat. Wine, at the discretion of the surgeon, is very necessary for 
the sick, as the convicts are not allowed anything more than water. 

* A private letter. 


The necessity of making one of the transports an hospital ship 
is obvious, and, I think, cannot 1)6 deferred. The Friendship, as i^ March, 
liaving the smallest number of convicts on board, I propose for 
that purpose. 

The giving cloaths to those convicts who have been embarked Comiots' 
at Plymouth is so very necessary that I have ordered it to be '^ ° '"=' 
done, and presume the Navy Board will replace the cloathing, 
but as there are more convicts to be sent on board the different 
shijjs, unless orders are being given for their being washed and 
cloathed on their leaving the prison or the hulks, all that we may 
do will be to no purpose. 

These complaints, my dear sir, do not come unexpected, nor Dan-er 
were they unavoida])le. I foresaw them from the beginning, and =^^ead. 
repeatedly pointed them out, when they might have been so easily 
prevented, at a very small expense, and with little trouble to 
those who have had the conducting of this business. At present 
the evils complained of may be redressed, and the intentions of 
Goverimient by this expedition answered. But if now neglected, 
it may be too late hereafter, and we may expect to see the seamen 
belonging to the transports run fi'om the ships to avoid a fatal dis- 
temper, and may he refused entrance into a foreign port. 

The situation in which the magistrates sent the women on -riie women 
board the Lady Penrhyn, stamps them with infamy — tho' almost ^"'V'Sj!^.'"^ 
naked, and so very lilthy, that nothing but clothing them could 
have prevented them from perishing, and which could not be done 
in time to prevent a fever, which is still on board that ship, and 
where there are many venereal complaints, that must spread in 
spite of every precaution I may take hereafter, and will bo fatal 
to themselves. There is a necessity for doing something for the 
young man who is on board that ship as surgeon, or I fear that Their 

. . . 1 helpless 

we shall lose him, and then a hundred women will be left without condition, 
any assistance, several of them with child. Let me repeat my 
desire that orders immediately may be given to inci'ease the 
convict allowance of bread. 16 lb of l)read for 42 days is very 

To supjily all tliH convicts with fresh meat while tliey remain Fresh moat 
at Portsmouth, the sick with some small quantity of wine. *" *"*^' 

Lighters to Ije ordered to attend the Alexander wliile that Care of the 
sliip is smoaked, etc. To wash and cloath the convicts that are 
still to be sent down before they are put on board the transports, 
and to have one of the transports ordered to serve as an hospital 

This is a long letter, but it is my duty to repeat complaints, 
that may be redressed, and which I am certain you desire ('([ually 
with myself. I I'emain, &:c., 

A. PlIILLll'. 



i"87 Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 

20 March. Gent'n, Admiralty, 20th Mar., 1787. 

Having communicated to my Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty 
your letter of the 16th inst., enclosing a copy of one from the 
The Supply, master and surgeon of the Supply, armed tender, relative to the 
alterations which Lt. Ball, the commander, had caused to be made 
in the accommodation provided for them, I am commanded by 
their Lordships to acquaint you that they have signihed to Lt. 
Ball their disapprobation thereof, and ordered him to cause the 
accommodation for those officers to be restored to the state in 
which they were fitted under your direction.* I am, &c., 

P. S. 

22 March. 

soup for 

23 March. 

Lieut. Riou. 

Sick men dis. 
charged pre- 

29 Jlarch. 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 

[London] Thursday morning, 22nd March, 1787. 
Captain Phillip presents his compliments to Mr. Stephens, and 
as it is probable the ship's company will be on salt provisions for 
some months after they arrive on the coast of New South AVales, 
will be glad of two hundred pounds of portable soup, in addition 
to the fifty pounds already supply'd. 1 am, (tc, 

A. Phillip. 

Secretary Stephens to Captain Marshall. 
Sir, Admiralty, 2.3 March, 1787. 

Having communicated to my Lords Comm'rs of the 
Adm'ty your letter of yesterday's date, enclosing one from 
Captain Gower, of the Salisbury, requesting a month's leave 
of absence for Lt. Riou,t of the said ship, to attend his 
private afi^airs, and informing their Lordships of your having 
ordered Captain Hunter, of the Sirius, and Lieutenant Ball, of 
the Supply, tender, to cUscharge the men they had put sick on 
shore, and that they are now completing their complements from 
their guard-ships, I am, in return, comm'd by their Lordships to 
acquamt you that they are pleased to permit you to give Lieut. 
Riou the leave of absence desired, but that it was not their 
intention the sick men should have been discharged from the 
Sirius and Supply, and other men appointed to suj)ply their places, 
nor did they apprehend you would have given orders for that 
purpose, until the said ship and tender had received their sailing 
orders. I am, etc., 


Secretary Stephens to Captain Marshall. 

Sir, A^lmiralty, 29th March, 1787. 

Having laid before my Lords Comm'rs of the Admiralty 

your letter of the 27th inst., informing them of the sailing of the 

Winchelsea from Spithead, and enclosing a letter which you had 

received from Lieut. Ball, commanding his Majesty's armed 

* Post, p. 61. 

t Afterwards commander of the Guardian. 


tender Supply, desiring, for the reasons therein stated, that an 1787 
enquiry may be made into his conduct respecting the victualling 29 March. 
the said tender, I am commanded " by their Loi'dships to return victuaiTin'^ 
you the said letter herewith, and to signify their direction to you the Supply. 
to take to your assistance some of the captains of the ships under 
your command, and to cause a particular enquiry to be made into 
what is therein represented, reporting to me, for their Lordships' 
information, how the same shall appear to be judged necessary. 
I am, &c., P,S. 

Secretary Stephens to The Navy Board. 
Genl'n, Admiralty, 2nd April, 1787. 2 April. 

My Lords Comm'rs of the Admiralty having directed 
Captain Hunter, of his Majesty's ship the Siiius, to make enquiry 
concerning the alterations made in the apartments of the master 
and surgeon of the Supply, tender, whose complaint thereof you 
enclosed to their Lordships in your letter of the 16th ult., I am 
comm'd to send you a copy of Captain Hunter's letter in answer 
thereto, and to aquaint you that my Lords have dii'ected him to ^ ground- 
reprimand the master and surgeon for having made so groundless '^^s char-;e. 
a charge against the lieutenant of the Supply.* I am &c., 


Secretary Stephens to Captain Marshall. 
Sir, Admiralty, 3rd April, 1787. 3 April. 

Having laid before my Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty the 
report of the captains who, in consequence of their Lordships' 
directions to you in my letter of the 29th ult., you assembled to 
enquire into the conduct of Lieut. Ball, commanding his Majesty's 
armed tender the Supply, respecting the victualling the said ten- 
der, I am commanded to acquaint you that their Lordships have oJ^fhg'i.ul^ 
sent a copy thereof to the Navy Board, for their information, and piy !;ui)er- 
as they deem the master an improper person to be continued in '*'^ '^ ' 
the tender, they have directed them to appoint a proper person to 
supercede him. I am, (tc, P.S. 

Phillip's Commission.! 
Arthur Phillip Esqre ) 

Governor of New South Wales, j 
George the Third l)y the Grace of God King of Great Britain France 2 April. 
and Ireland Defender of the Faith &c. to our right trusty and 
well-beloved Councillor Edward Lord Thurlow Baron Thurlow 
our Chancellor of Great Britain greeting :■■- 
Wee will and conmiand that under our Great Seal of Great Britain Letters 
(remaining in your custody) you cause these our letters to be made I'^^tont. 

* Ante, p 60. 

t Phillip was appointed Governor of New South Wales 12th October 178C, when a commis- 
Bion, bricHy worUtd, was »it;ned. Ante, p. 21. 


1787 forth patent in form following : George the Third by the Grace of 
2 A))rii God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the 
Faith etc. 
To our trusty and well-beloved Arthur Phillip Esquire. 

Wee reposing especial trust and confidence in the prudence 
courage and loyalty of you the said Arthur Phillip of our especial 
grace certain knowledge and meer motion have thought fit to 
constitute and appoint and by these presents do constitute and 
appoint you the said Phillip to be our Captain-General and 
Governorof Governor-iu-Chief in and over our territory called New Soutli 

New South ,.» ^ -K-r 1 /-H -PI 

Wales. \\ ales extending from the JNorthern Uape or extremity oi the coast 

called Cape York in the latitude of ten degrees thirty-seven 
minutes south to the southern extremity of the said territory of 
New South Wales or South Cape in the latitude of forty-three 

Limitsofthe degrees thirty -nine minutes south and of all the country inland 
em or\. -westward as far as the one hundred and thirty-fifth degree of east 
lonoitude reckoning from the meridian of Greenwich including 
all the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean within the latitudes 
aforesaid of ten degrees thirty-seven minutes south and forty- 
three degrees and thirty-nine minutes south and of all towns 
garrisons castles forts and all other fortifications or other military 
works which may be hereafter erected upon the said territory or any 
of the said islands. 

And Wee do hereby require and command you to do and execute 

The Oover- j^n things in due manner that shall belong to your said command 

nor to be ~ o ♦/ 

guided bv and trust Wee have reposed in you according to the several powers 

slon ancT"^' ^^^^ directions granted or appointed you by this present Commis- 

instructions. sion and the instructions and authorities herewith given to you or 

by such further powers instructions and authorities as shall at any 

time hereafter be granted or appointed you under our signet and 

sign manual or by our order in our Pri^y Council 

And our will and pleasure is that you the said Arthur Phillip 
after the publication of these our letters patent do in the first 
oath^^^^ *''^ place take the oaths appointed to be taken by an Act passed in 
the first year of the reign of King George the First intituled 
" An Act for the further security of his Majesty's person and 
Government and the succession of the Crown in the heirs of the 
late Princess Sophia being Protestants and for extinguishing the 
hopes of the pretended Prince of AVales and his open and secret 
abettors " as altered and explained by an Act passed in the sixth 
year of our reign intituled " An Act for altering the oath of 
abjuration and the assurance and for amending so much of an 
Act of the seventh year of her late Majesty Queen Anne intituled 
" An Act for the improvement of the Union of the two Kingdoms 
as after the time therein limitted requires the delivery of certain 
lists and copies therein mentioned to persons indicted of High 
Treason or misprision of Treason." 

Phillip's commission. G3 

As also that you make use and subscribe the declaration men- 1787 
tioned in Act of Parliament made in the twenty -fifth year of the 2 April, 
reign of King Charles the Second intituled " An Act for preventing ^° p°p^''^^' 
dangers which may arise from Popish Recusants." 

And likewise that you take the usual oath for the due execution Oath of 
of the office and trust of our Captain-General and Governor-in- ° 
Chief in and over our said territory and its dependencies for the 
due and impartial administration of justice. 

And further that you take the oath required to be taken by Trade and 
Governors in the plantations to do their utmost that the several lUs?' 
laws relating to trade and the plantations be duly observed. 
Which said oaths and declaration our Judge- Advocate in our said 
territory is hereby required to tender and administer unto you and 
in your absence to our Lieutenant-Governor if there be any upon 
the place. 

All which being duly performed you shall administer unto our 
Lieutenant-Governor if their be any upon the place and to our 
Judge-Advocate the oaths mentioned in the lirst-recited Act of 
Parliament altered as above as also cause them to make and sub- 
scribe the afore-mentioned declai'ation. 

And Wee do hereliy authorize and empower you to keep and 
use the public seal which will be herewith delivered to you or 
shall be hereafter sent to you for sealing all things whatsoever that public seal, 
shall pass the Great Seal of our said territory and its dependencies. 

Wee do further give and grant unto you the said Arthur Phillij) 
full power and authority from time to time and at any time here- 
after by yourself or by any other to be authorized by you in that 
behalf to administer and give the oaths mentioned in the said first- Power to 
recited Act of Parliament altered as above to all and every such o^tii'"'^**^' 
person or persons as you shall think fit who shall at any time or 
times pass into our said territory or its dependencies or shall be 
resident or al)iding therein. 

And Wee do hereby authorize and- empower you to constitute 
and appoint justices of the peace coronors constables and other 
necessary officers and ministers in our said territory and its depend- power to 
encies for the better administration of justice and putting the law ^^','^j°"^,* 
in execution and to administer or cause to be administei-ed unto 
tliom such oath or oatlis as are usually given for the execution 
and portormance of offices and places. 

And Wee do hereby give and grant unto you full powei- and 
authority where you shall see cause or shall judge any ofi'endcr or 
oftenders in criminal matters or for any fine or fines or forfeitures 
due inito us fit objects of our mercy to pardon all such olFenders and To pardon 
to remit all such offences fines and forfeitures treason and wilful ' 
murder only excepted in which cases you shall likewise have power 
uj)()n extraordinary occasions to grant reprieves to the offenders reprieve, 
untill and to the intent our royal pleasure may be known therein. 



2 April. 

Custody of 
lunatics and 
their estates. 

Grants and 



Power to 
levy forces 
for defence. 

Pirates and 

Martial law. 

And whereas it beiongetli to us in right of our Royal Pi-erogative 
to have the custody of ideots and their estates and to take the 
profits thereof to our own use finding them necessaries and also to 
provide for the custody of lunaticks and their estates without 
taking the pi'ofits thereof to our own use. 

And whereas while such ideots and lunaticks and their estates 
remain under our immediate care great trouble and charges may 
arise to such as shall have occasion to resort unto us for directions 
respecting such ideots and lunaticks and their estates Wee have 
thought fit to entrust you with the care and committment of the 
custody of the said ideots and lunaticks and their estates and Wee 
do by these presents give and gi'ant unto you full power and 
authority without expecting any further special warrant from us 
from time to time to give order and warrant for the preparing of 
grants of the custodies of such ideots and lunaticks and their 
estates' as are or shall be found by inquisitions thei-eof to be taken 
by the Judges of our Court of Civil Jurisdiction and thei'eupon to 
make and pass grants and committments under our Great Seal of 
our said territory of the cu.stodies of all and every such ideots and 
lunaticks and their estates to such person or persons suitors in that 
behalf as according to the rules of law and the use and practice in 
those and the like cases you shall judge meet for that trust the said 
grants and committments to be made in such manner and form or as 
nearly as may be as hath been heretofore used and accustomed in 
making the same under the Great Seal of Great Bi-itain and to con- 
tain such apt and convenient covenants provisions and agreements 
on the parts of the committees and grantees to be performed and 
such security to be by them given as shall be requisite and needful. 

And Wee do hereby give and grant unto you the said Arthur 
Phillip by yourself or by your captains or commanders by you to 
be authorized full power and authority to levy arm muster and 
command and employ all persons whatsoever residing within our 
said territory and its dependencies under your government and as 
occasion shall serve to march from one place to another or to 
embark them for the resisting and withstanding of all enemies 
pirates and rebels both at sea and land and such enemies pirates 
and rebels if there shall be occassion to pursue and prosecute in or 
out of the limits of our said territory and its dependencies and (if 
it shall so please God) them to vanquish apprehend and take and 
being so taken according to law to put to death or keep and 
preserve alive at your discretion. 

And to execute martial law in time of invasion or other times 
when by law it may be executed and to do and execute all and 
every other thing and things which to our Captain-General and 
Governor-in-Chief doth or ought of right to belong. 

And Wee do hereby give and grant unto you full power and 
authority to erect raise and build in our said territory and its 

Phillip's commission. 65 

dependencies such and so many forts and platforms castles 1787 
cities boroughs towns and fortifications as you shall judge 2 April, 
necessary and the same or any of them to fortify and furnish portifica- 
with ordnances and ammunition and all sorts of arms fit and tions. 
necessary for the security and defence of the same or any of them 
to demolish or dismantle as may be most convenient. 

And forasmuch as divers mutinies and disorders may happen 
by persons shipped and employed at sea during the time of war 
and to the end that such as shall be shipped and employed at sea 
during the time of war may be better governed and ordered Wee 
do hereby give and grant unto you the said Arthur Phillip full Naval 
power and authority to constitute and appoint captains lieuten- '^^^'^'P'""^- 
ants masters of ships and other commandei's and officers and to 
grant to such captains lieutenants masters of ships and other 
commanders and ofiicers commissions to execute the law-martial 
during the time of war according to the directions of an Act Martial law, 
passed in the twenty-second year of the reign of our late royal 
grandfather intituled "An Act for explaining amending and 
reducing into one Act of Parliament the laws relating to the 
government of his Majesty's ships vessels and forces by sea as 
the same is altered by an Act passed in the nineteenth year of 
our reign intituled an Act to explain and amend an Act made 
in the twenty-second year of the reign of his late Majesty King 
(reorge the Second intituled an Act for amending explaining 
and reducing into one Act of Parliament the laws relating to the 
government of his Majesty's ships vessels and forces by sea." 

And to use such proceedings authorities punishments corrections Punishmrnt 
executions upon any offender or offenders who shall be mutinous °^ offendtis. 
sf^ditious disorderly or any way unruly either at sea or during the 
time of their abode or residence in any of the ports harbours or 
bays of our said territory as the case shall be found to require 
according to martial law and the said directions during the time 
of war as aforesaid. 

Provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed to 
tlie enabling you or any by your authority to hold plea or have 
any jurisdiction of any offence cause matter or thing committed or No jurisdic- 
done upon the high sea or within any of tlie havens rivers or *'2" ^'^^'^ 
creeks or our said territory and its dependencies under your comuiittc'i 
Government by any captain commander lieutenant master officer <'"*'^^*"°'* 
seaman soldier or other person whatsoever who shall bo in 
actual service in pay in or on board any of our ships of war or 
other vessels acting by immediate commission or warrant from 
our Commissioners for executing the office of our High Admii-al 
of Great Britain or from our High Admiral of Great Britain for 
the time being under the seal of our Admiralty, 

Jiut that such captain commander lieutenant master officer 
seaman soldier or other person so offending shall be left to be 





2 April. 

oil the high 
f eas to be 
tried by 

on shore by 
officers or 
men belong- 
ing to the 

to be 

dealt with 
on shore. 


Power to 
grant land. 

proceeded and tried as the merits of their offences shall 
require either by commission under our Great Seal of Great 
Britain as the statute of the Twenty-eighth of Henry the Eighth 
directs or by commission from our Commissioners for executing 
the office of our High Admiral of Great Britain or from our High 
Admiral of Great Britain for the time being according to the 
aforesaid Act intituled " An Act for amending explaining and 
reducing into one Act of Parliament the laws relating to the 
Government of his Majesty's ships vessels and forces by sea " as 
the same is altered by an Act passed in the nineteenth year of 
our reign intituled " An Act to explain an Act made in the 
twenty-second year of his late Majesty King George the Second 
intituled ' An Act for amending explaining and reducing into one 
Act of Parliament the laws relating to the Govei*nment of his 
Majesty's ships vessels and forces by sea.' " 

Provided nevertheless that all disorders and misdemeanors com- 
mitted on shore by any captain commander lieutenant master 
officer seaman soldier or any other person whatsoever belonging 
to any of our ships of war or other vessels acting by immediate 
commission or warrant from our Commissioners for executing the 
office of our High Admiral of Great Britain or from our High 
Admiral of Great Britain for the time being under the seal of 
our Admiralty may be tried and punished according to the laws 
of the place where any such disorders offences and misdemeanors 
shall be committed on shore notwithstanding such offender be in 
our actual service and borne in our pay on board any such our ships 
of war or other vessels acting by immediate commission or warrant 
from our Commissioners for executing the office of our High Admi- 
ral of Great Britain or from our High Admiral of Great Britain 
for the time being as afoi-esaid so as he shall not receive any pro- 
tection for the avoiding of justice for such offences committed on 
shore from any pretence of his being employed in our service at sea. 

Our will and pleasure is that all public monies which shall be 
raised be issued out by warrant from you and disposed of by you 
for the support of the Government or for such other purpose as 
shall be particularly directed and not otherwise. 

And Wee do hereby likewise give and grant unto you full power 
and authority to agree for such lands tenements and heredita- 
ments as shall be in our power to dispose of and them to grant to 
any person or persons upon such terms and under such moderate 
quit rents services and acknowledgments to be thereupon reserved 
unto us according to such instructions as shall be given to you 
under our sign manual which said grants are to pass and be 
sealed by our seal of our said territory and its dependencies and 
being entered upon record by such officer or officers as you shall 
appoint thereunto shall be good and effectual in law against iis 
our heirs and successors. 

Phillip's co:mmissiox. 67 

And Wee do hereby give you the said Arthur Phillip full power 1787 
to appoint fairs marts and markets as also such and so many ports 2 April, 
harbours bays havens and other places for conveniency and^^^ — :. 
security of shipping and for the better loading and unloading of fairs and 
goods and merchandizes as by you shall be thought fit and necessary'. °^^'^'^'''8- 

And Wee do hereby require and command all officers and minis- 
ters civil and military and all other inhabitants of our said territory 
and its dependencies to be obedient aiding and assisting you the said 
Arthur Phillip in the execution of this our commission and of the 
powers and authorities herein contained and in case of your death 
or absence out of our said territory to be obedient aiding and assist- 
ing to such person as shall be appointed by us to be our Lieutenant- General 
Governor or Commander-in-Chief of our said territory and its depen- J'^^s^iittion. 
dencies to whom Wee do therefore by these presents give and grant 
all and singular the powers and authorities herein granted to be by 
him executed and enjoyed during our pleasure or until your arrival 
within our said territory and its dependencies. 

And if upon your death or absence out of ovir said territory and Provision 
its dependencies there be no person upon the place commissioned [nVffi-e"*^^ 
or appointed by us to be o\ir Lieutenant-Governor or Commander- 
in-Chief of our said territory and its dependencies our will and 
})leasure is that the officer highest in rank who shall be at the 
time of your death or absence upon service Avithin the same and 
who sliall take the oaths and subscribe the declaration appointed 
to be taken and subscribed by you or by the Commander-in-Chief 
of our said territory and its dependencies shall take upon him the 
administration of the Government and execute our said commission 
and instructions and the several powers and authorities therein 
contained in the same manner and to all intents and purposes as 
other our Governor or Commander-in-Chief should or ought to dc 
in case of your absence until your return or in all cases until! our 
further pleasure be known therein. 

And Wee do hereby declare ordain and appoint that you the Term of 
said Arthur Phillii) shall and may hold execute and enjoy the °^'^^- 
office and place of our Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in 
and over our said territory and its dependencies together with all 
and singular the powers and authorities hereby granted unto you 
for and during our will and pleasure. 

In witness &c. 

Witness ourself at Westminster the second day of April in 
the twenty-seventh year of our reign. 
By writ of Frivj Seal. 

TuE Act of Parliament Establishing the Colony. 
(27 George III, 1787.) 
Whereas by an Act made and passed in the twenty-fourth year 24 Geo. iii 
of his present Majesty's reign, intituled, An Act for the efTectual ''• ^**- 


I'J'fi" transportation of felons and other offenders, and to authorise the 

removal of prisoners in certain cases, and for other purposes therein 

mentioned, it is enacted that, from and after the passing of that 

Act, when any person or persons at any Sessions of Oyer or 

Terminer or Gaol Delivery, or at any Quarter or other General 

Session of the Peace to be holden for any county, riding, division, 

city, town, borough, liberty, or place, within that part of Great 

Britain called England, or at any Great Session to be holden for 

the County Palatine of Chester, or within the Principality of 

Wales, shall be lawfully convicted of grand or petit larency, or any 

other offence for which such pei-son or persons shall be liable by 

the laws of this realm to be transported, it shall and may be lawful 

for the Court before which any such person or persons shall be 

convicted as aforesaid, or any subsequent Court holden at any 

place for the same county, riding, division, city, town, borough, 

liberty, or place respectively, with like authority, to order and 

Court may adjudge that such person or persons so convicted as aforesaid shall 

portatioii. be transported beyond the seas for any term of years not exceeding 

the number of years or terms for which such person or persons is 

or are or shall be liable by any law to be transported ; and in any 

such case it shall or may bo lawful for his Majesty, by and with 

the advice of his Privy Council, to declare and appoint to what 

Order-in- place or places, part or parts, beyond the seas, either within his 

appoint""^ Majesty's dominions, or elsewhere out of his Majesty's dominions, 

place of such felons or other offenders shall be conveyed or transported: 

tion. And such Court as aforesaid is thereby authorised and empowered 

to order such offenders to be transferred to the use of any person 

or persons, and his or their assigns, who shall contract for the due 

performance of such transportation. 

And when his Majesty, his heirs and successors, shall be pleased 
to extend mercy to any offender or offenders who hath or have 
been or shall be convicted of any crime or crimes, for which he, 
she, or they is or shall be by law excluded from the benefit of 
clergy, upon condition of transportation to any place or places, 
part or parts, beyond the seas, either for terms of life or any 
number of years, and such extension of mercy shall be signified 
by one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, it shall be 
Court may lawful for any Court, having proper authority, to allow such 
ferof offender or offenders the benefit of a conditional pardon, and 

'^Tit"^*t*r' (p^<^^P^ ^^ cases where such offenders shall be authorised by his 
Majesty to transport liimself, herself, or themselves) to order the 
transfer of such offender or offenders to any person or persons who 
shall contract for the due performance of such transportation, and 
his or their assigns, for such and the same term of years for which 
any such offender or offenders shall have been ordered to be trans- 
ported, or for such term of life or years as shall be specified in 
such condition of transportation. 


And whereas his Majesty, by two several Orders-in-Council, I'J'S? 
bearing date respectively on the sixth day of December, 178G, hath order-jn- 
judged fit, by and with the advice of his Privy Council, to declare app^nting- 
and appoint the place to which certain offenders, named in two New South 
lists to the said several Orders-in-Council annexed, should be 
transported for the time or term in their several sentences men- 
tioned, to be the eastern coast of New South Wales, or some one 
or other of the islands adjacent. 

And whereas Sir James Eyre, Knight, and Sir Beaumont Order o^^ 
Hotham, Knight, two of the Barons of his Majesty's Court of transporta- 
Exchequer of the degi^ee of the coiffe, according to the authority *'°"- 
to them given by the said statute, did, on the thirtieth day of 
December, 1786, oixler that the said several offenders, in the said 
se^"eral lists to the said several Orders-in-Council annexed, should 
be transported to the place and for the time and terms aforesaid. 

And whereas it may be found necessary that a colony and a Colony and 
civil Government should be established in the place to which such ment^'°^*^'" 
convicts shall be transported, under and by virtue of the said Act 
of Parliament, the said two several Orders of Council, and other 
the said above-recited Orders, and that a Court of Criminal Juris- ^.^^j"^' 
diction should also be established within such place as aforesaid, 
with authority to proceed in a more summary way than is used 
within this realm, according to the known and established laws 

Be it therefore enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, 
1)y and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and 
by the authority of the same, that his Majesty may, by his Com- 
mission under the Great Seal, authorise the person to be appointed 
Governor, or the Lieutenant-Governor in the absence of the Gover- Governor 
nor, at such place as aforesaid, to convene from time to time, as ™n^ene 
occasion may require, a Court of Judicature for the trial and Criminal 
punishment of all such outrages and misbeha\-iours as, if committed 
within this realm, would Ik; deeined and taken, according to the 
laws of this realm, to be treason or misprision thereof, felony or 
misdemeanor, which Court shall consist of the Judge- Advocate, How 
tf) be appointed in and for such place, together with six officers of *^°™l^^ 
his Majesty's forces Vjy sea or land : 

Which Court shall proceed to try such offenders by calling such 
offenders respectively before that Court, and causing the charge 
against him, her, or them respectively to be read over, which ^'^''^od of 
charge shall always be reduced into writing, and shall be exhibited 
to the said Court by the Judge- Advocate, and by examining wit- 
nesses upon oath, to be administered by such Court, as well for as 
against such offenders respectively, and afterwards adjudging by 
the opinion of the major part of the persons composing such Court, 
that the party accused is or is not (as the case shall aj)pear to 




Judsnnent of 
death or 


In capital 
cases five 

Cmirt to Ve 
a Court of 

them) guilty of the charge, and by pronouncing judgment therein 
(as upon a conviction by verdict) of death, if the offence be capital, 
or of such corporal punishment not extending to capital punish- 
ment, as to the said Court shall seem meet ; and in cases not capital, 
by pronouncing judgment of such corporal punishment, not extend- 
ing to life or limb, as to the said Court shall seem meet. 

II. And be it further enacted that the Provost-Marfhal, or 
other officer to be for that purpose appointed by such Governor or 
Lieutenant-Governor, shall cause due execution of such judgment 
to be had and made under and according to the warrant of such 
Governor or Lieutenant-Governor in the absence of the Governor, 
under his hand and seal, and not otherwise. 

Provided always that execution shall not be had or done on 
any capital convict or convicts unless five persons present in such 
Court shall concur in adjudging him, her, or them, so accused 
and tried as aforesaid, to be respectively guilty, and until the pro- 
ceedings shall have been transmitted to his Majesty and by him 

III. And be it so enacted by the authority aforesaid that the 
said Court shall be a Court of Record, and shall have all such 
powers as by the laws of England are incident and belonging to a 
Court of Record. 

2 April. 


and civil 

Civil Court. 

Letters Patent Constituting the Courts of Law. 

George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, 
France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, kc. To all to 
whom these presents shall come, greeting : — 
"Whereas by virtue of an Act of Parliament passed in the twenty- 
fourth year of our reign Wee have judged fit, by and with the 
advice of our Privy Council, by two several orders bearing date 
respectively on the sixth day of December [and the twenty-second 
flay of December] one thousand seven hundred and eighty-six, to 
declare and appoint the place to which certain offenders should be 
transported for the time or terms in their several sentences men- 
tioned to be the eastern coast of New South Wales, or some or 
other of the islands adjacent. 

And whereas Wee find it necessary that a colony and civil 
government should be established in the place to which such 
convicts shall lie transported, and that sufficient pi'ovision should 
be made for the recovery of debts and determining of private 
causes between party and party in the place aforesaid. 

Wee, taking the same into our Royal consideration, and being 
desirous that justice should be administered to all our subjects, 
have of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion 
thought fit to grant, ordain, direct, and appoint, and by these 

ci\t:l coukt. 71 

presents do for us, our heirs and successors, will, grant, ordain, 1787 
direct, and appoint that there shall be within the place aforesaid 2 April. 
a Court, to be called the Court of Civil Jurisdiction. 

And that such Court shall consist of the Judge- Advocate for The civil 
the time being, together with two fit and proper persons inhabiting co°n"tit^tion 
the said place, to be appointed from time to time by our Governor, 
or in case of the death or absence by our Lieutenant-Governor for 
the time being, or of any two of them (whereof the J udge- Advocate 
to be one), to which Court Wee do hereby give full power and 
authority to hold plea of and to hear and determine in a summary and juris- 
way all pleas concerning lands, houses, tenements, and heredita- ^^i^tion. 
ments, and all manner of interests therein, and all pleas of debt, 
account, or other contracts, trespasses, and all manner of other 
persona] pleas whatsoever . 

And Wee do further will, ordain, and grant to the said Court 
full power and authority to grant probate of wills and administra- Probate 
tion of the personal estates of intestates dying within the place or tration™"^^' 
settlement aforesaid. 

And our further will and pleasure is, and Wee do by these 
presents for us our heirs and successors direct, ordain, and appoint 
that, upon complaint to be made in writing to the said Court by procedure, 
any person or persons against any other person or persons residing 
or being within the said place of any cause or suit, the said Court 
shall or may issue a warrant in writing under the hand and seal 
of the said J udge- Advocate for the tune being, to be directed to 
the Provost-Marshall, or such other officer as shall be appointed by 
our Governor to execute the process thereof, which warrant shall gmnnjong to 
contain shortly the substance of the complaint, and shall either appear. 
command such officer to summon the defendant or defendants to 

Or in case the value of the demand be ten pounds or upwards 
(of which oath shall first be made), command him to bring his, 
her, or their body or bodies, or take bail for his or their appearance Bail for 
before the said Court at a certain time or place therein to be ''W'^^'^'^"^'^- 
named, to answer to the said complaint and to hud sufficient 
security for his, her, or their performance of such judgment, 
sentence, or decree as shall be pronomiced thereupon or finally 
given upon an appeal. 

And upon appearance, arrest, or non-appearance, or return by 
the officer that the defendant or defendants cannot be found. Wee 
do hereV>y, for us, our heirs and successors, ordain, direct, and 
authorize the said Court to proceed to the examinatiou of the Proceeding 
matter and cause of such complaint, and upon due proof made '" 
thereof, either upon the oath or oaths of any witness or witnesses 
in writing, to be by him, her, or them subscribed (for which pur- 
pose Wee do by these presents empower and i-equire the said 
Court to administer an oath to such witnesses as shall be produced 



2 April. 


ment in 

Costs to 

Appeal to 



and Pri\'j- 

Time of 


Ijy either party, plaintiff or defendant), or by the voluntary con- 
fession of such defendant or defendants, to give judgment and 
sentence according to justice and right. 

And to award and issue out a warrant or warrants of execution 
under the hand and seal of the said Judge- Advocate for the time 
being, for levying the duty adjudged or decreed to the party or 
parties complainant, together vath costs of suit, upon the goods 
and chattels of such defendant or defendants, and to cause sale to 
be made of the said goods and chattels, rendering to the party the 
overplus, if any be. 

And for want of sufficient distress, Wee do hereby for us our 
heirs and successors give full power and authority to the said 
Court to imprison the defendant or defendants until satisfaction 
be made by him, her, or them, to the plaintiff or plaintiffs of the 
duty decreed, together with the costs ; and in case judgment shall 
l)e given for the defendant or defendants. Wee do hereby likewi.^e 
give full power and authority to the said Court to award costs to 
such defendant or defendants, and to issue like process of execution 
for the same as in cases where costs are awarded to any plaintiff 
or plaintiffs. 

And if either paii;y shall find him or themselves aggrieved by 
any judgment or decree to be given or pronounced by the said 
Court, our "\\'ill and pleasure is that he, she, or they shall and may 
appeal to the Governor of the eastern coast of Xew South Wales 
and the parts adjacent, or in case of his death or absence to the 
Lieutenant-Govei-nor for the time being, whom Wee do herebv 
empower and authorize to hear and determine the same, and to 
issue process of summons to answer to such appeal and the like 
process of execution as the said Court is hereby directed and 
empowered to issue. 

And if either party shall find him. her, or themselves aggrieved 
by the judgment or determination of the said Governor in any 
case where the debt or thincj in demand shall exceed the value of 
£300, and not otherwise, our will and pleasure is that such party 
so aggrieved may appeal to us or our heirs and successors in 

And Wee do further will and ordain that no appeal shall be 
admitted from the judgment of the said Court, unless the same 
shall be interposed within eight days after the said judgment, nor 
from the judgment of the Superior Court unless the same shall 
be interposed within fourteen days after the judgment of such 
Superior Court ; And further, that the said Court may proceed 
in a summary way by foreign attachment of goods, debts, and 
effects of delators in the hand or possession of other persons 
residing in the place aforesaid. 

And Wee further will and ordain that all complainants at whose 
suit? any persons shall be imprisoned shall make an allowance 


to each of such defendants after such rate for every day so long 1787 
as such defendants shall be kept in prison as the said Court 2 April. 
shall direct, and in default of payment thereof for one week such 
person shall be discharged out of prison, and such discharge out of 
prison shall be a discharge of the debt, unless the complainant ^f'^^g^toHn^ 
shall before any new proceeding against such defendants pay or prison, 
tender to them all the arrears of such allowance from the time of 
the last payment to the time of such new proceeding. 

Provided always that such defendant do make oath before the 
Judge- Advocate, to his satisfaction, that he hath not any estate or if„na^,]gtQ 
effects sufficient to maintain himself with necessaries in the prison, niaintai!i 
otherwise that such allowance be not made to him. 

And whereas it is necessary that a Court of Criminal Juris- criminal 
DICTION should also be established within the colony or settlement ^°"'"'- 
aforesaid, with authority to proceed in a more summary way than 
Ls used within this realm according to the known and established 
laws thereof. 

And whereas, by an Act of Parliament passed in this present Act of 
year of our reign, it is enacted that his Majesty may, by his Com- fg^cft&dT:^* 
mission under the Great Seal, authorize the person to be appointed 
(jf vernor, or the Lieutenant-Governor in the absence of the Gover- 
nor of such place as aforesaid, to convene from time to time, as 
occasion may require, a Court of Judicature for the trial and punish- covemor 
ment of all such outrages and misbehaviours as if committed within t" convene 
this realm would be deemed and taken according to the laws of this Court, 
realm to be treason or misprision thereof, felony, or misdemeanour. 

Which Court shall consist of th(i Judge-Advocate to be appointed 
in and for such place, together with six officers of his Majesty's 
forces by sea or land, which Court shall proceed to try such offenders 
by calling such offenders respectively l)efore that Court by the 
Judge- Advocate, and by examining witnesses upon oath to l^e ad- 
ministered by such Court, as well for as against such offenders 
respectively, and afterwards adjudging by the opinion of the major 
part of the persons composing such Court that the party accused is 
or is not (as the case shall appear to them) guilty of the charge, 
and by pronouncing judgment (as upon a conviction by verdict) of 
death, if the offence be capital, or of auch corporal p7(nisJnnenf, not sentence of 
extending to capital punishment, as to the said Court shall seem y„i!'.';jjral 
meet, and in cases not capital by pronouncing judgment of such punisimient. 
coi-jwral punishment, not extending to life or limb, as to the said 
Court shall seem meet. 

And that the Provost-Marshal, or other officer to be for that 
purpose appointed by such Governor or Lieutenant-Governor, shall 
cause due execution of such judgement to be had and made Execution of 
under and according to the warrant of such Governor or Lieutenant- J^'^K'"*-"*- 
Governor, in the absence of the Governor, under his hand and seal, 
and not otherwise. 




2 April. 





and juris- 

Conduct of 

Sentence of 

Provided always that execution shall not be had or done on any- 
capital convict or convicts unless fiv^e persons present in such Court 
shall concur in adjudging him, her, or them, so accused and tried 
as aforesaid, to be respectively guilty until the proceedings shall 
have been transmitted to his Majesty and by him approved : And 
that the said Court shall be a Court of Record, and shall have all 
such powers as by the laws of England are incident and belonging 
to a Court of Record. 

Now know ye that Wee, upon full consideration of the premises 
and of our especial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, have 
thought fit to grant, direct, and appoint, and by these presents Wee 
do accordingly, for us, our heirs and successors, grant, direct, ordain, 
and appoint that there shall be within the settlement and colony 
aforesaid a Court which shall be called the Court of Criminal 
Jurisdiction ; and Wee do hereby create, direct, and constitute the 
said Court of Criminal Jurisdiction to be a Court of Record, and 
that our said Court of Criminal Jurisdiction shall have all such 
powers as are incident to a Court of Record by the laws of that 
part of our Kingdom of Great Britain called England. 

And Wee further will, ordain, and appoint that the said Court 
of Criminal Jurisdiction shall consist of our Judge-Advocate for 
the time being, together with six officers of our sea and land 
service, as our Governor, or in case of his death or absence our 
Lieutenant-Governor, shall, by precept issued under his hand and 
seal, convene from time to time for that purpose, and that the said 
Court of Criminal Jurisdiction shall have power to enquire of, heai\ 
determine, and punish all treasons or misprisions thereof, murders, 
felonies, forgeries, perjuries, trespasses, and other crimes whatso- 
ever committed in the place or places aforesaid, such punishment 
so to be inflicted being according to the laws of that part of our 
Kingdom of Great Britain called England, as nearly as may be, 
considering and allowing for the circumstances and situation of 
the place and settlement aforesaid and the inhabitants. 

And it is our further will and pleasure that our said Court of 
Criminal Jurisdiction shall proceed to try all offenders by calling 
them respectively before such Court, and causing the charge or 
charges against him, her, or them, respectively, when reduced into 
writing and exhibited by our Judge- Advocate, to be read over to 
such offender or offenders respectively, and that the said Court 
shall adjudge by the opinion of the major part of the persons com- 
posing the same as aforesaid that the party accused is guilty or 
not guilty of the charge so exhibited as aforesaid. 

And, if adjudged guilty, that the Court shall proceed to pro- 
nounce judgement of death, if the offence be capital, in like manner 
as if the prisoner had been found guilty by verdict of a jury in that 
part of our Kingdom of Great Britain called England, or by pro- 
nouncing judgment of such corporal punishment, not extending 


to capital punishment, as to the said Court, or the major part of 1787 
the persons comprising the same, shall seem meet ; and in cases 9 April. 
not capital by the laws afoi*esaid by pronouncing judgment of such 
corporal punishment, not extending to life or limb, as the said comomi 
Court, or the major part of the persons composing the same, shall Punishment, 
seem meet. 

And it is our further will and pleasure and Wee do hereby 
ordain, direct, and appoint that our Provost-Marshall, or such other provost- 
otHcer as shall be appointed for that purpose by our Governor, Marshal. 
or in case of his death or absence by our Lieutenant-Governor 
for the time being, shall cause due execution to be bad and made of Rxecmion of 
such judgments as aforesaid, according to the warrant of our judgments. 
Governor, or in Lis absence of our Lieutenant-Governor for the time 
being, under their hands and seals respectively, and not otherwise. 

And Wee do hereby ordain and direct that execution of any 
judgment of death shall not be had or done on any offender or 
offendei-s unless five persons present sitting in judgment in our in capital 
said Court of Criminal Jurisdiction shall concur in adiudging such cases five 


offender or offenders so accused and tried as aforesaid to be respec- concur. ^ 
tively guilty, until the proceedings in the trial of such offender or 
offenders shall have been transmitted to us, our heirs and successors, 
and our or their pleasure shall have been signified thereupon. 

And that execution be not done in any capital case whatever 
without the consent of our said Governor, or in case of his death 
or absence, of our Lieutenant-Governor ; and in case execution shall warrant for 
be suspended, that the said Governor or Lieutenant-Governor shall execution, 
apply to us, our heirs and successors, for our or their direction therein. 

And our further will and pleasure is that all and every the 
members of our said Court of Civil Jurisdiction respectively shall, 
before they proceed to sit in judgment, severally make oath well Members of 
and truly to try the several issues brought before them, and to give ^^^ Court 
true judgment according to the evidence ; and that all and every 
the members of our said Court of Criminal Jurisdiction shall, in 
like manner, make oatli to make true deliverance between us, our 
lieirs and successoi-s, and the several prisoners who shall by them 
be tried, and to give a true judgment according to the evidence. 

And Wee do hereby give full ])0wer and authority to our Judge- by the 
Advocate for the time being to administer such oaths to the respec- Advocate 
tive members of our said several Courts. 

And further know ye that Wee, for preserving the peace of our 
said settlement and the islands tbei-euuto adjacent, of our especial 
grace, certain knowledge, and meer motion have granted, ordained, 
directed, and appointed, and by these presents do grant, ordain, 
dire:-t, and appoint, that our ])resent and all our future Governors 
and Lieutenant-Governors, and our Judge- Advocate for the time 
being, shall be Justices of the Peace within the said place or justices of 
settlement. ^^^ Peace. 




2 April. 

Powers of 
Justices of 
the Peace. 

Authority of 



To remain in 
force until 

And that all and every such Justice and Justices of the Peace 
shall have the same power to keep the peace, arrest, take bail, bind 
to good behaviour, suppress and punish riots, and to do all other 
matters and things with respect to the inhabitants residing or being 
in the place and settlement aforesaid as Justices of the Peace have 
within that part of Great Britain called England, within their 
respective jurisdictions. 

And these our Letters Patent or the enrollment or exemplifica- 
tion thereof shall be, as well unto the said Courts respectively as 
unto all and every person or persons whomsoever, a sufficient 
warrant and discharge from time to time for all and whatever 
they shall do or execute in pursuance of our Royal will and pleasure 
hereinbefore declared. 

And, lastly, our will and pleasure is, and Wee do hereby declare, 
that this our charter shall be and remain in force only until Wee 
shall be pleased to revoke and determine the same. 

In witness whereof AVee have caused these our Letters to be 
made Patent. 

Witness ourself, at Westminster, the second day of April, in 
the twenty -seventh year of our reign. 

By Writ of Privy Seal. Yorke. 

4 April. 


Vice-Admiralty Court. 
At the Court of St. James's, the 4th of April, 1787. 

Present : — 
The King's Most Excellent Majesty. 
Lord President. Lord Sydney. 

Earl of Aylesford. Sir Geo. Yonge. 

Viscount Hinchinbroke. Henry Dundas, Esq, 

Lord Herbert. John Chas. Villiers, Esq. 

Whereas there was this day read at the Board a memorial from 
the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
dated the 27th of last month, in the words following, viz. : — 

Lord Sydney having acquainted us that your Majesty has been 
pleased to appoint Captain Arthur Phillip to be Captain-General 
and Governor-in-Chief of the territory called New South Wales, 
extending from the northern cape or extremity of the coast, called 
Cape York, in the latitude of ten degrees thirty-seven minutes 
south, to the southern extremity of the said territory of New 
South AVales, or South Cape, in the latitude of forty-three degrees 
thirty-nine minutes south, and of all country inland to the west- 
ward, as far as the one hundred and thirty-fifth degree of east 
longitude, reckoning from the meridian of Greenwich, including 
all the islands adjacent in the Pacific Ocean within the latitudes 
aforesaid of 10° 37' south and 43° 39' south, and that it is your 



Majesty's pleasure we should grant him such powers as have been 1787 
usually granted to the Governors of your Majesty's colonies in -i April. 
America ; we beg leave to represent to your Majesty that the 
powers usually granted by this Board to the Governors of your 
Majesty's colonies in America are those of Vice- Admiral, hut that 
we are empowered by our commission to constitute Vice- Admirals 
at such places only where Vice- Admirals have usually been ap- 
pointed by the High Admiral. We do, therefore, beg leave to 
submit to your Majesty whether it may not be necessary that we 
should be empowered to appoint a Vice- Admiral and also a Judge ][j?®'. . 
and other officers requisite for a Court of Vice- Admiralty within 
the territory called New South Wales. 

His Majesty, taking the said memorial into consideration, was 
pleased, with the advice of his Privy Council, to approve of what 
is therein proposed, and to order, as it is hereby ordered, that a 
commission be passed under the great seal granting authority to 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admii'alty to appoint a Vice- 
Admiral, and also a Judge and other officers requisite to form a 
Court of Vice-Achniralty within the said territory called New vife- 
South Wales ; and the Right Honourable Lord Sydney, one of his court. 
Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State, is to cause a warrant to 
be prepared for his Majesty's royal signature, in order to pass a 
commission under the great seal accordingly.* 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

My Dear Sir, [London] April 11th, 1787. ^^-'^P'""- 

When you find a quarter of an hour, be so good as to give 
me a line to the Navy Board, sufficiently explicit to prevent any 
further delays with respect to the ordinary caps for the convicts ; 
one hhd. of porter in bottles, as a present to the connnanding More stores 
officer in the island from which we ai'e to procure stock, and ducats ^^^^'^ ■ 
U) the value of thirty pounds for the same ])urpuse. The l)eer may 
be bought at Portsmouth, and I will tind room for it on board 
the Sirius. 

A line likewise is necessary to the Admiralty, that 1 may have The Com- 
an order to receive on board the Sirius the Conmiissary and n"^**^'^^- 
the servant to the Judge- Advocate ; likewise for victualling the 
40 marines' wives, and to desire that sour krout and portable 
soup may be oi-dered for the convicts' that may be sick. There is 
some krout in store at the Victualling Office. I am. &c., 


P.S. — By some mistake 109 women and chikli-en are nut on Overcrowd- 
board the Lady Penrhyn, tho' that ship was only intended to 
carry 102, and with propi'iety should not have more than j of 
that number. 

* Letters Patent constituting the Vicc-Aclniiralty Court were issued 5th May, 1787. 
Post, p. ito. 




13 April. 

amoni^ the 

The cause. 


Fears for 
the future. 

No remedj*. 

Reduction of 

No rations 
for the 

A hard case. 

Major Ross to Secretary Stephens. 

Sir, Portsmouth, 13th April, 1787. 

I have to request you will please to inform their Lordships 
that the sickness which has, and still does prevail among the 
marine detachment embarked on board the Alexander, transport, 
gives me a great degree of concern. Since the time of their first 
embarkation no less than one serjeant, one drummer, and fourteen 
privates have been sent sick on shore from her, some of whom, I 
am informed, are since dead. 

How far the cause of this sickness may be of a malignant kind 
is not for me to say, but I am apt to suppose that the situation in 
which the marines are placed in that ship is of itself sufficient to 
cause the disorder with which they are afflicted. 

T beg leave to observe, for their Lordships' information, that the 
place allotted for the marines on board the Alexander is upon a 
deck, and immediately under where the seamen are birthed. In 
this place they are excluded from all air, but what passes through 
the hatchway leading from the seamen's birth, which must in some 
degree render it putrid before it reaches the others. 

Should what is above hinted at be the cause of the present 
sickness on board of her, how much more have we to dread the 
fatal effeects of it in the more southern latitudes. 

I have conversed with the agent for the transports on this 
subject, who is perfectly of my way of thinking ; but in the 
present state of that ship does not see how the evil can be 

He this morning proposed, if it could possibly be done, to have 
the convicts on board the Alexander reduced in numbers, so as to 
pei'mit a sufficient space in the fore part of the ship to be taken 
away from what was allotted for them, and converted into a 
birth for the seamen, the marines then removed to where the 
seamen now are, and the present birth of the marines converted 
into the only thing it is fit for, the stowing away provisions. 

You will likewise please to inform their Lordships how much 
I am concerned at finding myself under a necessity of mention- 
ing again to them the children of the marines embarked in the 
transports, which have not yet been ordered to be victualled. 
What leads me to trouble their Lordships with it at this time is a 
scene of distress that I was witness to yesterday when visiting the 
transports at the Motherbank. In one of them I found a marine, 
his wife, and two children living upon a ration and a half of 
provisions. I feel myself the more hurt at this from my having 
when last at Plymouth, and thinking myself authorized to do so, 
informed that part of the detachment that their wives and 
children were to be victualled in a certain proportion. 

I am, &c., 

R. Ross, Major. 


Returx of the Botany Bay detachment of Marines, the number 1787 
of wives and children, and tlio names of the ships on board of is April 
which they are embarked, with the number on board of each The First 
ship. April, the 15th, 1787. Fieet.^^ 

Ships' Names. 





























" 5 




















H.M. ship Sirius 
Alexander, transport. 
Charlotte do. . 

Scarborough do. . 
Friendship do. 

Prince of Wales do. 
Lady Penrhyn do. 
Sick on shore . . 

General Total 

1 2 









Eeturx of the male, female, and children convicts embarked ^— The- 
for Botany Bay, distinguishing the number of each on board ''°"^° • 
each transport. April, the 15th, 1789. 

Ships' Names. 





each Ship. 

Alexander, transport 
Cliarlotte do. 
Scarborough do. 
Friendship do. 
Prince of VVales do. 
Lady Penrhyn do. 

General Total 

















Under Secretary Nepean to Sir C. Middleton.* 
Dear Sir, "Whitehall, 18th April, 1787. is April. 

I send you enclosed copies of two letters! from Major Ross, 
Lieutenant-Governor of the new intended settlement, representing 
the unhealthy state of the party of marines embarked on board The sick 
the Alexander, transport, and the distressed state of the wives ^armes. 
and children of the detachment intended to proceed in the trans- 
port ships to Botany Bay. Lord Sydney will be obliged to you 
if you will take any measures which you may think advisable for 
the better accommodation of the Alexander's party, and that you 
will be so good as to crive orders that the women and children of Women and 

'^ ° children. 

* A private letter, 
t One of these letters will be found on page 78 ; the other is not recorded. 




IS April. 


Wants to be 

A perplexing 


for children. 



20 April. 

the marines may be supplied with the same proportion of provisions 
as hath been usually allowed to the women and children of troops 
during their passage, which Major Ross states in one of his letters.* 

I lind from Captain Phillip that some of the convicts are almost 
destitute of cloathmg, and that it will be necessary to supply them 
with such ai'ticles as are needful immediately. 

Captain Hunter and Lieutenant Shortland have been desired 
to inquire into their wants and to supply them, and Lord Sydney 
will be glad if the quantity which they may issue out of the 
general stock be replaced, and that such a number of worsted 
nightcaps be also issued as may be requisite for the supply of such 
of the convicts whose hair it may be necessary to cut off. 

I must beg of you to give me credit for official representation 
through the proper channel upon these points, which you shall 
have as soon as the business is finished. I hope this will be the 
last letter, except the general sweeping one, which I may have 
occasion to trouble you with upon this business, which I must 
suppose has given you nearly as much perplexity as it has your 
faithful humble servant. 

I hope Phillip will get away on Saturday ; all his civil com- 
missions, I expect, will pass the Great Seal on Friday. 

The childi-en of the women convicts. Lord Sydney thinks, should 
have a small proportion of provisions, which his Lordship begs 
you will order ; there are not above ten. 

I omitted to mention that about £30, in ducates, will be neces- 
sary for Captain Phillip to purchase stock, and which Loi'd Sydney 
wishes may be supplied to him ; and also that he may be allowed 
to purchase a hhd. of strong beer, in bottles — the latter he can 
easily procure at Portsmouth ; these articles will be requisite for 
the obtaining stock at some of the islands he may have occasion 
to have recourse to. There is no oatmeal on board the convict 
ships to make gruel for the sick ; it is a very necessary article, 
and Lord Sydney thinks that a couple of casks should be put on 
board each of the convict ships for that purpose, to be considered 

as surgeon s necessaries. 

I am, tfec, 

Evan Nepeax. 

Trial of Pirates. 

At the Court of St. James's, the 20th of April, 1787. 

Present : — 

The King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

Lord Chancellor. Duke of Richmond. 

Lord President. Lord Sydney. 

Lord Privy Seal. John Chas. Villiers, Esq. 

Whereas there was this day read at the Board a report from the 

Right Honourable the Lords of the Committee of Council ap- 

^ Note by transcriber.— ^ajov Uoss acknowledged this attention to his request in letter* 
to Mr. Nepean. 


pointed for the consideration of all matters relating to trade and 1787 
foreign plantations, dated the 1 3th of this instant, proposing that 20 April, 
the draught of a commission should be prepared for the tryal of 
pirates within tlie Govenuiient of New South Wales, the descrip- 
tion of which government is herewith annexed, marked A. His Territory, 
^lajesty, taking the said report into consideration, was pleased, 
with the ad^-ice of his Privy Council, to approve thereof, and 
accordingly to order, as "it is hereby ordered, that his Majesty's 
Advocate-General, with the Advocate of the Admiralty, do forth- 
with prepare and lay before his Majesty at this Board the draught 
of a commission, in order to be passed under the seal of his Commission. 
Majesty's High Court of Admiralty, for the tryal of pirates 
within the said new Government, under the act of the 11th and 
1:2th of King William the Tliird ; and that they do insert therein 
the names of the persons contained in the annexed list marked B, 
as commissioners for carrying the said commission into execution, ^lone"-'^ 


The territory called New South Wales, extending from the New South 
Northern Cape or extremity of the coast, called Cape York, in the ^^''^'*^''- 
latitiifle of ten degrees thirty-seven minutes south, to the southern 
extremity of the said territory of New South Wales or South 
Cape, in the latitude of forty-three degrees thirty-nine minutes 
south, and of all the country inland to the westward as far as 
the one hundred and thirty-fifth degree of east longitude, reckon- 
ing from the meiidian of Greenwich, including all islands adjacent 
in the Pacific Ocean within the latitudes aforesaid of 10° 37' south 
and 43° 39' south. 


List of names to be inserted in the Commission for the Trial of 

Pirates on the coast of New South Wales. 

Arthur Phillip, Esq., Governor, or the Governor for the time Members of 
bein*'. '-''c eomt. 

Robert Ross, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor, or the Lieutenant- 
Governor for the time beintr. 

Andi-CAV Miller, Esq., Commissary of Stores and Provisions, or 
the Commissary of Stores and Provisions fur the time being. 

Augustus Alt, Esq., Surveyor of Lands, or the Surveyor of 
Lands for the time being. 

John Hunter, Esq., Captain of the Sirius. 

William Bradley, Esq., 1st Lieutenant. 

Philip Gidley King, Esq., 2\\(\ Lieutenant. 

Geo. William Maxwell, Esq., 3rd Lieutenant. 

Henry Lidgbird Ball, Esq., Lieutenant and Commander of the 
Supply, armed tender. 

And all other captains and commanders of his ^Majesty's ships 
who are or shall be witliin tlie Admiralty jurisdiction of the 
territory of New South Wales. 




20 April. 









Lord Sydney to Governor Phillip.* 

Sir, Whitehall, 20th April, 1787. 

Your letter to Mr. Nepean, of the 1st of March, inclosing 
a copy of a letter to you from the Secretary of the Admiralty in 
answer to certain queries which you had desired might be sub- 
mitted to the consideration of the Lord Commissioners of that 
Board, have been laid before me, together with your observations 
upon the instructions, which have been prepared to pass under 
the Royal Sign Manual for your guidance in the exercise of the 
government of New South Wales. 

With regard to the 1st and 2nd queries, to which the Admiralty 
have declined to give any answer, and referred you to the Treasury 
Board, I am to acquaint you that their Lordships have caused 
contracts to be entered into for the victualling of the marines, 
their wives and children, as well as the convicts, who are to take 
their passage in the transport ships ; and that any supplies which 
it may be necessary to provide for their maintenance during the 
voyage will be obtained and paid for by the contractor or his agent. 

The 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th queries are, I observe, fully answered 
in the Secretary of the Admiralty's letter to you ; and the 7th 
query is answered in the lirst paragraph of this letter. 

8th. In case any of the convicts should be seized with an in- 
fectious distemper, a proper place is to be set apart in the ship on 
board of which they may be embarked for their accommodation, 
and if the disease should so spread itself as to render it absolutely 
necessary that the infected people should be removed away from 
the other convicts, one of the transport ships may be converted 
into an hospital ship. But this step, you will observe, is not to 
be taken except upon urgent necessity. 

9th. If any dithculties should be found by the masters of the 
transports in procuring supplies either of stores or provisions 
which they may stand in need of at places where the convoy may 
touch, the agent appointed by the Navy Board is instructed in 
what manner to proceed on such occasions. 

The 10th query appears to be fully replied to by the Secretary 
to the Admiralty. 

11th. Your instructions vinder the Royal Sign Manual point 
out in what manner the emoluments which would arise to you 
from the Sirius are, in case you should be able to send her home, 
to be paid to you. 

12th and 13th. The Lords of the Admiralty will authorize any 
number, not exceeding forty, of the petty officers and men belong- 
ing to the Sirius who may be desirous of remaining at New 
South Wales, upon that ship's return to Europe. 

The 14th query is answered ])y the Secretary of the Admiralty. 
All the queries which you submitted to the Admiralty being now 
fully explained, I am to acquaint you, in reply to your letter of 

* See letter from Secretary Stephens. Ante, p. 4S. 


Phillip's questions answered. 83 

the 1st March, and your observations upon your instructions,* that 1787 

it is not thought advisable under the present circumstances of 20 April. 

the service that you should wear any distinguishing pendant ; ^^ J~r 

but during the absence of the Sirius from the seat of government, tinguishing 

o _, • i j_ • -111- pendant, 

or upon her return to Europe, proper instructions will be given 

to the commander of the tender, or of any other ship or vessel 

which may arrive at the settlement, junior to you in rank, to 

obey such orders and directions as they may from time to time 

receive from you for their future proceedings. 

Upon the death or suspension of any civil officers of the 
Government you are at liberty to appoint any proper person for the Power to 
execution of the duties of such office until his Majesty's pleasure ^^^^^rs. 
he known, and to send such suspended officer to England by the 
tirst convenient opportunity which may offer, with your reasons 
for such suspension ; and also to exchange marines from the gar- 
rison and the Sirius, or Supply, tender, if you should judge it for 
the good of the service so to do. 

There can be no objection to your establishing any part of the choice of 
territory or islands upon the coast of New South AVales, in the ^^^^ ®°-'^" ' 
neighbourhood of Botany Bay, which you may consider as more 
advantageously situated for the principal settlement ; but at the 
same time you must understand that you are not allowed to delay 
the disembarkation of the estal)lishment upon your arrival on the 
coast upon the pretence of searching after a more eligible place 
than Botany Bay. 

It will be proposed to Parliament in a few days to fix your The 
salary as Governor at £1,000 per annum nett, which, with the pay ^°ary?°''^ 
of the Sirius, is judged to be a proper allowance for the support 
of the stations you are appointed to fill. You will also be allowed 
a contingent charge of 5/- per diem for the pay of a secretary, and 
£20 per annum for stationery. 

With regard to the compensation you solicit by way of table No table- 
money, I am to inf<jrm you that no allowance whatever of that "^^' 
sort can be granted to you. 

You will receive herewith a copy of a letter from the Secretary The 
of the Treasury with respect to the dispatch of the transport ships 
after their ai'i-ival at Botany Bay, the purport of which you will 
use your utmost endea\'our to comply with. I am, iV'c, 


Major Ross to Under Secretary Nepean.! 

My Dear Sir, Portsmouth, 22nd April, 1787. 22 April. 

I understand from Captain Phillip that I am a})p()inted 
H Judge in the Vice-Admiralty Court for our new settlement. I 

Ross and 

have to return you my best thanks for this appointment ; but I, his friend. 

* Ante, p. 54. t A private letter. 


1787 at the same time, cannot but sincerely lament that something 
22 April, could not have l^een hit upon in all the late appointments for 
James Campbell.* 

The late honour confer'd upon me would have been well 
bestow'd upon him, and tho' I have not a wish to resigne it on 
any other terms than the puting him in possession of something, 
tho' without emolument, that would show his friends he was 
not totally neglected in this business. I would in that case wish 
it done. I am sure his abilities and length of service intitle him 
to a share in such things as are to be given in a new settle- 
ment, where it is probable his judgement may be of the greatest 

An appeal. j£ ^j-^g above Cannot possibly be done for him, do, for God's sake, 
endeavour at something else for him. You know Capt. Gould's 
appointment in Nova Scotia, and is not such an appointment 
absolutely for us 1 If it is, is there no such thing as getting him 
something of the same kind t. 

noT^ain. -^^^ addition to his present income is not, I am convinced, his 

principle object. What I myself wish for him, and what is I am 
sure his own only wish, is some kind of appointment that would give 
him some little consequence in himself, as well as in the eyes of 
his brother-officers going with him, all of whom with respect to 
length of service are but of yesterday. 

You, my dear sir, have no idea how much I am interested in 
this atlair, nor how very severely I shall feel myself mortified if 
something or other cannot be done for him before we quit this 
country. I am, cfec, 

R. Ross. 

Phillip's Instructions. 
25 April i^^ tl^g Qo^j,^ .^^ gt. James's, the 25th April, 1787. 

Present : — 
The King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

Lord President. Lord Sydney. 

Marquis of Carmarthen. William Pitt, Esq. 

Lord Chamberlain. Sir George Yonge. 

Lord Onslow. 
Whereas thei-e was this day read at the Board a report from 
the Right Honorable the Lords of the Committee of Council, 
appointed for the consideration of all . matters relating to Trade 
and Foreign Plantations, upon the draught of instructions for 
Captain Arthur Phillip, whom his Majesty has been pleased to 
appoint Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of the territory 
of New South Wales. His Majesty taking the said report and 
draught of instructions into consideration, was pleased, with 
the advice of his Privy Council, to approve of the said draught 
of instructions, and to order, as it is hereby ordered, that the 

* Cai^tain of Marines in Major Hoss's detachment 

Phillip's ixstructioxs. 85 

Right Honorable Lord Sydney, one of his Majesty's Principal 1787 
Secretaries of State, do cause the said draught of instructions, 25 April, 
wliich are herewith annexed, to be prepai-ed for his Majesty's 


IxsTRrcTioxs for our trusty and well-beloved Arthur Phillip, Esq., 
our Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in and over our 
territory of New South Wales and its dependencies, or to 
the Lieutenant-Governor or Commander-in-Chief of the said 
territory for the time being. Given at our Court at St. James's, 
the 25th day of April, 1787, in the twenty-seventh year of 

our reign. 

"With these our instructions you will receive our commission* commission 
under our Great Seal constituting and appointing you to be our ^ Governor. 
Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of our territory called 
New South Wales, extending from the northern cape or extremity 
of the coast, called Cape York, in latitude of ten degrees thirty- 
seven minutes south, to the southern extremity of the said 
territory of New South "Wales or South Cape, in the latitude of 
forty-three degrees thirty-nine minutes south, and of all the 
country inland to the westward, as far as the one hundred and Territorj-. 
thirty-tifth degree of east longitude, reckoning from the meridian 
of Greenwich, including all the islands adjacent in the Pacific 
Ocean, within the latitudes aforesaid, 10° 37' south and 43° 39' 
south ; and of all towns, garrisons, castles, forts, and all other 
fortifications or other military works which may be hereafter 
erected upon the said territory, or any of the said islands, with 
directions to obey such orders and instructions as shall from time instrac- 
to time be given to you, under our signet and sign manual, or t'<^»s- 
by our order in our Privy Council. 

You are, therefore, to fit yourself with all convenient speed, and 
to hold yourself in readiness to repair to your said command, and 
being arrived, to take upon you the execution of the trust we 
have reposed in you, as soon as conveniently may be, with all due 
solemnity to cause our said Commission under our Great Seal of Commission 
Great Britain constituting you our Governor and Coiiiiiiander-in- pubfic?^'" 
Chief as afoi'esaid to be read and puljlished. 

And whereas we have ordered that about 600 male and 180 Order for 
female convicts now under .sentence or order of ti-ansportation tion.*^'^' 
whose names are contained in the list hereunto annexed should 
be removed out of the gaols and other places of confinement in 
this our kingdom, and be put on board of the several transport 
ships which have been taken up for their reception, it is our 
royal will and pleasure that as s(xm as the said convicts, the 
several persons composing the civil establishments, and the 

• Ante, p. CI. 



25 April. 

Botany Bay. 

■\Viiie to be 
taken on 

Bills to be 

black cattle, 
sheep, &c. 

store.s, provisions, &c., provided for their use, shall be put on 
board the Supply, tender, and the transport ships named in the 
margin,* and be in readiness to depart, that you do take them 
under your protection and proceed in the Sirius with the said 
tender and transports to the port on the coast of New South 
Wales, situated in the latitude of 33° 41', called by the name of 
Botany Bay, agreeably to the instructions with which you will ])e 
furnished by the Commissioners of our Admiralty, in pursuance 
of our royal commands already signified to them. 

And whereas it may happen upon your passage to New South 
Wales that you may find it necessary and expedient to call with 
the ships and vessels under your convoy at the island of Tenerijffe, 
at the Rio de Janeiro, and also at the Cape of Good Hope, for 
supplies of water and other refreshments for the voyage, it is our 
further will and pleasure that you do upon your arrival at the 
former of those places take on board any of the ships of the 
convoy which you may think proper such quantities of Avine as 
may be requisite for the supply of the said settlement, according 
to the instructions with which the Commissary of Stores and 
Provisions will be furnished by the Commissioners of our Treasury, 
taking care that the quantities purchased do not exceed the 
proportions to be issued to the several persons composing the 
said settlement entitled thereto, agreeably to the said instructions, 
for the time to which they have confined the supply of that 
article ; and for the amount of such purchases you will direct 
the Commissary to draw bills of exchange upon them properly 
certified by you, or our Lieut. -Governor of the said intended 
settlement, with the other usual attestations that the same has 
been obtained at the most reasonable rates, transmitting at the 
same time an account thereof to them, in order that you may 
be released from any imprest which such purchases might occa- 

Notwithstanding there is already a considerable quantity of 
corn and other seed-grain put on board the ships of the convoy, 
probably more than may be immediately necessary for raising 
supplies for the settlement, we are disposed to guard as much as 
possible against accidents which may happen, or injuries which 
these articles might sustain during the passage : It is, therefore,, 
our further will and pleasure that you, upon your arrival at any 
of the places you may have occasion to touch at, endeavour to 
obtain such further quantities of seed-grain as you may think 
requisite for the tillage of the land at the place of your des- 
tination : And also that you do take on board any number of 
black cattle, sheep, goats, or hogs which you can procure, and the 
.ships of the convoy can contain, in order to propagate the breed 
of these animals for the general benefit of the intended settle- 
ment, causing the Commissary of Stores and Provisions to draAv 

* Alexander, Charlotte, Scarborough, Friendship, Prince of Wales, Lady Penrhyn. 

Phillip's instructions. 87 

bills for the same as is before directed for such supplies, as well i"87 
as for any fresh provisions which it may be requisite to procure 25 April, 
for the use of the marines or convicts at those places, and 
transmitting information to the Commissioners of our Treasury 
of such proceedings. 

And whereas it is intended that several of the transport ships Transports 
and victuallers which are to accompany you to New South Wales china 
should be employed in bringing home cargoes of tea and other 
merchandize, from China, for the use of the East India Company, 
provided they can arrive at Canton in due time, whereby a very 
considerable saving would arise to the public in the freight of 
these vessels : It is our royal will and pleasure that ujjon your 
arrival at Botany Bay, on the said coast of New South Wales, 
vou do cause every possible exertion to be made for disembarking to be 
the officers and men composing the civil and military establish- u^'Jo" jej, 
ments, together with the convicts, stores, provisions, &c., and 
having so done, you ai'e to discharge all the said transports or 
victuallers, in order that such of them as may be engaged by the 
East India Company may proceed to China, and that the rest may 
return home. You will, however, take care, before the said 
transport ships are discharged, to obtain an assignment to you or Assijmmeiit 
the Governor-in-Chief for the time being, from the masters of ^ thV*"''*^ 
them, of the servitude of the several convicts for the remainder Governor. 
of the times or terms specified in their sevei'al sentences or oi'ders 
of transportation. 

According to the best information which we have obtained, 
Botany Bay appears to be the most eligible situation upon the Botany Bay. 
said coast for the first establishment, possessing a commodious har- 
bour and other advantages which no part of the coast hitherto 
discovered affords. It is therefore our will and pleasure that you 
do immediately upon your landing, after taking measures for 
securing yourself and the people who accompany you as much as 
possible from any attacks or interruptions of the natives of 
that country, as well as for the preservation and safety of the 
public stores, proceed to the cultivation of the land, disti'ibuting cultivation 
the convicts for that purpose in such manner, and under such °f "^^^ '*'^'^- 
inspectors or overseers, and under such regulations as may 
appear to you to be necessary and best calculated for procuring 
supj)lies of grain and ground provisions. The assortment of tools Tools and 
and utensils which have been provided for the use of the convicts "tensiis. 
and other persons who are to compose the intended settlement are 
to l)e distriV)uted according to your discretion, and according to the 
emplo}Tnent assigned to the several persons. In the distribution, 
liowever, you will use every proper degree of economy, and be Economy, 
careful that the Commissary so transmit an account of the issues 
from time to time to the Commi.ssioners of our Treasury, to enable 
them to judge of the propriety or expediency of granting further 


1787 supplies. The clothing of the convicts and the provisions issued 
25 April, to them, and the civil and military establishments, must be 
accounted for in the same manner. 

And whereas the Commissioners of our Admiralty have ap- 
The sirius pointed Capt. Hunter to repair on boai^d the Sirius, to assist you 
aiu supp y .^^ ^j_^^ execution of your duty, and to take the command of the 
ship whenever you may see occasion to detach her from the settle- 
ment, and also to station the Supply, tender, under your orders, 
and to be assisting to you upon occasional services after your 
arrival. And whereas it is our royal intention that measures 
should be taken, in addition to those which are specified in the 
to go to the article of these our instructions, for obtaining supplies of live 

islands for ,, •,,.. ri-j.^.- i 

live stock, stock, and having, m consequence or such intention, caused a 
quantity of arms and other articles of merchandize to be pro- 
vided and sent out in the ships under your convoy, in order to 
barter with the natives either on the territory of New South 
Wales or the islands adjacent : It is our will and pleasure that 
as soon as either of these vessels can be spared with safety from 
the settlement you do detach one or both of them for that pur- 
pose, confining their intercourse as much as possible to such parts 
as are not in the possession or under the jurisdiction of other 
Eui'opean powers. 

The increase of the stock of animals must depend entirely upon 

the measures you may adopt on the outset for their preservation ; 

Amply and as the settlement will be amply supplied with vegetable 

with "^ productions, and most likely with fish, fresh provisions, excepting 

vegetables, f^,. ^j^g ^[q^ and convalescents, may in a great degree be dispensed 

with. For these reasons it will become you to be extremely 

Caution as to cautious in permitting any cattle, sheep, hogs, &c., intended for 

stock*^*^^""^' propagating the breed of such animals to be slaughtered until a 

competent stock may be acquired, to admit of your supplying the 

settlement from it with animal food without having further 

recourse to the places from whence such stock may have originally 

been obtained. 

It is our will and pleasure that the productions of all descriptions 

acquired by the labour of the convicts should be considered as a 

Public stock, public stock, which we so far leave to your disposal that such 

parts thereof as may be requisite for the subsistence of the said 

convicts and their families, or the subsistence of the civil and 

military establishments of the settlement, may be applied by you 

to that use. The remainder of such productions you will reserve 

More as a provision for a further number of convicts, which you may 

jonvicts expect will shortly follow you from hence, to be employed under 

to follow ^ - . . . , 1 "^ . 1 . , • , i • 

shortly. your direction in the manner pointed out m these our instructions 
to you. 

From the natural increase of corn and other vegetable food from 
a common industry, after the ground has once been cultivated, as 

Phillip's ixsTRrcxiONS. 89 

well as of animals, it cannot be expedient that all the convicts l'^87 
which accompany you should be employed in attending only to 25 AprU. 
the object of provisions. And, as it has been humbly represented 
to us that advantages may be derived from the fiax-plant which Flax. 
is found in the islands not far distant from the intended settle- 
ment, not only as a means of acqviiring clothing for the convicts 
and other persons who may become settlers, but from its superior 
excellence for a variety of maritime purposes, and as it may 
ultimately become an article of export, it is, therefore, our will and 
pleasure that you do particularly attend to its cultivation, and that 
you do send home by every opportunity which may offer samples Samples to 
ui this article, in order that a judgment may be formed whether home! 
it may not be necessary to instruct you further upon this subject. 

And whereas we are desirous that some further information Exploration 
should be obtained of the several ports or harbours upon the °^ ^^^ ^°^^' 
coast, and the islands contiguous thereto, within the limits of your 
government, you are, whenever the 8irius or the Supply, tender, 
can conveniently be spared, to send one, or both of them, upon 
that service. 

Norfolk Island, situated in the lat.* , and long.* east Norfolk 

from Greenwich about* , being represented as a spot which beTettied. 

may hereafter become useful, you are, as soon as circumstances 
will admit of it, to send a small establishment thither to secure 
the same to us, and prevent it being occupied by the subjects of 
any other European power ; and you will cause any remarks or 
observations which you may obtain in consequence of this instruc- 
tion to be transmitted to our Principal Secretary of State for 
Plantation Affairs for our information. 

And whereas it may happen, when the settlement shall be 
Ijrought into some state of regulation, that the service of the 
Sirius may not be necessary at the said settlement, and as we are 
desirous to diminish as much as possible the expences which the 
intended establishment occasions, you will, whenever the service 
of the said ship can be dispensed with, order Capt. Hunter to 
return with her to England. And as from such an arrangement the sinus to 
emoluments of your station will be diminished, it is our royal E,*"i™nd* 
intention that the same shall be made good to you by bills to be ° 
drawn by you upon the Commissioners of our Treasury. 

You are to endeavour by every possible means to open an inter- 
course with the natives, and to conciliate their affections, enjoin- 
ing all our subjects to live in amity and kindness with them. 
And if any of our subjects shall wantonly destroy them, or give Tiie natnes 
them any unnecessary interruption in the exercise of their several tectedr*^ 
occupations, it is our will and pleasure that you do cause such 
offenders to be brought to punishment according to the degree of 
the offence. You will endeavour to pi-ocure an account of the 
numbers inhabiting the neighbourhood of the intended settle- 

* Blanks in MS. 




25 April. 



Women to 
be brought 
from tlie 


Grants of 
land to 
ted convicts. 

and reser- 

Grants to be 

ment, and report your opinion to one of our Secretaries of State 
in what manner our intercourse with these people may be turned 
to the advantage of this colony. 

And it is further our royal will and pleasure that you do by 
all proper methods enforce a due observance of religion and good 
order among the inhabitants of the new settlement, and that you 
do take such steps for the due celebration of publick worship as 
circumstances will permit. 

And whereas, as from the great disproportion of female con- 
victs to those of the males who are put under your superinten- 
dance, it appears advisable that a further number of the latter 
should be introduced into the new intended settlement, you are, 
whenever the Sirius or the tender shall touch at any of the islands 
in those seas, to instruct their commanders to take on board any 
of the women who may be disposed to accompany them to the 
said settlement.* ■ You will, however, take especial care that the 
officers who may happen to be employed upon this service do 
not, upon any account, exercise any compulsive measures, or make 
use of fallacious pretences, for bringing away any of the said 
women from the places of their present residence. 

And whereas we have by our Commission, bearing date [2nd 
April] 1787, given and granted upon you full power and authority 
to emancipate and discharge from their servitude any of the convicts 
under your superintendance who shall, from their good conduct and 
a disposition to industry, be deserving of favour : It is our will 
and pleasure that in every such case you do issue your warrant to 
the Surveyor of Lands to make surveys of and mark out in lot.s 
such lands upon the said territory as may be necessary for their 
use ; and when that shall be done, that yovi do pass grants thereof 
with all convenient speed to any of the said convicts so emanci- 
pated, in such proportions and under such conditions and acknow- 
ledgments as shall hereafter be specified, viz. : — To every male 
shall be granted 30 acres of land, and in case he shall be married, 
20 acres more ; and for every child who may be with them at the 
settlement at the time of making the said grant, a further 
quantity of 10 acres, free of all fees, taxes, quit rents, or other 
acknowledgments whatsoever, for the space of ten years : Provided 
that the person to whom the said land shall have been granted 
shall reside within the same and proceed to the cultivation and 
improvement thereof ; reserving only to us such timber as may 
be growing, or to grow hereafter, upon the said land which may be 
fit for naval purposes, and an annual quit rent of f after the 

expiration of the term or time before mentioned. You will cause 
copies of such grants as may be passed to be preserved, and make 
a regular return of the said grants to the Commissioners of our 
Treasury and the Lords of the Committee of our Privy Council 
for Tx'ade and Plantations. 

*This part of the Instructions was not carried out. 

t Blank in MS. 

Phillip's instructions. 91 

And whereas it is likely to happen that the convicts who may 1787 
after their emancipation, in consequence of this instruction, be 25 April, 
put in possession of lands will not have the means of proceeding 
to their cultivation without the public aid : It is our will and 
pleasure that you do cause every such j^ei'son you may so eman- Emancipists 
cipate to be sujjplied with such a quantity of provisions as may ^°^^ |^P" 
])e sufficient for the subsistence of himself, and also of his family, for twelve 
twelve months, together with an assortment of tools and utensils, ^ 
and such a proportion of seed-grain, cattle, sheep, hogs, etc., as 
may be proper, and can be spared from the general stock of the 

And whereas many of our suVjjects employed upon military in view 
service at the said settlement, and others who may resort thither settlement, 
upon their private occupations, may hereafter be desirous of pro- 
ceeding to the cultivation and improvement of the land, and as 
we are disposed to afford them every reasonable encouragement 
in such an undertaking : It is our will and pleasure that you do, 
with all convenient speed, transmit a report of the actual state report on 
and quality ( jf the soil at and near the said intended settlement, * "^ =^1 • 
the probable and most effectual means of improving and cultivating 
the same, and of the mode, and upon what terms and conditions, 
according to the best of your judgement, the said lands should be 
granted, that proper instructions and authorities may be given 
to you for that purpose. 

And whereas it is our royal intention that every sort of inter- All inter- 
course between the intended settlement at Botany Bay, or other fore^g^i ports 
place which maybe hereafter established on the coast of New South prohibited. 
Wales and its dependencies, and the settlements of our East 
India Company, as well as the coast of China, and the islands 
situated in that part of the world, to which any intercourse has 
been established by any European nation, should be prevented 
by every possible means : It is our royal will and pleasure that 
you do not on any account allow craft of any sort to be built for >'o sailing 

'' vessels to 

the use of private individuals which might enable them to effect be built, 
such intercourse, and that you do prevent any vessels which may 
at any time hereafter arrive at the said settlement from any of 
the ports before mentioned frf)m having communication with any No com- 
of the inhaljitants residing within your Government, without lirst from ship 
receiving especial permission from you for that pux'pose. *° shore. 


Siu Charles Middletox to Under Secretary Nepeax.* 

Dear Sir, 

The Navy Board, in contracting for the victualling of the yictuaiiingr 
convicts on their passage, have observed the same rule that has 

* No date or address ; the letter, a i)rivate one, was sent, apparently, in April, 1787, to 
Under Secretarj- Nepean. 





No altera- 

&c., for the 

Two years' 

been always followed with soldiers onboard of transports — that is, 
two-thirds of what is allowed to the troops serving in the West 
Indies, spirits excepted. 

When it is considered that the confinement on shipboard will 
not admit of much exercise, this allowance will be found more 
advantageous to the health of the convicts than full allowance, 
and when compared to bread and water, which I take for granted 
is the prison allowance, may be termed abundance. 

For these reasons, and tlie impossibility of altering the contracts 
without adding considerably and unnecessarily to the expence of 
the public, and probably increasing the mortality by detaining the 
transports in this climate, I am of opinion no alteration should 
take place. 

In consequence of a letter lately received from the Treasury, the 
contractor proceeds to Portsmouth on Saturday to furnish the sick 
with fresh provisions and vegetables, and which may be extended 
to ye convicts and marines in general if an order is sent from the 
Treasury for that purpose, as also wine for ye sick ; and if flower 
is preferred to rice. Captain Philips may direct a preference on ye 
passage, and repay it out of the storeships on their arrival, but the 
substitute of r-ice for flower is agreable to ye Army contract, and 
so paid by the Treasury. 

In short, the convicts cannot suffer from short allowance, as they 
are provided with two years' stock of provisions, independent of 
what is laid in for their j^assage. I am, &c., 

Chas. Middletox. 

Lord Sydney to Governor Phillip. 
27 April. Sir, Whitehall, 27th April, 1787. 

I transmit you herewith his Majesty's commission* under 

the Great Seal appointing you Captain-Genei'al and Governor-in- 

Chief of the territory of New South Wales, together with a 

Com- commission, also passed under the Great Seal, for establishing a 

instructions! ^ourt of civil jurisdictionf within the said territory, and instructions 

under the Royal Sign Manual | for your guidance in the execution 

of the affairs of the territory to which you are appointed Governor. 

The commission for the trial of pirates, and that appointing 

you Vice- Admiral, and for other officers to form an Admiralty 

Court, I find are not yet compleated, but those commissions will 

be sent to you. I am, &c., 


Major Ross to Under Secretary NEPEAN.g 
Dear Sir, Portsmouth, 27th April, 1787. 

Anxieties. Before I bid a long farewell to you and home, will you give 

me leave to remind you of my being about to leave Mrs. Ross and 
very small tho' numerous family behind me. 

'Ante, p. 61. 

t Ante, pp. 70-70. J Ante, pp. 85-91. 

§ A private letter. 


I believe that you are no stranger to my circumstances in life ; 1787 
and that you know my daily pay to be the whole of the fortune 27 AjJi-ii. 
I am possessed of, to support and educate them, as well as to 
maintain myself. 

But do not, my dear sir, be alarmed, and suppose me about to 
solicit your assistance for an addition to this income, for, in truth, 
that is not my design. 

3Iy only view in mentioning the situation in which cruel necessity Provision for 
compels me to leave Mrs. lloss and my young family is, that in 
case any accident should deprive them of their all, in depriving them 
of me, you will then permit me to hope that your friendly assist- 
ance and interest shall be employ'd in endeavoui'ing to procure for 
the widow and fatherless some compensation from the public. 

As you are yourself both a husband and a father — both of 
which may you long continue to be in peace, health, and happi- 
ness — you will the more readily enter my present feelings, and the 
more easily excuse this application. Could I but be assured that 
INIrs. Ross and little ones would have your friendship to plead 
their cause in support of their claim, my oppress'd mind would 
then be reliev'd in some measure from a weighty load of the care 
and anxiety which you must naturally suppose me, at this time, a load 
to suffer on their account. of care. 

I have now only to add that this is the first instance in which 
the cordis of marines has been employ'd in any way out' of the An oppor- 
usual line of duty, and as I firmly believe that any part of it being the marine 
so employ'd is entirely owing to your friendly wish of drawing 
the coi'ps forth from that subordinate obscurity in which it has 
hitherto moved, — impress'd with this belief, permit me to offer 
you my own as well as the sincerest thanks of the ofiicers of the 
detachment under my command, for the generous opinion you 
have shown in favour of the corps, and to assure you that every 
nerve shall be strain'd in the faithful and diligent discharge of 
oui- duty, and I entertain not a doubt but that the conduct of 
the whole will be such as will not only do credit to your recom- 
mendation, but give satisfaction to the Administration. These 
much-wished-for objects obtain'd, I shall then ardently hope that 
what you once hinted to me might be the consequence, will, with 
your assistance, take place, and that we shall no moi'e return to our 
original obscurity, but become an active corps of your own creation, ^.n active 

Adieu, my dear sir, and with real esteem and regard, believe ''^"i'*- 

me, Arc, 11, Ross. 

Lord Sydney to Goveunor Puilup. 

Sir, Whitehall 28th April, 1787. 

The King judging it necessary, in case of your death or 
absence from your Govei'imieut of the territory of New South ^s April. 
Wales, that an officer properly qualified to execute that trust 
shall be appointed to succeed you, and that a dormant commission 




27 April. 


3 May. 

orders for 
Botany Bay. 

5 Maj'. 

Phillip may 
leave tlie 

5 May. 

Spirits for 
the marines. 

for that purpose should be in your possession, his Majesty has 
been pleased to name Captain John Hunter, second captain of 
his Majesty's ship the Sirius, to be Governor of the said territory 
in either of those events, and to sign a commission for that 
purpose, which I herewith send you.* I am, &c., 

, Sydxey. 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 
Sir, [London] May 3d, 1787. 

You will please to inform the Right Hon'ble the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty that I have received their Lord- 
ships' order for the Hytiena's going one hundred leagues to the 
westward with his Majesty's ship under my command, and the 
order respecting the Supply, tender, as likewise their Lordships 
order to proceed to Botany Bay, on the coast of New South 
Wales, which orders I shall carry into execution with all possible 
expedition. I have, (fee, 

A. Phillip. 

Lord Sydney to the Lords op The Admiralty.! 
My Lords, Whitehall, 5th May, 1787. 

As it may be expedient for Capt. Phillip to arrive upon 
the coast of New South Wales previous to the convoy under his 
protection, in order to fix upon an eligible spot for their settle- 
ment, and to make proper arrangements for the landing of the 
marines and convicts, I am commanded to signify to your Lord- 
ships the King's pleasure that you do authorize Captain Phillip, 
upon his leaving the Cape of Good Hope, to proceed, if he thiiiks 
fit, to the said coast of New South Wales in the Supply, tender J, 
leaving the convoy to be escorted by the Sirius to the rendezvous 
which he may fix upon. [No signature.] 

Lord Sydney to Governor Phillip. 
Sir, Whitehall, 5th May, 1787. 

It has not been thought advisable that the detachment of 
marines intended to be landed on the coast of New South Wales 
shall be constantly supplied with wine or spirits, but as it may 
happen that the service upon which they may be employed 
may require such an addition to the ration with which they are 
directed to be supplied, I am commanded to acquaint you that 
upon your arrival at Rio de Janeiro, or at the Cape of Good 
Hope, you have permission to order the Commissary to purchase 
such a quantity of spirits or wine for their use as he can obtain 

* Not recorded. 

t This letter is not signed, but it is obviously from Lord Sydney. 

X This proposal was carried out by Phillip, but owing to the bad sailing of the Supply he 
arrived at Botany Bay only one day before the Alexander, Scarborough, and Friendship, and 
two days before the Sirius, Charlotte, Prince of Wales, and Ladj' Penrhyn. See Phillip's 
letter to Lord Sydney, post, p. 121. 


for ,£200. You will order him to draw bills upon the Ti'easury 1787 
for that sum, and cause the said wine or spii'its to be issued to siiay. 
the said marines at such times and in such proportions as you 
may judge requisite ; you will, however, observe that no further 
quantity of wine or spirits will hereafter be allowed for that 

purpose. I am, etc., 


Lord Sy'^dxey' to Goverxor Phillip. 

Sir, Whitehall, 5th May, 1787. 

By your instructions under the Royal Sign Manual, you 
are referred to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for 
permission to discharge forty of the petty officers and men l^e- 
longing to the Sirius, in case you should hereafter have it in your 
power to dispense with the service of that ship, but it has since 
been determined that after your arrival at New South Wales Seamen 
your proceedings should be regulated by the Secretary of State, Slgcharfed 
and I am in consequence to signify to you that you have jjer- 
mission to discharge as many of the said forty petty officers and 
seamen from the Sirius as you may think proper, whenever you 
may determine to send that ship to England, and also to discharge 
twenty petty officers and men from the Supply, tender, in like 
manner, in case you should order the said tender to return home, 
provided that there be left on board the said ship and tender a 
sufficient number of men to navigate them during the voyage. 

You have also permission, if you should tind it necessary, to 
<lischarge from time to time from the Sirius or the Supply, tender, 
any of the marines belonging to the detachment appointed to 
serve on shore whenever any event shall take place to reduce 
the number of which the said detachment now consists. 

I am, &c., 

Letters Patent Constituting the Vice-Admiralty Court. 
(Ieoroe the Third by the Grace of God of Great Britain France commission 
and Ireland King Defender of the Faith. To our trusty and well- to form a 
beloved Arthur Phillip Esquire our Captain-General and Governor- Admiralty 
in-Chief of the territory called New South Wales extending from *^'°""' 
the Northern Cape or extremity of the coast called Cape York in the 
latitude of ten degrees thirty-seven minutes south to the southern 
extremity of the said territory of New South Wales or South Cape 
in the latitude of forty-three degrees thirty-nine minutes south 
and of all the country inland to the westward as far as the one 
hundred and thirty-fifth degree of east longitude reckoning from 
the meridian of Greenwich including all the islands adjacent in the 
Pacific Ocean within the latitude aforesaid of 10" 37' south and 
43^ 39' south and our Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief of 
the said territory called New South Wales for the time being, 



5 May. 

Act of 
recited, 11 & 
12 Win. Ill, 
c. 7. 

Trial by 


Power to 


and to 
assemble a 
Court of 

or three, 
who should 
have power 
to summon 
four more. 

Robert Ross Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of the said territory 
called New South Wales and the Lieutenant-Governor of the said 
territory for the time being, 

Andrew Miller Esquire, Commissary of Stores and Provisions in 
the said territory called New South Wales, and the Commissary 
of Stores in the said territory for the time being, 

Augustus Alt Esquire, Surveyor of Lands in the said territory 
called New South Wales, and the Surveyor of Lands in the said 
territory for the time being, 

John Hunter Esquire, second Captain of our ship Sirius, William 
Bradley Esquire, first Lieutenant, Philip Gidley King Esquire, 
second Lieutenant, and George William Maxwell, third Lieutenant 
of the said ship Sirius, Henry Lidgbird Ball Esquire, Lieutenant 
and Commander of the Supply, armed tender, and ail other Captains 
and Commanders of our ships who are or shall be within the Ad- 
miralty jurisdiction of the said territory called New South Wales, 

Greeting : 

Whereas by an Act of Parliament made in the eleventh and 
twelfth year of the reign of our late Royal Predecessor King 
William tlie Third intituled an Act for the more effectual suppres- 
sing of Piracy (reciting as therein recited) it is amongst other 
things enacted that all piracies, felonies or robberies committed 
in or upon the sea or in any haven, river, creek or place where the 
Admiral or Admirals have power authority or jurisdiction may be 
examined, enquired of, tryed, heard, and determined and adjudged 
according to the directions of the said Act in any place at sea or 
upon the land in any of his said late Majesty's islands, plantations, 
colonies, dominions, forts or factories to be appointed for that 
purpose by his said late Majesty's Commission or Commissions 
under the Great Seal of England, or the Seal of the Admiralty of 
England, directed to all or any of the Admirals, Vice-Admirals, 
Rear- Admirals, Judges of Vice- Admiralties or Commanders of 
his said late Majesty's ships-of-war, and also to all or any such 
person or persons officer or officers by name or for the time being 
as his said late Majesty should think lit to ajipoint : 

Which said Commissioners should have full power jointly or 
severally by warrant under the hand or seal of them or any one 
of them to commit to safe custody any person or persons against 
whom information of piracy, robbery or felony upon the sea should 
be given upon oath and to call and to assemble a Court of 
Admiralty on ship-board or upon the land when and as often as 
occasion should require, which Court should consist of seven 
persons at the least : 

And it is thereby further enacted that if so many of the persons 
aforesaid could not conveniently be assembled, any three of the 
aforesaid persons, whereof the president or chief of some English 
factory or the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or member of his 


said late jNIajesty's Council in any of the plantations or colonies ^"^^^ 
aforesaid or Commander of one of his late Majesty's ships was 5 May. 
always to be one (should be one), should have full power and 
authority by virtue of the said Act to call and assemble any 
other persons on ship-board or upon the land to make up the 
number of seven : 

And it is thereby also provided that no persons but such as were 
known merchants, factors or planters or such as were captains 
lieutenants or warrant officers in any of his late Majesty's ships-of- Qualifi- 
war or captains, masters or mates of some English ship should be ^"'^^^°"^- 
capable of being so called and sitting and voting in the said 
Court : 

And it is thereljy further enacted that such persons, called and 
assembled as aforesaid, should have full power and authority power to 
according to the course of the Admiralty to issue warrants for '^^".'^ ^f" 

!•• ir.-iiTn. rants of 

bringmg up any persons accused or piracy or robbery before them arrest, to 
to be tryed heard and adjudged, and to summon witnesses and take witnesses, 
informations and examinations of witnesses xipon their oath, and to take 
to do all things necessary for the hearing and tinal determination and to°^' 
of any case of piracy robbery and felony, and to give sentence and rro"o™ce 
judgement of death, and to award execution of the offenders con- 
victed and attainted as aforesaid according to the civil law and 
the methods and rules of the Admiralty, and that all and every 
person and persons so convicted and attainted of piracy and rob- 
bery should have and suffer such losses of lands, goods, and chattels 
as if they had been attainted and convicted of any piracies, felonies, 
and robberies according to a statute made in the twenty-eighth 
year of the reign of King Henry the Eightli for tryals of treasons, 2s Hen. 
felonies, robberies, murthers and confederacies commited upon the ^^^^' '^- ^^• 
sea : 

Which said first-recited Act by another Act made in the fifth 
year of the reign of our late Royal Predecessor Queen Anne, was 
continued from the expiration thereof for the further term of seven 
years and from then to the end of the then next session of Parlia- 
ment which by another Act made in the first year of the reign of 
our late Royal Ancestor King George the First was revived from 
the twenty-ninth day of September 1715 and was to be in force 
during the continuance of that Act which was to continue for five soco. i, 
years and from then to the end of the next session of Parliam,cnt '';e,'t;tuai'° 
and which 1 )y an Act made in the sixth year of the reign of our said 
late Royal Ancestor King George the First was made perpetual : 

And whereas by one other Act of Parliament made in tlie eighth 
year of the reign of our said late Royal Ancestor King George the 
First entituled an Act for the more effectual suppression of Piracy 
(i-eciting as therein is recited) It is amongst other tilings thereby 
enacted that all and every person and persons therein and thei-eby 
declared to be guilty of or accessory or accessories to any piracy 


1787 felony or robbery sliall and may be enqnired of, heai'd, determined 

5 May. and adjudged of and for all or any the matters contained in the 

Procedure ^^^^ last-recited Act according to the said statute made in the 

eleventh and twelfth years of his late Majesty King William the 

Third and that all and every person being thereupon attainted and 

convicted should have and sutFer such pain of death and loss of 

Punishment lands goods and chattels as pirates and robbers ought by the said 

tk)n.°""'^ Act of the eleventh and twelfth years of his late Majesty King 

William the Third to suffer : 

Now know ye that in pursuance of the said recited Act of the 
eleventh and twelfth year of the reign of his said late Majesty 
King William the Third and of the eighth year of our said late 
Royal Ancestor King George the First, of our special grace certain 
knowledge and meer motion have made constituted and appointed 
Commis- and by these presents do hereby constitute and appoint you the 
appoi"ted. ^^^^ Arthur Phillip Esquire, and our Captain-Genei-al and Gover- 
nor-in-Chief of the said territory called Xew South Wales for the 
time being, 

Robert Ross Esquire, and our Lieutenant-Governor of the said 
territory called Xew South Wales for the time being, 

Andrew Miller Esquire, and the Commissary of Stores and Pro- 
visions of the said territory called Xew South Wales for the time 

Augustus Alt Esquire and the Surveyor of Lands in the said 
territory called Xew South Wales for the time being, 

John Hunter, William Bradley, Philip Gidley King, George 
William Maxwell and Henry Lidgbird Ball Esquire and the Captain 
and Commander of our ships who are or shall be within the Admi- 
ralty jurisdiction of the said territory called Xew South Wales 

To be our Commissioners at the said territory called Xew South 

Wales for the examining, enquiring of, trying, hearing and deter- 

Jurisdiction' mining and adjudging according to the directions of the same Acts 

of the Court. -^^ ^^^ place at sea or upon the land at the said territory called 

Xew South Wales, all piracies, felonies and robberies and all 

assessories thereunto committed or which shall be committed in or 

upon the sea or within any haven, river, creek or place where the 

Admiral or Admirals have power authority or jurisdiction : 

Commis- And you the said Arthur Phillip Esquire and our Captain- 

sioners. General and Governor-in-Chief of the said territory called Xew 

South Wales for the time being : 

Robert Ross Esquire and our Lieutenant-Governor of the said 
territoiy called Xew South Wales, for the time being, 

Andrew Miller Esquire and the Commissary of Stores and 
Provisions of the said territory called Xew South Wales for the 
time being, 

Augustus Alt Esquire and the Surveyor of Lands in the said 
territory called Xew South Wales for the time being, 


John Hunter, William Bi'adley, Philip Gidley King, George 1787 
William Maxwell and Henry LidgV)ird Ball Esquire and the Cap- 5 May. 
tains and Commanders of our ships who are or shall be within the 
Admiralty jurisdiction of the said tei-ritory called New South 

Our Commissioners at the said territory called New South 
Wales for the purposes hereinbefore mentioned We do make, 
ordain and constitute by these presents, hereby giving and granting 
unto you our said Commissionors jointly or severally by warrant 
under the hand and seal of you or any one of you full power and empowered 
autliority to commit to safe custody any person or persons against ° '^"■^^^ > 
whom information of piracy, robbery or felony upon the sea as 
accessory or accessories thereto shall be given upon oath (which 
cath you or any one of you shall have full power and are hereby 
authorised to administer) : 

And to call and assemble a Court of Admiralty on shipboard or and to 
upon the land when and as often as occasion shall require, which assemble 
Court our will and pleasure is shall consist of seven persons at the 
least and if so many of you our said Commissioners cannot conveni- 
ently be assembled any three or more of you whereof you the said 
Arthur Phillip Esquire, our Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief Commis- 
of tlie said territory called New South Wales, or the Captain-General 
and Governor-in-Chief of the said territory for the time being. 

Or you the said Robert Ross Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of 
the said territory called New South Wales, or the Lieutenant- 
Governor of the said territory, for the time being. 

Or you the said Andrew Miller Esquire, Commissary of Stores 
and Provisions in the said territory called New South Wales, or 
the Commissary of Stores and Provisions for the time being, 

Or you the said Augustus Alt Esquire, Surveyor of Lauds in 
the said territory called New South Wales, or the Surveyor of 
Lands in the said territory for the time being, 

Or you the said John Hunter Esquire, second Captain of our 
ship Sirius, William Bradley Esquire, first Lieutenant, Philip 
Gidley King Esquire, second Lieutenant, and George William 
Maxwell Esquire, third Lieutenant, of the said ship Sirius, or you 
the said Henry Lidgljird Ball Esquire, Lieutenant and Commander 
of the Supply, armed tender, or a commander of one of our ships 
(as the place of tryall shall appear) to be always one, 

Shall have full power and authoi-ity by virtue of the said recited empowered 
Acts and these presents to call and assemble any other persons on l?J^^^ '^ 
shipboard or upon the land to make up the number of seven. 

Provided that no persons but such as are known mercliants, 
factors, or planters or such as are captains, lieutenants or warrant 
officers in any of our ships-of-war or captains masters or mates of Qualiflca- 
some English ship shall be capable of being so called sitting and t'ons. 
acting in the said Court. 



5 Ma^•. 

Power of 

Effect of 


to be read in 
open Court. 


Court to be 
fruided by 
statutes and 

to act. 

And our further pleasure is, and We do hereby expressly declare 
find command, that such persons called and such other persons 
liereby authorised and assembled as aforesaid, shall have full power 
and authority according to the course of Admiralty to issue war- 
rants for bringing any persons accused of such piracy, robbery, or 
felony or as accessory thereto, and to give sentence and judgment 
of death and to award execution of the offenders convicted and 
attainted as aforesaid according to the civil law and the methods 
and rules of the Admiralty : 

And that all and every person and persons so convicted and 
attainted of piracy, robbery, or felony or as accessoiy thereto, shall 
have and suffer such losses of lands goods and chattels as if they 
had been attainted and convicted of any piracies, felonies, and 
robberies according to the aforementioned statute made in the 
reign of King Henry the Eighth. 

And our express will and pleasure is, and We do hereby direct 
and command that so soon as any Court shall be assembled as afore- 
said, either on shipboard or upon the land, this our Commission 
shall first be openly read and the said Court then and there shall 
be solemnly and publicly called and proclaimed, and then the Pre- 
sident of such Court shall in the first place publicly in open Court 
take the oath mentioned and appointed to be taken by the said 
recited Act of the eleventh and twelfth years of the reign of his 
said late Majesty KingWilliam the Third, and such President having 
taken the oath in manner aforesaid shall immediately administer the 
same to every person who shall sit and have a vote in the said 
Court upon the tryaUof such prisoner or prisoners as aforesaid. 

And lastly We do hereby direct empower and require you our 
said Commissioners to proceed act adjudge and determine in all 
things according to the powers authorities and directions of the 
above-recited Acts and of these presents. 

And these presents or the entry or registering thereof in our 
High Court of Admiralty shall be unto you and each and every 
one of you for so doing a sufficient warrant and discharge. 

In witness whereof we have caused the Great Seal of our High 
Court of Admiralty of England to be hei^eunto affixed. 

Given at London the fifth day of May in the year of our 
Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven and 
of our reign the twenty-seventh. 

GoDF. Lee Farrant, 

7 May 

Memorial prom the Marines. "^ 

Scarborough, transport. May 7th, 1787. 
We, the marines embarked on board the Scarborough, who have 
voluntarily entered on a dangerous expedition replete with num- 

* The memorial is not addressed ; it was intended, apparently, for the officer commanding 
the detachment. 


herless difficulties, which in the faithful discharge of our duty 1787 
we must necessarily be exposed to, and supposing ourselves 5 May. 
to be on the same footing as if embarked on board any of his 
]\laj's ships of war, or as the seamen and marines on the same 
expedition with us, we hope to receive the same indulgence, now 
conceive ourselves sorely aggrieved by finding the intentions of 
Government to make no allowance of spiritous liquor or wine 
nfter our arrival at the intended colony in New South Wales.* 
A moderate distribution of the above-ment'd article being spirits, 
indispensibly requisite for the preservation of our lives, which "^cessary. 
change of climate and the extreme fatigue we shall be necessarily 
exposed to may probably endanger, we therefore humbly entreat 
you will be pleased to convey these our sentiments to Major 
Ross. Presuming, sir, that you will not only be satisfied that 
our demand is reasonable, but will also perceive the urgent 
necessity there is for a compliance with our request, flatter 
ourselves you will also use your influence to cause a removal of 
the uneasiness we experience under the idea of being restricted 
in the supply of one of the jirincipal necessaiys of life, without 
which, for the reasons above stated, we cannot expect to survive 
the hardships incident to our situation. You may depend on a Hardships 
chearful and ready discharge of the public duties that may be 
onjoyned us. The design of Government is, we hope, to have a 
feeling for the calamities we must encounter. So as to induce 
them to provide in a moderate and reasonable degree for our 
maintenance and preservation, we beg leave to tender our most 
dutiful assurances of executing to the utmost of our power our 
several abilities in the duty assign'd, so that we remain in every 
respect loyal subjects to our King and worthy members of society 

[Signed by the Detachment.] 

GovERXOR Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Sir, Portsmouth, 8th May, 1787. 8 May. 

Since my coming down I am informed by Major Ross that 
the marines who were embai'ked at Plymouth were told by huu 
that they were to be victualled in the usual manner after they 
were landed in New South Wales, and that they all in general 
expected the usual allowance of wine or spirits. He likewise in- Spirits for 
forms me that he understood from Lord Howe that they were to *'"= '"''■''"^s- 
have such an allowance, as they have no market to go to, and I 
fear mucli discontent amongst the garrison. I wish such an allow- 
ance could be granted them ; indeed, I fear very disagreeable con- Disagreeable 
sequences if they have not tlie same allowance of spirits in the ^^g^fj^g ^j 
garrison as the marines and seamen are allowetl on board the refusal. 

* The allowance was granted for three years. See letter from Under Secretary Nepean, 
post, p. 102. 




8 May. 

10 May. 

The liquor 


Sirius, and they certainly were told they should be victualled in 
the same manner. Spirits may be purchased in the Brazil. 

The contractor promises that everything shall be on board next 
Thursday ; if so, I shall be ready to sail the day after. 

I have not yet received either the character of the convicts, or 
the letter to the Vice-King.* You will be so good as to favor me 
with Lord Sydney's final determination respecting the allowance 
of spirits. Major Ross has received some letters from the marines, 
which he sends to the Admiralty by this day's post. 

I have, &c., 
A. Phillip. 

Under Secretary Nepean to Goverxor Phillip. 

Sir, Whitehall, 10th May, 1787. 

It never was intended that the marines, after landing in New 
South Wales, should be allowed either wine or spirits, and I am 
rather inclined to think that Major Ross must have mistaken Lord 
Howe upon that point, for in the estimate of victualling, which was 
delivered in with the original plan, it was particularly expressed 
that "the usual rations should be given, excepting wine and spirits." 

Lord Sydney wishing, however, to i*emove every possible cause 
of dissatisfaction, has desired me to acquaint you that he shall 
recommend it to the Lords of the Treasury to pay such bills as 
you may authorise the Commissary to draw at the places you may 
touch at during your passage, for a portion of wine or spirits 
sufficient to serve the marines for the space of three years, at 
the expiration of which time it must be understood that no 
further supplies of that sort will be allowed. I am, &c., 

Evan Nepean. 

11 May. 


Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sirius, on the Motherbank, 
Dear Sir, 11th May, 1787. 

Since my letter of this morning I have seen the bread which 
the contractoi's offered for the convicts, in the room of what was 
to be baked, and which could not have been ready before Monday. 
It is good, tho' coarse, and I have ordered it to be sent on board 
this evening. 

The order Major Ross received from the Admiralty i-especting 
the marines has the following words : To be properly victualled 
by a Commissary. On this they grounded their letters of com- 
The marines plaint. But this business is now settled. All are satisfied. I 
satisfied. return you Lord Sydney's letter, and hope we shall not give you 
any further trouble. Had I sailed when first I came down some 
of the ships must have gone short of water, which is not yet 
compleat, but will, I hope, this evening ; and we must likewise 

* The Portuguese Governor of Rio de Janeiro, at which port the fleet was to put in for 


have left all the necessaries for the sick behind us (they not 1767 
coming down before last night), as well as a great deal of pro- ii May. 
visions. In fact, it was not possible to sail before this day, and pgig^ 
now, unfortunately, the wind is westerly, and blows fresh. The shipping 
reason the contractor assigns for not having the provisions on i^'''^^^"^'^^- 
board sooner was having only three ovens to bake the bread, and 
in doing which he has lost no time since he received the Navy 
Board's order. I shall not lose a moment after there is the least 
chance of getting down channel ; on that you may depend. 

No spirits can be received at present on board any of the ships. Spirits to be 
but the greatest economy will be used in purchasing as much as a^EnSi! 
the ships can stow when in the Brazil, where it is reasonable. 

I have received the warrant for appointing courts-martial, the 
articles of war, and the order for the Commissary's purchasing 
three years' spirits. The two letters for the Vice-King and the 
Governor of the Cape are not yet received ; but I must beg of 
you, my dear sir, to point out to the Navy Board that for 
women's cloathes I have no resource, and desire them to order The women's 
that they may be sent down. The agent for the transports, who clothing. 
has corresponded with that Board on this subject, says he has 
expected them for some time. Be assured that I shall not wait 
a single hour for them after it is possible to sail. I had desired 
that the Sirius and Supply, armed tender, might not be paid 
the two months' advance till the day before I intended to sail, 
and that was done yesterday. 

It is not in my power to send you my lists at present more 
correct than those you have received from Major Ross, but you 
shall have one by the return of the " Hysena," for I hope we 
shall not remain here long enough to make it out, as it will take 
some days to examine the different ships. 

Once more I take my leave of you, fully sensible of the trouble prospective 
you have had in this business, for which at present I can only advantages, 
thank you ; but at a future period, when this country feels the 
advantages that are to be drawn from our intended settlement, 
you will enjoy a satisfaction that will, I am sure, make you 
ample amends. 

Wishing you health, — • I remain, (tc, 

■ A. Phillip. 

Governor Puillip to Secretary Stephens. 
Sir, Sirius, May ll'th, 1787. 12 May. 

You will please to inform the Right Honorable the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty that the transports having on 
Friday evening compleated their pro\isions, and the wind this 
morning coming round to the south-east, I made the signal and 
got under weigh, but the seamen on board several of the trans- ^^ ^^^^ 
ports refusing to get their ships under sail, put me under the under weigh. 




11 Mav. 





Clothing left 



disagreeable necessity of ordering eight men to be taken out of 
the Fishburn ; and the seamen on board the Alexander refusing 
to pi'oceed to sea unless they were paid what wages were then 
due and had permission to go on shore, and that when I was 
under sail, I ordered Capt. de Courcey to take out the boatswain 
and ten men from that ship, and replace them with men from the 
Hya?na, but when I was proceeding to St. Hellen's, finding that 
two of the ships that had got under sail anchored at Spithead, 
and that several remained at anchor on the Motherbank, where I 
had desired Capt. de Courcey to remain till they were all under 
sail, I judged it necessary to anchor between the buoys, and 
this morning (Sunday) having a fresh breeze at S.E. am again 
under sail, and hope the transports will follow, but they ha^•e 
hitherto behaved very ill. 

It may be necessary to inform their Lordships that the pro- 
visions and water on board the transports was not compleated 
till yesterday, which jDrevented our sailing sooner, and now we 
leave a considerable part of the women's cloathing behind us. 

Inclosed is the state and condition of his Majesty's ship under 
my command. I have, kc, 

A. Phillip. 

Ma.tor Koss to Secretary Stephens. 

His Maj's. ship Sirius, Mother Bank, 

Sir, 12th May, 1787. 

You will please to inform my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty that the shijis are now getting under sail, with a fair 
wind, and that I have not time to comply with their order for an 
effective list to be sent in the correct manner I wish it, but that 
it shall be sent by the Hysena, on her return*; and as I have 
discharged from the detachment all the non-commissioned officers 
and private men who are not sufficiently recovered to be received 
again, and the commanding officer thinks the mode correct and 
proper, all of them belong to this division, and have not contracted 
any additional debt since they embarked, I hope their Lordships will 
find that [the list] answer the purpose untill the other can be sent. 

I have likewise, in the name of- the whole of the detachment, 
to offer to their Lordships their most sincere and grateful acknow- 
ledgments for their wonted goodness and attention to everything 
that could I'ender their situation comfortable, and, at the same 
time, am desired to assure their Lordships that if a most strict 
and faithful discharge of their duty will evince their gratitude 
they shall still hope for a continuance of their protection. 

I feel myself particularly fortunate in joining with the officers 
in expressing their sense of the honour their Lordships hav6 done 
us by the very particular and flattering attention which they have 
been pleased to pay to us on all occasions. I am, ifec, 

R. Ross, Major. 

* Post, p. T06. 


Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens.* 1787 

Sirius ; latitude, 47° 57'; longitude, 12^ 14' 30", 

►^ii', May 20th, 1787. 20 May. 

You will please to inform my Lords Commissioners of the 
Admiralty that his Majesty's ship Sirius, under my command, 
with the Supply, armed tender, and the transports intended for 
the coast of New South Wales, being nearly one hundred leagues 
distant from the entrance of the English Channel, I have, pur- 
suant to their Lordships' orders, directed Capt. de Courcey to 
return to Plymouth, sending dispatches by him for the Right Despatches; 
Hon'ble Lord Sydney. 

And you will, sir, inform their Loixlships that the Fishburn 
having left five of her people on shore, and Caj^t. de Courcey 
having assisted her with three men, who the master has requested Transfers. 
may remain, I have given Capt. de Courcey orders to discharge 
them from the Hyaena, it being with his consent and that of the 
people's that the master of the Fishburn has made this request. 

Nothing particular has happened since we sailed from Ports- 

Inclosed you will receive the state and condition of his Majesty's 
ship Sirius, but there is too much sea to send on Ijoard the Supply Sirius. 
for her weekly account, or to get any return of the marines or 
convicts from the diiFerent transports. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary ISTepean.I 
Dear Sir, Sirius, May 20th, 1787. 

As we are now nearly one hundred leagues clear of the 
Channel, the Hyaena leaves us this evening to return to Plymouth, The Channel 
Jjut the sea runs too high to send on board the different tians- '■'''^'■'^''• 
ports to get any particular account of the state of the convicts. 
r have, therefore, only to repeat what I said in my last from the 
Motherbank, that a great joart of the women's cloathing was not ciothintr 
come down from London when we sailed, nor did I receive the '*"" ''ehind. 
letters for the Vice-King. The Provost-Martial, who had not been a nu.ssin- 
.since seen for a considerable time before we sailed, is left behind. Mai^hai. 
As it will be very necessary to have such an officer on the spot, 
I have ordered Mr. Henry Brewer to act as such, and shall be 
glad if he is approved of. I enclose a copy of the last returns, 
and shall send you a more particular account fi-ctm TenerifF. At 
present our motion is such that I find it very difficult to sit at 
tal)le, but the weather is good, and tho' the Charlotte and Lady 
Penrhyii sail very badly, the clearing the Channel is one great All ditti- 
point gained, and with which I look on all our difficultys as ".fj.ui.'''' 
<'iided. T am, &c., 

A. Phillip. 
Latt., 47° 57'. Long., 12° 14' 30". AVind, W. by N. 

* Sent by the Hyccna. t A private letter, sent by the Hya;na. 




20 May. 

A convict 

Return by Major Ross.* 

One Major, 2 Captains, 2 Captain-Lieutenants, 9 First Lieuten- 
ants, 3 Second Lieutenants, 1 Adjutant, 1 Quarter-master, 1 Judge- 
Advocate, 12 sergeants, 12 corporals, 8 drummers, 160 privates. 

Major C ominanding : — Robert Ross. 

Captains : — James Campbell and John Sliea. 

Captain- Lieutenants : — James Meredith and Watkin Tench. 

First Lieutenants: — James Maxwell, John Creswell, John 
Poulden, John Johnstone, James Maitland Shairp, George Johnston, 
Robert Kellow, Thomas Davey, Thomas Timins. 

Second Lieutenants : — Ralph Clarke, William Faddy, William 
Adjutant Second Lieutenant : — John Long. 

Quarter-master First Lieutenant : — James Furzer. 

Judge-Advocate : — David Collins. 

Total, 20. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean.I 
My Dear Sir, Sirius, May 20th, 1787. 

Since I sealed my letters I have received a report from the 
officers on board the Scarborough respecting the convicts, who, it is 
said, have formed a scheme for taking possession of the ship. J I have 
order'd the ringleaders on b'd the Sirius, and should not mention 
the affair at this moment, as I have no time to enter into par- 
ticulars, but that I suppose it will be mention'd in letters from 
that ship. I did intend to write to Lord Sydney, but it is late, 
and I wish the boats on board the different ships. You may 
assure his Lordship of my respects, and tell him the reason that 
prevents my writing to him. I am, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Compliments and good wishes to Mr. T. Townshend.§ 

5 June. 

At Santa 

health of the 


Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney.|| 

Sirius, at S'ta Crux [Teneriffe], 
My Lord, June 5th, 1787. 

I have the honor to inform your LordshijD that I anchored 
here the 3rd inst., with his Majesty's ship under my command, 
the Supply tender, store-ships, and transports. By the inclosed 
list your Lordship will see that the convicts are not so sickly as 
when we sailed, and while we remain here the Commissary will be 
able to procure them fresh meat at a very moderate expence. 

I understood when the marines, who were to form the garrison, 
were embarked that they would be furnished with ammunition : 

* Sent by the Hysena.ante, p. 104. 
t A private letter, sent by the Hyaena. 
i See letter from Pliillip to Nepeaii. Post, p. 108. 

§ The Hon. John Thomas Townshend, Lord Sydney's son. At the time this letter was 
■written he was one of the Under Secretaries of the Home Department. 
II A similar despatch was sent to the Admiralty. 



but since we sailed find that they were only supplied with what 1787 
was necessary for immediate service while in port, and we have 5 june. 
neither musquet balls noi- paper for musquet cartridges, nor have 
we any armourer's tools to keep small arms in repair. 

I am therefore to request that your Lordship will be pleased to The women's 
give orders that those articles may be sent out by the first ship, again. " 
and for which, as well as for the women's cloathing that was left 
behind, we shall be much distressed. I hope the transports will 
be able to compleat their water by the 9th, and shall not lose an 
hour after that is done. I have, ifec, 

A. Phillip. 
State of the Sick Convicts and Marines, June 4, 1787. 

















Charlotte — 


• • • 

• . • 




• . • 


. * . 










Alexander — 


• • t 

> > * 



* , , 

• . • 



• • < 







Scarl)oroiigh — 



• ■• 

. . ■ 

. . . 





. . . 

. . • 


*. . 


Friendship — 






. . . 

. . . 




Lady Penrhyn — • 








Prince of Wales — 



. . . 



















Total number sick, 81. * Since May 13, 

John White. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

My Dear Sir, Sta. Crux, 5th June, 1787. 

I have the pleasure of informing you that I anchored hero 

the third, late in the evening, and by the returns, made to Lord 

Sydney, you will see that the convicts are in a bettei' state than 

when we sailed. 

The procuring fresh meat being al)solutely necessary, and purchase ot 
wishing that it should be done with as little expence to Govern- fresh meat. 


1787 ment as possible, I have ordered bread to be issued to the marines 
G June, and convicts from the store-ships, for it could not be got here 
but at a very high price. The butter intended for the use of the 
garrison will be good for very little, and much wasted before we 
Butter. land, from being in single firkins. A proportion of butter I have 
therefore ordered also to be served while Ave remain here, and by 
which means the marines and convicts will have fresh provisions 
at a less expense to Government (including the value of the biscuit 
and butter) than if they had continvied on salt provisions. 
No As we have sailed without either musquet cartridges for the 

lepaiiiny use of the garrison, or paper or ball to make them, we shall have 
tools. none but what little the Sirius can supply. This I have men- 

tioned in my letter to Lord Sydney. Nor have we any tools to 
keep the small arms in repair, the want of which will put us to 
many inconveniences. 

In my letters by the Hytena I mentioned the apprehensions 
the officers on board the tScarborough were under, and tho' I 
did not then think they had reason to be seriously alarmed. As 
some of the convicts had behaved very ill, two of the supposed 
ringleaders were ordered on board the Sirius, punished, and 
then sent on board tho Prince of Wales, where they still remain. 
Good Iii general, the convicts have behaved well. I saw them all yester- 

behaviour of jg^y f^j, ^]^p fjj.y^ time. They are quiet and contented, tho' there 

the convicts. J -^ -, \,-, . 

are amongst them some compleat villains. 

I shall sail the moment the transports have compleated their 
water, and hope that will be done by Saturday or Sunday. The 
Sj^auish packet that sails this afternoon gives me this oppoi'tunity 
of writing, and I shall leave duplicates to be forwarded by the 
next conveyance, as it will be a very considerable time after this 
before I shall have an opportunity of writing again. 

As the store-ships cannot receive any more wine for the gar- 
rison, spirits will be procured for them at Rio de Janeiro. 

I have, &c., 
A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 
^'^J""«- Sir, Sta. Crux, 10th June, 1787. 

I enclose duplicates of my letters of the 5th inst., since 
which nothing has occurred that merits notice. The marines and 
A week's convicts have had six days' fresh provisions, and a bill has been 
drawn on the Lords of the Treasury for the expence, which 
amounted to seventy-six pounds one shilling and nine-pence. The 
marines received every day one pound of bread, one pound of 
beef, and a pint of wine. The convicts every day three-quarters 
of a pound of beef and three-quarters of a pound of bread. 
The list enclosed will show the numbers victualled. 




As the transports will have all their water compleat this eve- 
ning, I shall sail in the morning, and have the honour to be with 
great esteem, A. Phillip. 

P.S. — Three firkins of butter were issued in the six days to the 
marines and convicts. 


State of the Garrison and Convicts that are on board the 

ti'ansports, June 10th, 1787, 

Marines, including officers 

Mai-ines' wives 

Do. children 
Chaplain and wife 
Surgeon and assistants 
Servants ... 
Men convicts 
Women convicts 
Children ... 

10 June. 

Number victualled 

Convicts dead since they were embarked 

Convict children do. do. 

llecd. .H. M. 's jjardon before the ship left England 












LlEUTEKAXT Bligh TO SiR JosEPii Banks. — (Banks Papers.) 
No. 4, Broad-street, St. George's, East, 
Sir, August 6, 1787. 6 Aug-. 

I arrived yesterday from Jamaica, and should have in- 
stantly paid my respects to you had not Mr. Campbell told me you 
were not to return from the country untill Thursday. I have heard 
the flattering news of your great goodness to me, intending to 
lionor me with the command of the vessel which you propose to go Captain 
to the South Seas,* for which, after offering you my most grateful the^Bouiity. 
thanks, I can oidy assure you I shall endeavour, and I hope 
succeed, in deserving such a trust. I await your conmiands, and 
am, with the sincerest respect, Yours, &c., 

Wm. Bligii. 

GovERxoR Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

My Lord, Rio de Janeiro, 2d September, 1787. 2 Sept. 

Having sailed from TenerifFo the lOtli of June, T anchored The Fleet 
off this harbour the 5th of this month,! of which I had the honour '^^ ^^'"■ 
of informing your Lordship by a ship that past us, and the 6th 
in the evening anchored in the harbour with the tender, store- 
ships, and transports. 

I inclose returns of the detachment and of the convicts, who, as 
well as the officers and seamen belonging to the ship, continue 
very healthy. 

• The Bounty. 

t As in MS. The correct date s 5th Aug st. 




2 Sept. 



In my letter to Mr. Nepean I have mentioned particulars respect- 
ing the provisions, spirits, &c., procured here, and I have the honour 
Kindness of ^^ assuring your Lordship that every little assistance we have 
the Vice- wanted in this port has been most readily granted by the Vice- 
Iving,*and to whomlfeel myself under particularobligations forthe 
attention he has shown to me and the officers under my command. 
The convicts have been very plentifully supply'd with fresh 
provisions, and that at a small expense, three-pence three-farths. 
a head pr. day, all expenses included. The allowance of meat to 
The convicts the convicts has been twenty ounces every day, and they are 
much healthier than when we left England. Only fifteen convicts 
and one marine's child have died since we sailed from Spithead. 
I hope to sail to-morrow, and have the honour to be, &c., 

A. Phillip. 


General Return of the four Companies of Marines detach'd to 
serve in the settlement in New South Wales, September the 1st, 
1787 :— 

Fit for Duty : — 1 Major-Commandant, 2 Captains, 2 Captain- 
Lieutenants, 9 First Lieutenants, 3 Second Lieutenants, 1 Qr.- 
master, 1 Judge- Advocate, 12 Serjeants, 12 Corporals, 8 Drum- 
mers, 160 Privates. 

Major-Commandant : — Robert Ross. 

Ca'ptains : — James Campbell and John Shea. 

Captain-Lieutenants : — James Meredith, Watkin Tench, James 
Maxwell, George Johnstone, John Cresswell, and Robert Kellow. 

First Lieutenants : — John Poulden, John Johnstone, James 
Maitland Shairp, Thomas Davey, Thomas Timins. 

Second Lieutenants : — William Faddy and William Collins. 

Assistant Second Lieutenant : — John Long. 

Qr. -master First Lieutenant : — James Furzer. 

Judge-Advocate : — David Collins. 

R. Ross, Major. 


Return of the male and female convicts and their children. 
Convicts. September the 1st, 1787 :— 

1 Sept. 





Number on board the 








* Don Luis de Varconcellos, the Portuguese Governor. 



Report of Sick, 30tli August., 1787, 


30 Aug. 









■•5 » 











Convicts ... 

Alexander — 
Marines .. 


Con\-icts ... 

Marines ... 
Convicts ... 

Lady Penrhyn — 
ilarines ... 
Convicts ... 

Prince of Wales — 
Marines ... 


. 1 

'. l 
























child 1 


Total sick, 81. Total dead since 13th of May, 1787 ... 


John White. 

Governor Phillip to Under >Secretary ISTepean. 

Siriu.s, 2nd September, 1787, 2 Sept. 

Dear Sir, Rio Janeiro. 

By my letters of the 5th and 10th of June from Sta. Recapitula- 
Crux I liad the honor of informing you of the impossibility of 
receiving any wine on board fur the use of the garrison, that 
the marines and convicts received six days' fresh provisions, and 
that the Commissary had drawn for £76 Is. 9d., the expences at 
that port. I likewise mentioned the slops for the women not 
being sent down before we sailed, and the want of musket-balLs Anununi- 
and paper cartridges for the use of the garrison, as likewise tools tools!'" 
to keep the small arms in repair ; those articles will, I hope, be 
sent out in the ship that goes for the bi"ead-fruit.* 

The Provost-Martial havinsr remained in England, I recom- Provost- 
mended Mr. Henry Brewer as a proper person to fill that post, ""^ *" 
and I shall order him to do the duty till I receive instructions on 
that head. 

With respect to the women's cloathing, it was made of very Defective 
slight material, most too small, and in general came to pieces in a clothing. 

* The Bounty. 




2 Sept. 

Port Praj'ii 


Purchase of 







The price of 


A suhstitute 
for bread. 


few weeks. If materials are sent out, it will be much cheaper to 
Government, and the cloaths will be better made. 

A few vegetables could be procured at Sta. Crux. I should 
have stop'd for twenty-four hours at Port Priiya, but when off 
that port light airs of wind and a strong current making it 
probable some of the ships might not get in, I did not think it 
prudent to attempt it. 

We anchored off Rio Janeiro the 5th of this month [August], 
of which I had an opportunity of informing you by a ship that 
past us, and the 6th in the evening got into the harbour with the 
Supply tender, store-ships, and transports. 

I have the pleasure of saying that every assistance we have 
wanted in this port has been most readily granted. 

One hundred and fifteen pipes of rum has been purchased for 
the use of the garrison, when landed, and for the use of the 
detachment at this port. 

The marines and convicts have had fresh provisions since in 
port, and as I found at Teneriffe that three-quarters of a pound 
of beef was not sufficient for a convict for the day, and that no 
butter or cheese could be procured here, the beef being exceeding 
good and very cheap, I ordered each person victualled by the 
Commissary a pound and a quarter of beef and a pound of rice, 
and to the children of the marines and convicts three-quarters of 
a pound of meat and a pound of rice, with vegetables, every day. 

The marines and their wives have had the usual quantity of 
spirits. The allowance for the convicts when at sea being so small 
was the reason I ordered them while in port the same allowance 
as the officers and men belonging to the garrison, spirits excepted. 
The victualling all those who ai-e under the inspection of the Com- 
missary, including fixing and every other expense, amounts to no 
more than 3|d. a head per day. 

Wine is not to be bought at present but from those who retail 
it, there being none in store, consequently is dearer than in general ; 
and the rum on our coming in, there being little in the place, rose 
more than five-and-twenty per cent. 

Thirty pipes of wiiae is the quantity that was ordered for the hos- 
pital, but for the above reasons only 15 pipes have been purchased. 

One hundred sacks of casada has been purchased, which will be 
issued to the convicts when the bread is expended, and will be 
cheaper to Government ; it costs only 1 ff 20 — 5s. 8|d., and the 
sacks being of strong Russia, will be used hereafter in cloathing 
the convicts, many of whom are nearly naked. 

As the Vice-King offered anything the King's stores furnished 
that might be wanted, ten thousand musquet-balls has been pur- 
chased from the arsenal, the Sirius not being able to supply the 
garrison with a sufficient quantity to serve till ball might be sent 
from England. 


Befoi'e we sailed from Portsmouth two medicine-chests were 1787 
titted for the transports that had none, and at TeneriiFe soap was 2 Sept. 
bought to repay what the convicts had received before we sailed Medicine- 
frora England from the marines. These articles and some few chests and 
others were too trifling to draw for on the Treasury, and were paid ^°^^' 
by me. 

Some expenses have now attended the procuring seeds and plants 
that could not be purchased, and it will be necessary to satisfy 
those people whose store we have occupied with some tents that Expenses on 
have been damaged and sent on shore to air, and where we have ^^°'^*^' 
had officers and men since we have been here, with the timekeeper 
and the necessary instruments to determine its rate of going, 
as likewise the captain of the port, with his boat's crew, who, the 
day we came in, attended to give any assistance the transports 
might want, we then having only a light air of wind, and this I 
do having refused the paying the customary fees, which are paid 
by their own merchant's ships, as well as strangers. It is three 
pounds twelve shillings on coming in, the same on going out, and Port 
five shillings and sixpence a day while they remain at anchor in the ''^^'"S'^^- 
port. This was demanded for the transports, but never insisted on, 
after I had said it could not be paid, as the ships had King's stores 
on board. And as these are such as do not permit vouchers, I 
have not thought it right to order the Commissary to pay them, 
Imt have drawn on the Treasury for £135, which will besutficient 
for the whole. It is little more than half the sum that must have 
been paid for the store, had it been hired. 

With respect to the convicts, they have been all allowed the Convicts 
liberty of the deck in the day, and many of them during the deck^*^*^"" 
night, which has kept them much healthier than could have been 

It has been necessary that the store-ships might receive the 
spirits to move part of the pi'ovisions from them into the trans- 
ports, and I am sorry to say that what with some of the provisions 
l)eing in very slight casks, and very little attention having been paid 
to the stowage, we have had much trouble in moving the casks, and provisions 
some tents and slops that were only in wrappers were damaged, 'iii'iased. 
I fear many articles will be destroyed before they are landed, and 
which it is not now possible to prevent. 

Ojily fifteen convicts and one marine's child have died since we Deaths, 
left England. 

I have been able to procure all such fruits and plants as I Fniitiices 
think likely to thrive on the coast of New South Wales, particu- '"'^* ''''*"'''• 
larly the coffee, Indigo, cotton, and cochineal. 

I hope to sail to-morrow, as I only wait for the accounts to be 
settled with the contractor, and ha\ e, &c., 

A. Phillip. 


1787 Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean.* 

2 Sept. Dear Nepean, R,io Janeiro, Sept. 2nd, 1787. 

Proposed This is my last letter, as I hope to sail to-morrow. You 

a^aTnst^"" know how much I was interested in the intended expedition 
Monte against Monte Vedio, and that it was said that the Spaniards 

' ^"^ had more troops than I supposed. The following account I have 

from a person who was there all the war, and I am certain that 
the account is exact : — 

One Regiment under ... ... ... 700 

Four Companys of Artillery ... ... 400 

Dragoons ... .. ... ... ... 400 

Two Battalions of Infantry ... ... 700 

These were divided on the north and south shores, and in 
different towns. Monte Vedio would not have been defended, as 
half these troops could not have been drawn together. Of this 
you will be so good as to inform the Lords Sydney and Lands- 
down ; it will corroborate what I mentioned before I left town. 
Exchange of The 2 1st being the Prince of Portugal's birthday, and theVice- 
coinpii- King receiving the compliments of all the officers, I waited on 
him with those I had presented to him on our arrival. The 
Sirius fired 21 guns, having the flag of Portugal hoisted at the 
fore-topmast-head, and the Union at the mizen. He seemed much 
pleased with this compliment, and we part perfectly satisfied with 
Earthquake, each other. Three slight shocks of an earthquiake have been felt 
at Trinadade, where the Portuguese still keep a small garrison. 

T did intend to send you your wine and Lord Sydney's by this 
ship, but now think it will be better to let it go the voyage and 
send it by Shortland. 

You will, my dear sir, remember me to your colleagues, and 
believe me, &c., A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 

Sirius, 2nd September, 1787. 
Sir, Rio Janeiro. 

You will please to inform the Plight Hon'ble the Lords 

i^i"- Commissioners of the Admiralty that I sailed iv(»n Sta. Crux the 

1 0th of June, and when off Port Praya intended to have anchored 
for twenty-four hours in order to procure vegetables for the people, 
but light airs of wind, and a strong current setting to the S.W., 
making it doubtful if all the ships would be able to get in, I bore 
away, and the 5th of August anchored off this harbour with the 
Supply, tender, store-ships, and transports, of which I had the 
honor of informing their Lordships by a ship that past us for 
Lisbon. We got into the harbour the 6th. 

Repairs. The Sirius, since we came in, has had the spar and gun decks 

caulked, and which was absolutely necessary,, the spar deck having 
never been caulked more than once, and both decks leaked very badly. 

* A private letter. 


Lieutenant Ball having reported the Supply as having too much 1787 
head sail, and requested that two feet might he taken from the 2 Sept. 
fore yard, and a cloth out of the fore sail, and that a reef might 
be taken from the fore topsail, and the topmast shortened, I 
haA'e ordered it to be done. The foretop, which was rotten, has 
been repaired, and the main deck caulked. The master of the The master 
Sirius, Mr. Micah Morton, having unfortunately been ruptured disabled. 
from an accident he met with in unmooring the ship at Sta. Crux, 
has never been able to do any duty since we left that port, and 
the surgeon having repi^esented to me that there did not appear 
any probability of his being able to return to his duty, I ordered 
the surgeons of the Sirius and Supply, with the surgeon of the in- 
tended settlement, to survey him ; by their report, which I inclose, 
their Lordships will see the necessity of sending him home, and I 
beg leave to assure their Lordships that I have always found him 
a very sober diligent officer. 

Mr. James Keltie.a master in the Navy, who left England as mate His 
of the Fishburn, has replaced Mr. Morton as master of the Sirius. 

A midshipman, likewise, in the course of the voyage having met a midship- 
with a similar accident, and the surgeon thinking by his returning hJf^e!*^" 
to England he might be cured, I have discharged him from the 
Sirius, and he returns with the master in a ship that has been to the 
southward on the whale fishery and has put into this port to repair. 

I likewise discharge a midshipman, and who returns to England 
in the same ship, on account of a venereal complaint which being Another 

11.,.,,, ^ * (lischaiged. 

long neglected is not likely to be cured at sea. 

The time-keeper has been put on shore under the care of Lieu- Xme- 
tenaut Dawes with the instruments necessary to detei'mine its rate '^^P^''" 
of going, which since we left England appears to have been very 
regular; it loses at present only 0.95" more in the twenty -four hours 
than it did at Portsmouth, when it lost 1.35" in that time. 

Rum has been purchased here for the garrison when landed. Rum. 
The transports are now ready for sea, and I intend sailing to- 
morrow. I inclose the state and condition of his Majesty's ship 
Sirius and the Supply, tender, with retuins of the detachment and 
convicts, and I think it my duty to inform their Lordships, that 
every assistance we wanted has been most readily granted by the 
Vice-King. You will, sir, likewise inform their Lordships that the 
port charges, which is three pounds twelve shillings, paid by all 
merchant ships coming in, and the same going out of port, with 
five shillings and sixpence a day while they remain here, was port 
demanded for the store-ships and transports, but not insisted on '-•harfe'es. 
when I objected to its being paid as they were ships employed by 

Only fifteen convicts and one marine's child have died since we Deaths, 
left England. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 



3 Sept. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean.* 

on the 

My Dear Nepean, Rio, September 3, 1787. 

I have been prevented sailing this morn'g from the accounts 
not being yet finally settled, that is, the vouchers not yet sent off. 
I sail to-morrow, and at the Cape shall have more time, for here, 
as the only one that understands the language, I have been obliged 
to be linguist and Commissary. By the master of the Sirivis you 
will have some private as well as public letters ; and by a ship 
going to Lisbon you will receive this and copies of my public 
letters sent by the master, who, as he met with his accident in 
doing his duty on board the ship, will, I hope, get some little 
Politeness of provision. I have told you in one of my letters how far the V.- 
yr^ K- cr King (the same who was here when I past for India) has carried 
"' his politeness, and that tho' I desired much to be reed, here as 
the capt. of the Sirius only, and for which I had a particular 
reason, he refused my request, and gave it out in orders that I 
reed, the same honor as himself, that is, as Capt.-General. This 
has prevented my having any house on shore, and that for obvious 
reasons. I have endeavoured to explain to Mr. Rose why I have 
drawn on the Treasury for ,£135. The little matters paid by me 
when the ships were at Portsmouth, and the expences here in 
procuring seeds and plants that are not publicly sold, could not 
be paid for by the Commissary, nor would any satisfaction have 
been received from him for the island, as the Patrao Mor and his 
people.! To have hired a store on the island would have been 
more than the whole sum. The things have been granted as 
favors, but returns expected, and I made them first at my own 
expence, till I found I was a hundred pounds out of pocket, and 
then thought that Government had not been so very liberal to 
me as to make it necessary to pay such a compliment. I have 
been very unwilling to send Wrotten home, but the young man 
since he met with the accident has been anxious to return, and is 
not so steady as might be expected for his age. Powell | is a very 
good young man, and improves very much. If I can preserve 
the seeds and plants procured here, I shall be very indifFereni. 
about those articles at the Cape. Sir Joseph Banks will receive 
from the master a small box that contains some plants he was 
very anxious to procure. The rams are in good health, and my 
breeding sows, as well as the ladys, seem well calculated for the 
end proposed. I intend making a very short stay at the Cape, as 
the ships are now in much better order than when they left 
Adieu, my dear friend ; health and happiness attend 



The live 


* A private letter. 

t The letter at this point is not clear. The island referred to is Enchados, a small 
island in the harbour, upon which Lieutenant Dawes and two assistants landed for the 
purpose of checking the chronometer and making: astronomical observations. Collins, 
vol. i, p. xxii. "Patrao Mor" signifies the intendant or captain of the port. 

J Lieut. Fowell, of H.M.S. Sirius 


you and your good little woman and child. Tell Pollock this is 1787 
not a country for shells, and remember me to that family. 3 Sept. 

Yours, &c., 
A. Phillip. 

Lieutenant Bligii to Sir Joseph Banks. (Banks Papers.) 
Sir, Bounty, Spithead, Monday, 5th Nov., 1787. 5 Nov. 

I have been very anxious to acquaint you of my arrival 
here, which I have now accomplished with some risk. I anchored 
here last night, after being drove on the coast of France in a very 
heavy gale. However, by persevering, I am now in readyness, or 
will be in three days, to receive my final orders. I once before , 
made an attempt to get here,* but was glad to go into the Downs Bounty, 
again, altho' of all other places it is one of the most disagree- 
able to be in. I think I cannot have much worse weather in 
going round Cape Horn, and it is with pleasure I tell you I think 
the ship very capable, f This also is another consolation to me, for ^ ,. eapable" 
iny ideas of making a ship fit for sea and of those above were ship. 
very different, and my conduct in troubling the Navy Board for 
alterations cannot be reprehensible, for had I not got ye masts, 
yai"ds, and tops all altered I should now be getting ready to go 
into the harbour. The master is a very good man, and gives me 
every sati.sfaction, and I think between this and the latitude of 
GO" south I shall have tliem all in very good order. The conduct 
of Nelson J and the gardener is very satisfactory, and Ave all seem 
erabark'd heartily in one cause, which I shall cherish as much as 
possible. I shall take IS months' provisions, which, with other Arran--e- 
supplies, will do very well, and my present intention is that, as I '"ents for 
.shall be late round Cape Horn, not to depend on touching there, 
but complete my water, if convenient, at Falkland Islands, for if 
T get the least slant round the Cape I must make the most of it. 
Lord Howe, when I took leave of him, behaved very flatteringly 
to me, but he took from me a Mr. Brown you recommended, and 
was the best uncommissioned officer I had. He was sent to the 
Ariel, commanded by a Lieut. Moorsom, designed for some private 
service, who, I am infoi-med, is to be made a master and com- 
mander. My surgeon, I Ijelieve, may be a very capable man, but 
liis indolence and corpulency render him rather unfit for the 
voyage. I wish I may get him to change. The wind and weather 
is now very bad, and I fear will continue so for some days ; but I 
assure you, sir, T will loose no time in pi'oceeding on my voyage. 
As we have effectually got rid of that troublesome application 
about Mr. Lockhead, and if T liud no possibility of getting rid of my 

* The Bounty was ordered from Lon? Reach to Spithead, 1.5 October. 

t The Bounty was unable to weather Cape Horn, and was taken round the Cape of Good 
Hope instead. Vide Blif^h's letter to Banks, post, p. -209. 

t The Bounty had been fitted out for tlie purpose of convcyin},' tlic bread-fruit tree from 
Otalieite to llie West Indies. Nelson was the botanist in eliarge of the plants. 




5 Nov. 


surgeon, I think it would be very proper for me to endeavour to get 
some young man as surgeon's mate, and enter him as A.B., for I am 
A fresh aware how improper any application for one publickly would be at 
surgeon or a this crisis. I have just now waited on Lord Hood,* who has not 
yet received any orders concerning me. The Commissioner pro- 
mises me every assistance, and I have no doubt but the trifles I 
have to do here will be soon accomplished. I shall take a pleasure 
of informing you of my progress as I go on, and I hope by the 
time my business is over here the wind will turn favorable. At 
present I could not move with it. I am particularly happy at 
receiving your letter of the 25th, and I trust nothing can pre- 
vent me from completing my voyage much to your satisfaction. 
Difficulties I laugh at whilst I have your countenance, and shall 
be always sutficiently repaid whilst I am admitted to subscribe 
myself, Yours, &g., 

Wm. Bligh. 

[At the foot of this letter is written in Sir Joseph Banks's 
hand : " I offered my interest to any surgeon's mate who would go 
out as able with C Bligh. "] 

10 Nov. 

The fleet at 
the Cape. 


Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 
Sir, Sirius, at the Cape of Good Hope, ISTov. 10, 1787. 

You will please to inform the Right Hon'ble the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty that I sailed from Rio de 
Janeii'o the 4th of September, and anchored here the 13th of 
October, with the ships under my command. Having immediately 
on my arrival requested permission to procure refreshments, and 
such provisions as were waiited for his Majesty's ship Sirius 
and the Supply, tender, I was informed that the crops of corn 
having failed the year before last the inhabitants had been 
reduced to the greatest distress, and that I could not be per- 
mitted to purchase any flour or bread. I, however, obtained an 
order for three days' bread for all the ships, and as I found on 
enquiry that the last year's crops had been very good, I requested 
by letter to the Governor and Council permission to purchase 
what provisions were wanted for the Sirius and Supply, as 
likewise corn for seed, and what was necessary for the live stock 
intended to be embarked at this place. The three days granted 
for the bread, being expired, leave was given for three days 
longer, and which permission was afterwards continued till 
23rd, when I received an answer from the Council, who had 
taken that time to deliberate on my letter of the 15th, granting 
permission to receive bread daily for the use of the ships while 
we remained in this port, and the same evening I received a letter 
from the Governor granting all my demands. 

* Viscount Hood, one of the Lords of the Admiralty. 


Our passage from Rio de Janeiro was very favourable. The 1787 
number of sick on our arrival here was twenty marines and loNov. • 
ninety-three convicts. The Sirius and Supply had only eiaht ™ • 

Sick on board ; and as all the ships were very amply supplied from Rio. 
with soft bread, vegetables, and fresh meat, I did not think 
it necessary to land any of the sick. Their Lordships will see by Tiie sick not 
the returns that there are few sick at present. We are now nu™e™u«- 
ready for sea. What live cattle the ships can stow are now cattie, 
getting on board, with such grain and seeds as was wanted, and ^'n^'g'eed 
I shall sail imnlediately. The remaining so long before I could 
obtain leave to procure the necessaries we wanted has detained 
me longer in this port than I wished, but it will, I hope, be the 
means of keeping the people in health for the rest of the passage. 

I inclose a weekly account Mdth the state and condition of the 
Sirius and Supply, as likewise returns of the detachment and 

convicts. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

The Rev. Thomas Walshe to Lord Sydney.* 

My Lord, 

You have been apprized of the desire of two clergymen of Catholic 
the Catholick persuasion which they have to instruct the convicts 'clergymen. 
who are of their faith who are destined for Botany Bay. I beg 
leave to inform your Lordship of my sentiments concerning their 
request. There are not less, probably, than .300, ignorant, you may 
imagine, of every piinciple of duty to God and man. The number 
is great, and consequently constitutes an object of consequence to 
every man who has the happiness of his neighbour at heart. 
That the Catholicks of this country are not only of inoffensive 
principles, but that they are zealously attached to the constitution 
of it, I may presume is well known to your Lordship. For my 
part, who am one of those clergymen who wish to take care of 
the convicts of my persuasion, I beg to acquaint your Lordship xiie 
that if I be so happy as to be permitted to go that I trust my ^'''^^°\''^ 
endeavours to bring these unhappy people to a proper sense of 
their duty as subjects and citizens may be attended with some 
salutary coiLsequences. They earnestly desire some Catholick Desire of ti.e 
clergyman may go with them, and I trust to the known humanity '^°""^*^- 
of Government that a request whicli seems to promise some hopes 
of their reformation will not be denied. It is well known that people will not pay the attention to other ministers which Value of 
they do to their own. Perhaps, also, the presence of such may "^""sters. 
be of great use to make them readily obey every order of their 
governors, and I have no doubt but our conduct will meet the 
approbation of them. 

I sincerely pity these poor people, not so mucli for the dis- 
agreeable situation into which they have brought themselves, 
as for the misdeameanours which have made them deserving of it. 

* This letter is not dated, but it was written apparently in the year 1787. 



1787 Yet, I trust, if their ignorance be removed, and their obligations 
The priests' as men and Christians be forcibly inculcated to them, that this 
mission. may be a means, under Providence, of their becoming useful to 
themselves, and perhaps afterwards to their country. 

At least this I sincerely wish, nor do I think I can ever be as 
happy elsewhere as in the place of their destination, employed in 
using my endeavours to bring them out of the wretched state of 
depravity into which they have fallen. I entreat, therefore, most 
humbly that this, our request, may be granted."* Those poor 
people will bless and thank you. I shall take care that they be 
not forgetful of their obligations to Government and Lord Sydney. 

I have, (fee. 
My Lord, Thomas Walshe, Priest. 

We are not so presumptuous as to wish support from 
Government. "We offer our voluntary services. We hope, how 
ever, not to offend in entreating for our passage. 

An appeal. 

asked for. 

3 Dec 

bound at 



26 April. 


Captain Bligh to Sir Joseph Banks. (Banks Papers.) 
Sir, Bounty, at Spithead, Deci". 3rd, 1787. 

Having met with contrary winds and bad weather since my 
I was not able to get farther than 7 leagues Avest of the 
Isle of Wight. The weather being very thick and the Avind at 
west, I thought it not consistent with the good of the voyage to 
persist in keeping any longer at sea at this hazardous period of 
the year, and therefore came through the Needles and anchored. 
The wind blows still fresh at W.S.W., which gives me much 
uneasyness, knowing how late I am, which, if I was ever so 
negligent, would be a severe spur to get me clear of the channel, 
where one unfortunate gale may render all our plans abortive, 
but if there is any possibility of my getting away you may rely 
on my utmost exertion. f I am, <tc., 

Wm. Bligii. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Head-quarters, Sydney Cove, 
Sir, 26th April, 1788. 

As the surgeon volunteer who was put on board the Lady 
Penrhyn transport to attend the convicts was found to be very 
unequal to the task, I was under the necessity of desiring Mi-. 
Arthur Bowes, surgeon of that transport, to take chai'ge of the 
medicines, and attend to the sick, which he did with great atten- 
tion. I therefore beg leave to recommend him to your notice, as 
he has not received any recompense for his troulile. 

I have, (fee, 

A. Phillip. 

* No reply to this letter has been found amongst the records, but the proposal was not 
f The Bounty did not clear the Channel until the 23rd December. 



Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney.* 1788 

Sydney Cove, New South Wales, is May. 

My Lord, May 15th, 1788. 

I had the honor of informing your Lordship, by Captain 
Cox, who was returning to Europe from ^Madrass, that I was ready 
to sail from the Cape of Good Hope, and which I did with the 
ships under my command the 12th of November. The 25th, being 
eighty leagues to the eastward of the Cape, I left the Sirius, 
and went on board the Supply, tender, in hopes, by leaving the Oii board 
convoy, to gain sufficient time to examine the country round 
Botany Bay, and fix on the most eligible situation for the colony 
before the transports arrived. At the same time I ordered the 
agent for the transport in the Alexander to separate from the 
convoy with that ship, the Scarborough and Friendship, they 
sailing better than the others. I had reason to expect their 
arrival soon after the Supply's, and by having the labour of the 
convicts they had on board much might be done in preparing for 
the landing the stores and provisions. 

Major Ross now left the Sirius, and went on board the Scar- ''^^'^'^h^"^^ 
borough, that he might be with that part of the detachment, which scar- ■ 
would probably be the first landed. borou-h. 

Captain Hunter in the Sirius was to follow with the storeships Captain 
and the remainder of the transports, and he had the necessary the Sirius. 
instructions for his futui'e proceedings, should the Supply meet 
with any accident. 

The westerly winds we now had continued till the 3rd of gi„j,tin" the 
January, when we saw the coast of New South Wales, but the Austraiiau 
winds, which had been so favourable, having seldom been to the 
eastward, and then for a few hours only, blowing from the N.W. 
to the S.W., generally very strong gales, now left us, and we had 
variable winds, with a current that at times set very strong to the 
southward, so that we did not arrive at Botany Bay before the 18th. Arrival at 

The Alexander, Scarborough, and Friendship came in the next " ' 
day, and the Sirius, with the rest of the sliips, the day after. 
Those ships had continued veiy healthy. 

The Supply, sailing very badly, had not permitted my gain- 
ing the advantage hoped for, but I began to examine the bay as 
so(ni as we anchored, and found, that tho' extensive, "it did not ^'« shelter 
afford shelter to ships from the eastei'ly winds ; the greater part 
of the bay being so shoal that ships of even a moderate draught 
of water are obliged to anchor with the entrance of the bay open, 
and are exposed to a heavy sea that rolls in when it blows hard 
from the eastward. 

Several small runs of fresh water were found in different parts rnsatisfac- 
of the bay, but 1 did not see any situation to which there was 
not some very strong objection. The small creek that is in the 
northern part of the bay runs a considerable way into the country, 

• The first despatch sent from Sj'dney. 




15 May. 


Port Jack- 
son to be 




finest har- 
bour in tlie 



The fleet in 
Port Jack- 

but it had only water for a boat. The sides of this creek are 
frequently overflowed, and the lowlands a swamp. The western 
branch runs up for a considerable distance, but the officers I sent 
to examine it could not find any water, except in very small drains. 

The best situation that offered was near Point Sutherland, 
where there was a small run of good water ; but the ground near 
it, as well as a considerable part of the higher ground, was spongy, 
and the ships could not approach this part of the bay. 

Several good situations offered for a small number of people, 
but none that appeared calculated for our numbers, and where 
the stores and provisions could be landed without a great loss of 
time. When I considered the bay's being so very open, and the 
probability of the swamps rendering the most eligil)le situation 
unhealthy, I judged it advisable to examine Port Jackson ; but 
that no time might be lost if I did not succeed in finding a better 
harbour, and a proper situation for the settlement, the ground 
near Point Sutherland was in the meantime to be cleared and pre- 
parations made for landing under the direction of the Lieutenant- 

As the time in which I might be absent, if I went in the Supply, 
must have been very uncertain, I went round with three boats, 
taking with me Captain Hunter and several officers, that by 
examining different parts of the port at the same time less time 
might be lost. 

We got into Port Jackson early in the afternoon, and had the 
satisfaction of finding the finest harbour in the world, in which a 
thousand sail of the line may ride in the most perfect security, 
and of which a rough survey, made by Captain Hunter and the 
officers of the Sirius after the ships came round, may give your 
Lordship some idea. 

The different coves were examined with all possible expedition. 
I fixed on the one that had the best spring of water, and in which 
the ships can anchor so close to the shore that at a very small 
expence quays may be made at which the largest ships may unload. 

This cove, which I honoured with the name of Sydney,* is about 
a quarter of a mile across at the entrance, and half a mile in length. 

We returned to Botany Bay the third day, where I received a 
very unfavourable account of the ground that was clearing. 

The ships immediately prepared to go round, and the 25th — 
seven days after I arrived in the Supply — I sailed in her for 
Port Jackson, leaving Captain Hunter to follow with the trans- 
ports, it then blowing too strong for them to work out of the 
bay. They joined me the next evening, and all the transports 
were moored in the cove.f 

* After Lord Sydne.y, Secretary of State. 

t This was the 2()th January, the day now observed as Anniversary Day. The British flag 
was unfurled at the head of Sydney Cove, toasts were drunk, and volleys of musketry fired, 
but the formal proclamation of the Colony did not take place till the 7th February. 



Two sail had appeared off Botany Bay the 24th, under French 1V88 
colours, and anchored there before the Sirius left it — the Bous- 15 May. 
sole and the Astrolabe. These ships were commanded by Monsr. ^^ r^use 
La Perouse, who, having exprest a desire of sending letters i^'^^^otany 
to Europe, I sent an officer over, it being only eight miles, ''^' 
to tell him in what time it was probable the ships might sail. ^j^^J^^^^^j^^^^j^ 
Captain Clonard had left the ship in one of their boats the same a„d the*^" 
morning, and Lieut. Shortland, the agent for the transports, is Astrolabe. 
charged with the letters he brought. They are addressed to the 
French Ambassador. The officer I sent over was informed that 
Monsr. La Perouse sailed from France in June, 1785 ; that he 
had been to Sta. Catherina, had run along the coast of Chili and 
California, and had been at Easter Island, Noatka Sound, Cook's 
River, Kamtschatka, Manilla, Isles des Navigateurs, Sandwich, 
and the Friendly Islands. He had, likewise, anchored off Norfolk 
Island, but could not land on account of the surf. In this voyage 
he had not lost any of his people by sickness, but had lost two 
boats' crews in a surf on the north-west part of America, and at 
Maouna (one of the Isles des jSTavigateurs) Monsr. De Langle, Misfortunes 
capt. of the Astrolabe, was cut off by the natives, with twelve p^gnch. " 
officers and men. Many were wounded, and two long-boats he 
had on shore destroyed. The ships were then under sail, and 
De Langle went on shore to fill some water-casks. The boats 
were suffered to ground, and the natives, with whom they had 
been on the most friendly terms, and who had supply'd them 
with refreshments in the greatest abundance, attacked them when 
they were endeavouring to get them afloat. He had forty officers 
and men with him, and the ships, being round a point of land, 
knew nothing of the accident till the small boats returned. These 
ships, while in Botany Bay, set up two long-boats, the frames of 
which they had brought from Europe. They sailed the 10th of {^^7^^*^^^°* 
March, I believe to return to the northward. 

The clearing the gi'ound for the people and for erecting store- clearing the 
houses was begun as soon as the ships got round, a lalxmi' of yrou"d. 
which it will be hardly possil)le to give your Lordship a just idea. 

The necks of land that form the different coves, and near the slow 
water for some distance, are in general so rocky that it is sur- progress. 
prizing such large trees should find sufficient nourishment, but 
the soil between the rocks is good, and the summits of the i-ocks, 
as well as the whole country round us, with few exceptions, are 
covered with trees, most of which are so large that the removing 
them off the ground after they are cut down is the greatest part 
of the labour ; and the convicts, naturally indolent, having none to 
attend them but overseers drawn from amongst themselves, ;ind who 
fear to exert any authority, makes this work go on very slowly. 

Your Lordship will permit me to observe that our situation The best 
tho' so very different from what might be expected, is neverthe- available. 



15 May. 

No large 


Outbreak of 

of Norfolk 

King as 

Broken Baj', 

less the best that offered. My instructions did not permit me 
to detain the transports a sufficient length of time, to examine 
the coast to any considerable distance, it was absolutely necessary 
to be certain of a sufficient quantity of fresh water, in a situation 
that was healthy, and which the ships might approach within a 
reasonable distance for the conveniency of landing the stores and 
provisions, and I am fully persuaded that we should never have 
succeeded had it been attempted to move them only one mile 
from where they were landed. There are some parts of this 
harbour where the trees stand at a considerable distance from 
each other, and where there are small runs of water, which shall 
be cultivated when our numbers permit, and when the country 
inland can be examined. I make no doubt but some good 
situations will be found that have water, which I have never yet 
been able to find, either in Botany Bay or in this harbour, but in 
very small streams. 

Some land that is near, and where the trees stand at a con- 
siderable distance from each other, will, as soon as convicts can 
be spared, be cultivated by the officers for raising a little corn 
for their stock ; and this I have endeavoured to promote as much 
as possible, for I fear the consequences if a ship should be lost 
in her passage out with provisions. 

As there are only twelve convicts who are carpenters, as many 
as could Ije procured from the ships have been hired to work on 
the hospital and store-houses. The people were healthy when 
landed, but the scurvy has, for some time, appeared amongst 
them, and now rages in a most extraordinary manner. Only 
sixteen carpenters could be hired from the ships, and several of 
the convict carpenters were sick. It was now the middle of 
February ; the rains began to fall very heavy, and pointed out 
the necessity of hutting the people ; convicts were therefore aj)- 
jDointed to assist the detachment in this work. 

February the 14th the Supply sailed for Norfolk Island, with 
Philip Gidley King, second lieutenant of his Majesty's ship 
Sirius, for the purpose of settling that island. He only cari'ied 
M^th him a petty officer, surgeon's mate, two marines, two men 
who understood the cultivation of flax, with nine men and six 
women convicts. Their number shall be increased when a small 
detachment of marines can be spared. I have the honour of 
transmitting your Lordship a copy of the order and instructions 
given to that officer,* and I beg leave to I'ecommend him as an 
officer of merit, and whose perseverance in that or any other 
service may be depended upon. 

The 2d of March I went with a long-boat and cutter to 
examine the broken land mentioned by Captain Cook, about 

* Post, pp. 136-138. King was Superintendent and Commandant of Norfolk Island from 
Jlax'ch, 1788, to March, 1790 ; Lieutenant-Governor from November, 1791, to October, 
1796 ; Governor of New South Wales, from September, 1800, to August, 1806. 



ight miles to the northward of Port Jackson. We slept in the ^"^®^ 
1 )oat that night within a rocky point, in the north-west part of 15 May 
the bay (which is very extensive), as the natives, tho' very 
friendly, appeared to be numerous ; and the next day, after 
passing a bar that had only water for small vessels, entered a 
very extensive branch, from which the ebb tide came out so 
stronfj that the boats could not row against it in the stream ; Brisbane 

o Water 

and here was deep water. It appeared to end in several small 
branches, and in a large lagoon that we could not examine for 
want of time to search for a channel for the boats amongst the 
banks of sand and mud. Most of the land on the upper part of 
this branch was low and full of swamps. Pelicans and variety 
of birds were here seen in great numbers. Leaving this branch, 
which I called the north-west branch, we proceeded across the 
bay and went into the south-west branch, which is very exten- 
sive, and from which a second branch runs to the westward. The 
affording shelter for any number of ships, and as far as we ij^ry, ^^' 
examined there is water for the largest ships, having seven 
fathoms at the entrance, and deep water as you go up. But the 
almost continual rains pi-evented any kind of survey. Here the 
land is much higher than at Port Jackson, more rocky, and 
equally covered with timber, large trees growing on the summits 
of mountains that appear to be accessible to birds only. 

Immediately round the headland that forms the southern 
entrance into the bay there is a third branch, which I think the 
finest piece of water I ever saw, and which I honoui'ed with the 
name of Pitt Water.* It is, as well as the south-west l^ranch, of Pittwator. 
sufficient extent to contain all the Xavy of Great Britain, but 
has only eighteen feet at low water on a narrow bar which runs 
across the entrance. Within the bar there are from seven to 
fifteen fathom water. The land here is not so high as in the 
south-west branch, and there are some good situations where the 
land might be cultivated. We found small springs of water in 
most of the co^'es, and saw three cascades falling from a height Return to 
which the rains then rendered inaccessible. I returned to Port j^kgon 
Jackson after being absent eight days in the boats. Some of the 
people feeling the effects f)f the rain, which had been almost 
constant-, prevented my returning by land, as I intended, in order 
to examine a part of the country which appeared open and free 
from timber. 

Lieutenant Ball, who commands the Supply, arrived the 19th Ne\vsfroni 
of March. He made Norfolk Island on the 29th of Fel)ruary, island. 
and was five days Vjefore a place could be found at which it 
was possiljle to land the pnjvisicjns, and saw very few places at 
which it was possil>le to land a man, so comjileatly do the 
rocks surround that island. They succeeded, however, having 
found a small opening in a reef that runs across a bay that is at 

* In honor of the Prime Minister. 



15 May. 

The whole 
island a 


Lord Howe 

Diseharg-e of 

The first 




Loss of live 

the south end of the island, and the six months' provisions were 
all safely landed. Lieut. King describes this island as one intire 
wood, without a single acre of clear land that had been found 
when the Supply left them, and says that the pine-trees rise 
fifty and sixty feet before they shoot out any branches. There 
are several other kinds of timber on the island, which, as far as 
he could examine it, was a rich black mould, with great quantities 
of pumice-stone. The trees are so bound together Ijy a kind of 
supple-jack that the penetrating into the interior parts of the 
island was very difficult. Several good springs of water were 
found, and I apprehend his Majesty's ships in the East Indies 
may be supplied from this island with masts and yards, which 
will render it a very valuable acquisition. The cultivation of 
the flax-plant will be attended to when people can be sent to 
clear the ground. 

A small island being seen on the passage to Norfolk Island, 
Xieutenant Ball examined it on his return, and says it abounds 
in turtle, but unfortunately has no good anchoring-ground. He 
named it after Lord Howe.* It is in 31° 36' south latitude, and 
159° east longitude. Part of this island may be seen sixteen 
leagues, and a rock that is five leagues to the southward and 
eastward of the island may be seen eighteen leagues. 

The Charlotte, Scarborough, and Lady Penrhyn, transports, were 
cleared of all their stores and discharged from Government employ 
the O-ith and 25th of March, and left at liberty to proceed to 
China when they judged proper. The other ships remain till 
store-houses can be finished. 

Your Lordship will not be surprized that I have been under the 
necessity of assembling a Criminal Court. Six men were condemned 
to death. One, who was the head of the gang, was executed the 
same day ; the others I reprieved. They are to be exiled fi'om 
the settlement, and when the season permits I intend they shall 
be landed near the South Cape, where, by their forming connexions 
with the natives, some benefit may accrue to the public. These 
men had frequently robbed the stores and the other convicts. 
The one who suffered and two others were condemned for rolDbing 
the stores of provisions the very day they received a week's 
provisions, and at which time their allowance, as settled by the 
Navy Board, was the same as the soldiers, spirits excepted ; the 
others for robbing a tent, and for stealing provisions from other 
convicts. , 

The great labour in clearing the ground will not permit more 
than eight acres to he sown this year with wheat and barley. At 
the same time the immense number of ants and field-mice will 
render our crops very uncertain. 

Part of the live stock brought from the Cape, small as it was, 
has been lost, and our resource in fish is also uncertain. Some days 

* Admiral Howe, First Lord of the Aduiiraltj-. 


great quantities are caught, but never sufficient to save any part 1788 
of the provisions ; and at times tish ai*e scarce. is May. 

Your Lordship will, I presume, see the necessity of a regular pro^^i^ns 
supply of provisions for four or five years, and of clothing, shoes, and clothing 
and frocks in the greatest proportion. The necessary implements four or five 
for husbandry and for clearing the ground brought out will with years, 
difficulty be made to serve the time that is necessary for sending 
out a fresh supply. 

The labour of the convicts shall be, as is directed, for the public Convict 
stock, but it is necessary to permit a part of the convicts to work ^ ""'^' 
for the officers, who, in our present situation, would otherwise find 
it impossible to clear a sufficient quantity of ground to raise what 
is absolutely necessary to support the little stock they have ; and 
I am to request that your Lordship will be pleased to direct me 
to what extent that indulgence may be granted the officers of the 

The Sirius shall be sent to the northward to barter for stock, The sinus to 
and which shall be employed solely for the purpose of increasing five"stock^°"^ 
the breed of such cattle as she may procure. The Supply is no 
ways calculated for this service, as in the least sea her decks are 
full of water. 

The very small proportion of females makes the sending out an store women 
additional number absolutely necessary, for I am certain your ''''i'^""^ 
Lordship will think that to send for women from the Islands, in 
our present situation, would answer no other purpose than that 
of bringing them to pine away in misery. 

I have had the honor of informing your Lordship that this Advantages 

. of Port 

harbour is, in extent and security, very superior to any other that jaciison. 
I have ever seen — containing a considerable number of coves, 
formed by narrow necks of land, mostly rocks, covered with 
timber, and the face of the country, when viewed from the 
harbour, is the same, with few exceptions. The neck of land 
l)etween the harbour and the coast is mostly sand. Between that 
part of the harbour in wliich the settlement is made and Botany 
Bay, after you pass the wood which surrounds us, and which in 
some parts is a mile and a half, in othei-s three miles across, the 
country is a poor sandy heath, full of swamps. 

The country towards the head of the bay* is covered with timber, 
and liere the land appears less rocky, and the trees stand in some 
parts at a greater distance ; but the head of the bay being left dry 
in several pai'ts at low water, and the winds being obstructed l)y the 
woods and the different windings of the channel, must, I conceive, Country 
render this part of the harl)oui' unhealthy till the country can be clearing. 
cleared. As far as the eye can reach to the westward the country 
appears to be one continued wood. 

The timber is well described in Captain Cook's voyage, but RpfnM>tory 
unfortunately it has one very bad quality, which puts us to great 

♦ Port Jackson. 




15 May. 



Botanist and 



and t-lay 
for bricks. 

The natives 

upon them. 


inconvenience; I mean the large gum-tree, which splits and warps 
in such a manner when used green, and to which necessity obliged 
us, that a store-house boarded up with this wood is rendered useless. 
The timber which in its growth resembles the fir-tree warps less, but 
we are already obliged to fetch it from some distance, and it will not 
float. There are a variety of palm-trees, and the heaths that are 
free from timber are covered with a variety of the most beautiful 
flowering shrubs, wild celery, spinages, samphose [samphire], a small 
wild fig, and several berries, which have proved very wholesome, 
particularly the leaves of a small shrub which is found in such 
plenty that it has not yet failed us as most of the others have done. 
What seeds could be collected are sent to Sir Joseph Banks, as like- 
wise the red gum taken from the large gum-tree by tapping, and the 
yellow gum which is found on the dwarf palm-tree. The small quan- 
tity of flax that has been procured is suttlcient to show the quality, 
but the flax-plant described by Capt. Cook I have never met with, 
nor had the botanists that accompanied Mons. La Perouse found 
it when I saw them, and which was some time after they arrived ; 
and here, my Lord, I must beg leave to observe, with regret, that 
being myself without the smallest knowledge of botany, I am with- 
out one botanist, or even an intelligent gardener, in the colony ; it 
is not therefore in my power to give more than a very superficial 
account of the produce of this country, which has such variety of 
plants that I cannot, with all my ignorance, help being convinced 
that it merits the attention of the naturalist and the botanist. 

The stone of this country is of three sorts : Freestone, which 
appears equal to Portland stone, a bad firestone, and a stone that 
appears to contain a large proportion of iron. We have good 
clay for bricks, but no chalk or limestone has yet been found. 

With respect to the natives, it was my determination from my 
first landing that nothing less than the most absolute necessity 
should ever make me fire upon them, and tho' persevering in this 
resolution has at times been rather diflicult, I have hitherto 
been so fortunate that it never has been necessary. Mons. La 
Perouse, while at Botany Bay, was not so fortunate. He was obliged 
to fire on them, in consequence of which, with the bad behaviour 
of some of the transports' boats and some convicts, the natives 
have lately avoided us, but proper measures are taken to regain 
their confidence. 

The few hours I have to collect and put into method the obser- 
vations I have made of these people will, I hope, excuse me 
to your Lordship for sending only extracts from my journal, as 
they have been set down when the little incidents occurred, and 
from which a more just opinion of these people may be drawn 
than I should perhaps be able to give. 

When I first landed in Botany Bay the natives appeared on 
the beach, and were easily persuaded to receive what was offered 


them, and, tho' they came armed, very readily retui-ned the con- 1788 
lidence I placed in them, by going to them alone and unarmed, is May. 
most of them laying down their spears when desired ; and while 
the ships remained in Botany Bay no dispute happened between 
our people and the natives. They were all naked, but seemed the nath'es. 
fond of ornaments, putting the beads or red baize that were given 
them round their heads or necks. Their arms and canoes beinsf 
descriljed in " Captain Cook's Voyage," I do not trouble your 
Lordship with any description of them. 

When I first went in the boats to Port Jackson the natives 
appeared armed near the place at which we landed, and were 
very vociferous, but, like the others, easily persuaded to accept 
what was offered them, and I persuaded one man, who appeared ^. fricncily 
to be the chief or master of the family, to go with me to that part 
of the beach where the people were boiling their meat. When 
he came near the marines, who were drawn up near the place, 
and saw that by proceeding he should be separated from his com- 
panions, who remained with several officers at some distance, he 
stopped, and with great firmness seemed by words and acting to 
threaten if they offered to take any advantage of his situation. 
He then went on with me to examine what was boiling in the 
pot, and exprest his admiration in a manner that made me believe 
he intended to profit from what he saw, and which I made him 
understand he might very easily by the help of some oyster-shells. 
I believe they know no other way of dressing their food but by 
broiling, and they are seldom seen without a fire, or a piece of 
wood on tire, which they carry with them from place to place, and 
in their canoes, so that I apprehend they find some difficulty in 
procuring fire by any other means with which they are acquainted. 
The boats, in passing near a point of land in the harbour, were intrepidity 
seen by a numljer of men, and twenty of them waded into the y^uks 
water unarmed, received what was offered them, and examined 
the boats witli a curiosity that gave me a much higher opinion 
of them than I had formed from the l)ehaviour of those seen in 
Captain Cook's voyage, and their confidence and manly behaviour Manly Cove. 
made me give the name of Manly Cove to this place. The same 
people afterwarfls joined us whei-e we dined ; they were all armed 
with lances, two with shields and swords — the latter made <tf 
wood, the gripe small, and I thought less formidable than a good 
stick. As their curiosity made them very troublescjme when we 
were preparing our dinner, I made a circle round us. There was 
little difiiculty in making them understand that they were not to 
come within it, and they then sat down very quiet. The white The savajje 
clay rubbed on the upper part of the face of one of these men '^'^'^'''■''^'^''• 
had the appearance of a mask ; and a woman that appeared on 
some rocks near which the boats passed was marked with white 
on the face, neck, and breasts, in such a manner as to render her 



15 May. 

of the 

The entente 




ment of the 

the most horrid figure I ever saw. They are not often seen 
marked in this manner, and it is done only on some particular 
occasions. Several women landed from their canoes the mornina: 
the boats stopp'd in a small bay near the entrance of the harbour, 
when I was going to examine the coast to the northw^ard, and 
three of them were very big with child. Ribbons, baize, &c.. 
they tied round their necks when they were given to them, 
Several of them had childi'en with them in the canoes. They 
appeared to be less chearful than the men, and under great sub- 
jection. Two canoes with three women in each, and one canoe 
with a man and woman, came off to us when we were a mile 
from the land, and came alongside the boat to receive some fish- 
hooks and lines which were offered them. 

In Broken Bay several women came down to the beach with 
the men where we landed, one of which, a young woman, was 
very talkative and remarkably cheerful. They all readily assisted 
us in making a fire, and behaved in the most friendly manner. 
In a bay in which we landed to haul the seine many of the 
natives joined us, and I now observed that the women had lost 
two joints of the little finger of the left hand. As they appeared 
to be all married women, I supposed it to be a part of the marriage 
ceremony, but in going into a hut where there were several 
women and children who did not seem inclined to show themselves, 
I found one woman, who appeared to have had children, and a 
very old woman, on neither of whom this operation had been 
performed. There was likewise a child of five or six years of age 
that had lost the two joints. It is the women only that suffer this 
operation, which, as it must be performed with the shell that 
serves them, when fixed at the end of a short stick, as a chisel 
for pointing their spears and for separating the oysters from the 
rocks, must be a painful one. And as it is only on the little finger 
of the left hand that it is performed it cannot be any part of the 
marriage ceremony, for I have seen several women with child 
whose fingers were perfect, and, as I before observed, a female 
child of five or six years of age that had suffered the operation. 

I likewise saw some very 


female children whose finjjers 

were perfect. The loins of many of the women appeared as if 
they had something of a scrofulous disorder, but which I thought 
might be the marks still remaining of a chastisement. They 
certainly are not treated with any very great tenderness, and I 
believe are mostly employed in the canoes, where I have seen 
them with very young infants at the breast. They appear very 
obedient to the men, and as they are the weakest, so in this state 
of nature they appear to be treated as the inferior. The women, 
as well as the men, seem fond of little ornaments, but which they 
soon lay aside, and the talkative lady, when she joined us in her 
canoe the day after we first landed, stood up and gave us a 



that was not unpleasing. As most of the women have lost the 1788 

two first joints of the Httle finger on the left hand, so most of the 15 May. 

men want the right front tooth in the upper jaw, and have the Disfl^^jn^ 

gristle that separates the nostrils perforated, frequently having practices." 

a piece of stick or a bone thrust through, and which does not 

add to their beauty. This is general, but I saw some very old 

men that had not lost the tooth, and whose noses were not 

perforated for this ornament. On my showing them that I wanted 

a front tooth it occasioned a general clamour, and I thought gave 

me some little merit in their opinion. Their bodies, chiefly about 

the breasts and arms, are scarified, and sometimes the skin is scarifica- 

raised for several inches from the flesh, appearing as if it was *'°°* 

filled with wind, forming a round surface of more than a quarter 

of an inch in diameter. They have scars, likewise, on difierent 

parts of the body, and frequently one on the instep ; nor does the 

head always escape, for one of them, putting aside the hairs on ' 

the fore part of the head, showed a scar, and then, pointing to one 

on the foot and those on different parts of the body, gave us to 

understand that he was honoured by these marks from head to 

foot. The scars the men are fond of showing, but I did not think 

that the women seemed to be fond of showing the mutilated 

fingers, and sometimes found it rather diflicult to know whether 

they had lost the joint or not, for, though they had not the 

smallest idea that one part of the body required concealment 

more than the other, they appeared timid, would not approach us Timidity of 

so readily as the men did, and sometimes they would not land *^® women, 

from their canoes, but made signs for us to give what we offered 

them to the men. 

When the south branch of Broken Bay was first visited we had 
some difticulty in getting round the headland that separates the 
two branches, having very heavy squalls of wind and rain, and 
where we attempted to land there was not sutiicient water for 
the boat to approach the rocks, on which were standing an old 
man and a youth. They had seen us labour hard to get under A friendly 
the land, and after pointing out the deepest water for the boats, deoiinud 
brought us fire, and going with two of the ofiicers to a cave at 
some distance, the old man made use of every means in his 
power to make them go in with him, but which they declined ; 
and this was rather unfortunate, for it rained hard, and the cave 
was the next day found to l)e sufficiently large to have contained 
us all, and which he certainly took great pains to make them under- 
stand. When this old man saw us pi'epare for sleeping on the 
ground, and clearing away the bushes, he assisted, and was the next 
morning rewai-ded for his friendly behaviour. Here we saw a 
woman Ijig with child that had not lost the joints of the little finger. 

When we returned, two days afterwards, to the spot where the 
old man had been so friendly he met us with a dance and a song 




15 Mav. 


Courafi-e of 
the natives. 

A fish diet. 

Absence of 

So taste for 
bread or 


Mode of 

of joy. His son was with him. A hatchet and several jiresent.s 
were made them, and as I intended to return to Port Jackson 
the next day every possible means were taken to secure his 
friendship ; but when it was dark he stole a spade, and was caught 
in the fact. I thought it necessary to show that I was displeased 
with him, and therefore, when he came to me, pushed him away, 
and gave him two or three slight slaps on the shoulder with the 
open hand, at the same time pointing to the spade. This de- 
stroyed our friendship in a moment, and seizing a spear he came 
close up to me, poised it, and appeared determined to strike ; but 
whether from seeing that his threats were not regarded — for I 
chose rather to risk the spear than lire on him — or from anything- 
the other natives said who surrounded him, after a few moments 
he dropped his spear and left us. This circumstance is mentioned 
to show that they do not want personal courage, for several 
officers and men were then near me. He returned the next 
morning with several others, and seemed desirous of being taken 
notice of ; but he was neglected, whilst hatchets and several other 
articles were given to the others. 

The men hang in their hair the teeth of dogs and other animals, 
lobsters' claws, and several small liones, which they secure by 
gum ; but I never saw the women do this. Their food is chiefly 
Hsh. The shark, I believe, they neA'er eat. The fern root, wild 
fig, and the kernels of a large fruit that is not unlike a pine-apple, 
but which when eaten by the French seamen occasioned violent 
retchings. Their hooks are made from shells, and their lines and 
nets, I believe, from the flax-plant ;* but I have some that were 
made from the fur of some animal, and others that appeared to 
be made of cotton. The craw-fish and lobsters they catch in 
small hoop nets, the making of which shows some art ; yet they 
have no kind of cloathing. At the same time, they appear to be 
sensible of the cold, and to dislike the rain very much, putting 
on their heads when it rains a piece of bark, under which I have 
seen them shiver. Their huts are generally surrounded by oyster 
and muscle shells, and their bodies smell of oil. They cannot l^e 
called a very cleanly people, yet I have seen one of them, after 
having in his hand a piece of pork, hold out his fingers for others 
to smell, with strong marks of disgust ; and tho' they seldom 
refused bi'ead or meat if oflered them, I have never been able to 
make them eat with us, and when they left us they generally 
threw away the bread and meat : but fish they always accepted, 
and would broil and eat it. 

The ground having been seen raised in several places, as is 
common in England, where poor people are buried I had one of 
these graves opened, and from the ashes had no doubt but that 
they burn their dead. From the appearance of the ashes, the body 
must be laid at length only a few inches below the surface, and 

See appendix B. 


is, \vitl\ the wood ashes made by burning the body, covered lightly 1788 
over with mould, fern, and a few stones. A grave was opened 15 May. 
by Captain Hunter, in which part of a jawbone was found, not 
consumed by the tire, but we have seen very few of these graves, 
;ind none near their huts. 

It is not 230ssible to determine with any accuracy the number of Number of 
natives, but I think that in B(jtany Bay, Port Jackson, Broken Bay, p'^,y,'fation. 
and the intermediate coast they cannot be less than one thousand 
five hundred. 

In goinij to examine a cove near the entrance of the harbour 
(Shell Cove) I found a passage with deep water into a branch of 
the harbour that runs to the north-west, and finding on examining 
that there was a run of fresh water that came fi'om the westward, 
I went a few days after to examine the source. I landed with 
four days' provision, several officers, and a small party of marines, 
and found to the northward of this part of the harbour a large Lake 
lake, which we examined, tho' not without great labour, for it is ^'''"^ ®'^"' 
surrounded with a bog and large marsh, in which we were 
frequently up to the middle There we saw a black swan ; it was 
larger than the common swan, and when it rose, after being fired 
at, the wings appeared to be edged with white; there is some red 
on the bill, and it is a very noble bird. With great labour, in 
three days we got round the swamps and marshes, from which all 
the fresh water drains that this harbour is supplied with. 

The country we past thro' when we left the low grounds was 
the most rocky and barren I ever saw ; the ascending and descend- 
ing of the mountains being practicable only in particular places, 
J>ut covered with flowering shrubs ; and when about fifteen miles 
from the sea-coast we had a very fine view of the mountains inland, 
the northermost of which I named Carmarthen Hills,* and the Carmar- 
.southermost Lansdowne Hills. f A mountain between I called Lansdowne 
llichmond Hill,; and from the rising of these mountains I did not Hills. 
doubt but that a large river would be found, in search of which 
I set off the 22nd of April, with six days' provision. We were 
eleven officers and men, and landed near the head of the harbour. 
Here the country was good, l)ut we soon came to a close cover, 
tliat we endeavoured for some time to get thro', but were obliged 
tf) return, and the next day past this cover by keeping along the 
l)anks of a small creek for about four miles. The three following 
<lays we proceeded to the westward, finding the country in Fine 
general as fine as any I ever saw, the trees growing from twenty the 
to forty feet fi-om each othei-, and, except in particular places ^vcstward. 
where the soil was stony and very poor, no underwood. The 

* Named after the Marquis of Carmartlicn, afterwards Puke of Leeds, who was Secretary 
•f State for tlie Korei(,'n Department, and administered tlie affairs of the colonies durinj,' a 
])art of the year 1783. 

t Named after the Marquis of Lansdowne (Earl of Shelburne). 

X .Named, it is supposed, after the Duke of Richmond, then Master-General of the 


1788 country thro' which we past was mostly level, or only rising in 
15 May. small hills, which gave it a pleasing and picturesque appearance. 
The fifth day we got to a rising ground, and for the first time 
since we landed saw Carmarthen Hills, as, likewise, the hills to the 
southward. The country round this hill was so beautiful that I 
called the hill Bellevue, but the hills we wished to reach still 
appeared to be at least thirty miles from us. We had been five 
days out, and the want of provisions obliged us to return to the 
spot we left, ])y the track we went, otherwise our journey might be 
Exploration lengthened several days longer than we expected, by meeting with 
^ ^^'^ • deep ravines, which we might be obliged to go round ; and, I believe, 
no country can be more difficult to peiietrate into than this is, tho' 
we always found pools of water that had remained after the rainy 
season, yet, as that could not be depended on, the water necessary for 
the day was always carried, which, with the provisions, arms, and 
a couple of tents, obliged every officer and man to carry a very 
heavy load, but which at present was so much lightened, and 
having the trees marked, in one day and a half we got back to the 
head of the harbour. We had been thirty miles to the westward, 
and had seen a country that might be cultivated with ease, and I 
Land fit for intended returninsf in a few days in hopes of reaching the bottom 
c tna ion. ^£ Lan.(jgf|Q-^n. Or Carmarthen Hills ; and the tracing of the natives 
inland, added to the hopes of finding a large river, which the appear- 
ance of the country promised, made everyone, notwithstanding the 
fatigue, desirous of being of the party ; but my having when I went 
to Broken Bay, before I was perfectly recovered from the complaint 
Hardships of which had been so general, slept several nights on the wet ground, 
°' brought on a pain in the side, which this journey increased so much 
that I found a few weeks' rest necessary after I returned. 

I have had the honor of informing your Lordship that we 
Good now know there is a good country near us, and it shall be settled 

countrv »/ ^ 

near tiie and cultivated early in the spring. In this journey I was surprized 

settlement. ^^ g^^j temporary huts made by the natives far inland, where they 

must depend solely on animals for food, and to procure which 

we have never yet seen any other weapon than the spear, which 

is certainly very inferior to our guns, and with which in this 

journey, tho' we were in want of provisions for the last two days, 

procured us barely sufficient for two meals. These huts consist of 

only a single piece of bark, about eleven feet in length, and from 

Gunyah.". four to six feet in breath, being, when stripped from the tree, bent 

in the middle, and sat up as children put up a card, affording 

shelter against a shower of rain if you sit under it. The hut may, 

perhaps, only be intended to hide them from the animals they lay 

in wait for. Near one of these huts we found some of the bones 

of a kangaroo, and saw sevei'al trees that were on fire ; the natives, 

Trees on I suppose, had left them on our approach. I also found the root 

^'^' of fern, or something like the fern root, that had been chewed by 


one of the natives ; he could only have left the spot a few minutes ; 1788 
but we never saw any of them, and I believe their numbers in 15 May. 
these woods must be vei-y small. A\'liether they live in the woods 
by choice, or are driven from the society of those who inhabit the 
sea-coast, or whether they travel to a distant part of the country, 
I can form no judgment at present. The bark of many of the 
trees were cut in notches, and at the foot of one tree we found the 
fur of a flying squirrel. Many trees were seen with holes that 
had been enlarged by the natives to get at the animal, either the How the 
squirrel, kangaroo rat, or opossum, for the going in of which pei'haps ^^l^^ 
they wait under their temporary huts, and as the enlarging these smau game. 
holes could only be done with the shell they use to separate the 
oysters from the rocks, must require great patience. Against 
several trees where the hole was near the ground, but too high to 
reach, boughs of trees were laid for to climb up by. We saw many 
places where the natives had made fires, but at one place only 
were any oyster or muscle shells seen, and there not more than 
half-a-dozen, and no fish-bones, so that when they go inland they 
certainly do not carry any fish to support them. 

In Botany Bay, Port Jackson, and Broken Bay we frequently Aboris-inal 
saw the tigui'es of men, shields, and fish roughly cut on the rocks; '^'^^^'"°- 
and on the top of a mountain I saw the figure of a man in the 
attitude they put themselves in when they are going to dance, 
which was much better done than I had seen before, and the 
figure of a large lizard was sufficiently well executed to satisfy 
every one what animal was meant. 

In all the country thro' which I have passed I have seldom Traces of 
gone a quarter of a mile without seeing trees which ap'pear to have *'''''"• 
been destroyed by fire. We have seen very heavy thunderstorms, 
and I believe the gum-tree strongly attracts the lightning, but 
the natives always make their fire, if not before their own huts, 
at the root of a gum-tree, which burns very freely, and they never 
put a fire out when they leave the place. 

Near some water we saw the dung of an animal that fed on plenty of 
grass, and which I thought could not be less than a horse. *''*'"'^- 
Kangaroos were frequently seen, but very shy, and it is a little 
extraordinary that more of these animals are seen near the camp 
than in any other part of the country, notwithstanding they are 
fired at almost daily. Black swans are found on most of the Black swans, 
lakes, and a bird as large as the ostrich was killed while I was at 
Broken Bay. It differs both from the ostrich and the emu. 
Several have been seen, but they are very shy, and much swifter 
than the greyhounds. Here are wild ducks, teal, and quails, vviid duciis. 
with great variety of small birds. 

On my return from this excursion I had the mortification to find Sheep kilkd 
that five ewes and a lamb had been killed in the middle of the day, ^oji? ""^ 
and very near the camp, I apprehend by some of the native dogs. 




15 May. 

Departure of 
for China — 
the Supply 
to Lord 





12 Feb. 

King's ajj- 
to Norfolk 

The beginning of May the rainy season was once more sup- 
posed to be set in, but after a week Ave had fine weather. 

The three transports for China* sailed the 5th, 6th, and 8th of 
May ; and the Supply, having been caulked, sailed the 6th to 
Lord Howe Island, to endeavour to procure turtle, in hopes of 
checking the scurvy, with which most of the people are aft'ected, 
and near two hundred rendered incapable of doing any work. It 
is not possible to send the Sirius to the northward, for she inust 
then have her carpenters, and only three of those hired from the 
transports now remain • and tho' the detachment began to build 
barracks for the use of the men and huts 'for the ofiicers the 
14th of February, and near a hundred convicts were given to 
assist in this work, they are not yet finished, nor is the hospital 
or the store-house that is to receive the provisions still remaining 
on board three transports, and on these works the carpenters of 
the Sirius are employed. I have before pointed out the great 
labour in clearing the ground as one cause of our slow progress. 

Your Lordship will, I hope, excuse the confused manner in 
which I have in this letter given an account of what has past 
since I left the Cape of Good Hope. It has been written at 
different times, and my situation at present does not permit me 
to begin so long a letter again, the canvas house I am under being 
neither wind nor water proof. I have, &c., 

[Enclosure.] ^- I'hillip. 

Government of Norfolk Island. 
By His Excellency Arthur Phillip, Esq., Governor-in-Chief and 
Captain-General in and ovei- his Majesty's territory of New 
South Wales and its dependencies, itc, ifec, &c. 
By virtue of the power and authority vested in me, I do hereby 
constitute and appoint you, Philip Gidley King, Superintendant 
and Commandant of Norfolk Island, and of the settlement to be 
made thereon, f 

You are therefore carefully and diligently to dischai'ge the duty 
of Superintendant and Commandant of the same, by doing and 
performing all and every such instructions as you have, or may 
hereafter, from time to time, receive from me, for the good of his 
Majesty's service. 

Given under my hand and seal, at head-quarters, in Port 
Jackson, New South Wales, this 12th day of February, 
1788. Arthur Phillip. 

To Philip Gidley King, Esq., 

Superintendant and Commandant of Norfolk Island. 
By Command of his Excellency. 

Andrew Miller, Secretary. 

*" Scarborough, Charlotte, and Lady Penrhyn. 

t See Phillip's despatch to Lord Sydney, ante, p. 124. Kiiijf was afterwards appointed 
Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island bj' Commission, post, p. 287. 



[Enclosure.] 1788 

Instructions for Philip Gidley King, Esq., SuperintencLant and 12 Fei>. 

Coiniiiandant of the Settlement of Norfolk Island. 

With these Instructions you will receive my Commission appoint- Kinga 

ing you to superintend and command the settlement to be 

formed on Norfolk Island, and to obey all such orders as you 

.shall, from time to time, receive from me, his Majesty's Governor- 

in-Chief and Captain-General of the territory of New South 

Wales and its dependencies, or from the Lieutenant-Governor in 

my absence. 

You are therefore to proceed in his Majesty's armed tender 

Supply, whose commander has my orders to receive you with the 

men and women, stores and provisions, necessary for forming the 

intended settlement, and on your landing on Norfolk Island take Settlement 

. . to be 

upon you the execution of the trust reposed in you, causing my fonned. 

Commission appointing you Superintendant over the said settle- 
ment to be publicly read. 

And after having taken the necessary measures for securing J^?^ island 
yourself and people, and for the preservation of the stores and culthateii. 
provisions, you are immediately to proceed to the cultivation of 
the ilax-plant, which you will lind growing spontaneously on the 
island, as likewise to the cultivation of cotton, corn, and other 
grains, with the seeds of which you are furnished, and which you 
are to regard as public stock, and of the increase of which you 
are to send me an account, that I may know what quantity may 
be drawn from the island for the public use, or what supplies 
may be necessary to send hereafter. It is left to your discretion 
to use such part of the corn that is raised as may be found 
necessary ; but this you are to do with the greatest economy. Economy in 
And as the corn, flax, cotton, and other grains are the property grainf*^ ° 
of the Crown, and are as such to be accounted for, you are to 
keep an exact account of the increase, and you will, in future, 
receive directions for the disposal thereof. 

You are to inform yourself of the nature of the soil, what pro- The 
portion of land you tind proper for the cultivation of corn, flax, and of the island 
cotton, as likewise what quantity of cattle may be bred on the *" '^'r , 
island, and the number of people you judge necessary for the 
above purposes. You will likewise obser\e what are the prevail- 
ing winds in the diflerent seasons of the year, the best anchorage 
according to the season, the rise and fall of the tides, likewise 
when the dry and rainy seasons begin and end. 

You will l)e furnished with a four-oared boat, and you are not ^^l^'F^, 
on any consideration to l)uild or to permit the building of any built, 
vessel or boat whatever that is decked, or of any boat oi' vessel 
that is not decked, whose length of keel exceeds twenty feet ; and 
if by any accident any vessel or boat that exceeds twenty feet 
keel .should be driven on the island, you are immediately to 


1788 cause such boat or vessel to be scuttled, oi' otherwise rendered 
12 Feb. unserviceable, letting her remain in that state until you receive 
further directions from me. 
Provisions You will be furnished with provisions for six months, within 
months. which time you will receive an additional supply, but, as you will 
be able to procure fish and vegetables, you are to endeavour to 
make the provisions you receive serve as long as possible. 
Convicts to The convicts being the servants of the Crown till the time for 
public. which they are sentenced is expii-ed, their labour is to be for the 
public, and you are to take particular notice of their general 
good or bad behaviour, that they may hereafter be employed or 
rewarded according to their different merits. 
Observance You are to cause the prayers of the Church of England to be 
re igion. ^,gg^^ with all due solemnity every Sunday, and you are to enforce 
a due observance of religion and good order, transmitting to me, 
as often as opportunity offers, a full account of your particular 
situation and transactions, 
with^tradin You are not to permit any intercourse or trade with any ships 
vessels or vessels that may stop at the island, whether English or of any 
pro ibite . Q^hgj, nation, unless such ships or vessels are in distress, in which 
case you are to afford them such assistance as may be in your power. 
Given under my hand, at head-quarters, in Port Jackson, 
New South Wales, this 12th day of February, 1788. 
Arthur Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 
My Lord, Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, May 16, 1788. 

16 May. I have in my first letter had the honour of observing to your 

Superinten- Lordship the great want of proper persons to superintend the 
dents convicts. The ofiicers who compose the detachment are not only 

wanted. n ■ cii ni-i • p 

tew m number, but most or them have declined any mterterence 
with the convicts, except when they are employed for their own 
particular service. I requested soon after we landed that ofiicers 
would occasionally encourage such as they observed diligent, and 
point out for punishment such as they saw idle or straggling in 
Reluctance the woods. This was all I desired, but the olficers did not under- 
superids" ° stand that any interference with the convicts was expected, and 
convicts. that they were not sent out to do more than the duty of soldiers. 
The consequence must be obvious to your Lordship. Here are only 
convicts to attend to convicts, and who in general fear to exert 
any authority, and very little labour is drawn from them in a 
country which requires the greatest exertions. In this declara- 
tion I do not mean to include the Lieut. -Governor,* who has shown 
every attention that could be expected from him ; and the Judge- 
Advocate,! acting as a Justice of the Peace, with a diligence that 

* Robert Ross. Major of Marines and Commandant of the detachment at Port Jackson, 
t David Collins, Captain of Marines, aiso Secretary to the Go\ernor. 


does him the greatest credit, they are under as good order as our 1788 
present situation permits. 16 May. 

The sitting as members of the Criminal Court is thought a officerT 
hardship by the officers, and of which they say they were not object to sit 

t/ «/ t/ ^ „ criiiiiniiA 

informed before they left England. It is necessary to mention court. 
this circumstance to your Lordship, that officers coming out may 
know that a young colony requires somethmg more from officers 
than garrison duty. 

The not having the power of immediately granting lands the Disap- 
officers likewise feel as a hardship. They say that they shall be ^etung nt 
obliged to make their minds up as to the staying in the country land. 
or returning before they can know what the bounty of Govern- 
ment intends them. 

As it is, my Lord, impossible for the Commissary to attend to Assistant 
the issuing of provisions without some person of confidence to appo^nted!^ 
assist and to be charged with the details, I have appointed the 
person who was charged with the victuallmg the convicts from 

There is likewise a veiy useful person who acts as Provost- Superinten- 
Martial (the one appointed in England not having come out), and works. ' 
who likewise superintends the diffiirent works gomg on. 

Two people, who are farmers, and the clerk of the Sirius are Making: men 
employed in cultivating ground, and in the store, as likewise a ^^®*^'- 
smith that superintends the convict smiths. As the granting 
these people any land would at present draw their attention from 
the public service, I have promised that their situation should be 
represented to your Lordship. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

My Lord, Sydney Cove, N.S. Wales, May 16, 1788. 

I have the honor of transmiting your Lordship copies of 
the proceedings of a battalion court-martial, and the letters which 
passed on that occasion,* by which your Lordshij) will see the 
reasons assigned by the commandant of the detachment for puting Officers 
the officers under arrest, as likewise the reasons giving [given ?] airest. 
by the court for not altering the sentence. 

Battalion court-martial being ordei-ed by Major Ross, as Com- 
mandant of the detachment, when he judged necessaiy, I was 
not informed of the courtsf being under arrest till the next 
morning, when he came to inform me, and I used every means in 
my power to prevent a general court-martial, the inconveniences 
of which were obvious. Any accommodation being declined, I 
did not judge it prudent to put the guards in the charge of 

* Post, pp. 140-141, 159-164. 

t The ott-.cers constituting- the court, viz., Capt.-Lt. Tench, 1st Lt. Kellow, 1st Lt. 
Poulden, 1st Lt. Davey, and Ist Lt. Tiuiins. 



A marine 
strikes a 

1788 serjants, which must have l^een done to assemble the court, the 
16 May. number of officers capable of doing duty being but thirteen. 
I therefore ordered the officers to return to their duty till a 
general court-martial could be assembled. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Proceedings of a court-martial held at Port Jackson, by order 
of Major Ross, Commandant of the Battalion of Marines. 

Captain-Lieut. Tench, President. 

Members: — First Lieut. Kellow, F. Lieut. Davey, F. Lieut. 
Poulden, F. Lieut. Timins. 
IS March. 18th March, 1788. 

Joseph Hunt, private of the 15th Compy., bro't to trial for 
striking William Dempsey, private in Captain Meredith's cy., 
when going to the cooking-place. 

William Dempsey prosecutes, and informs the court that on 
Sunday evening last, as he was going to the cooking-place with a 
pot in his hand to boil, he saw Jane Fitzgerald, a female convict, 
talking to another marine. The woman (Fitzgerald) asked him 
how he did. He told her he was well, immediately on which the 
prisoner came up and struck him with a stick. On his asking 
Hunt the meaning of such treatment, he told him that he would 
let him know that he had no right to speak to any woman of his 
(the prisoner's) ship. Thos. Jones, marine, then coming up, 
asked why he struck Dempsey. He directly called him a Ports- 
mouth rascal, and told him to go directly out of his sight. On 
further advice from Jones to return to his tent, the prisoner at 
length complied. 
Evidence. Thomas Jones, private of the 15th Compy., informs the court 

that he was standing near the cooking-place on Sunday evening, 
when he heard some words between the prosecutor and prisoner 
of an angry nature, but which he could not distinctly make out. 
He says that he saw no blows pass, and that after some little time 
Hunt went away towards his tent. 

James Wedman, private of the 5th Compy., informs the court 
that he was at the cooking-place at the time William Dempsey 
came up, and that on a female convict speaking to him, the prisoner 
struck him on the shoulders with a small stick he had in his hand. 
Dempsey showed some dissatisfaction at this, upon which Hunt 
struck him twice on the head with his hst, and on being told by 
the prosecutor that he would complain of him, the prisoner said 
that if he pleas'd he was welcome to do so. After this Hunt went 
away to the encampment. 

Question from the prisoner to Wedman :~ Did you hear me say 
to Dempsey that he should not speak to a woman of the ship I 
came out in ? Answer : I did not. 


Question from the prisoner to the prosecutor : — Did I strike you 1788 
■with my open hand or my clench'd fist 1 Answer : I am not 18 March, 
certain what it was, tho' I think rather with the open hand. 

The prisoner, being put on his defence, acknowledges that he The offence 
struck the prosecutor, but says that he was not in earnest in it, 
and did it not with the intention of hurting him. Denies having 
said to him that he would not allow him to speak to any woman 
of the ship he came out in, and submits himself to the mercy of the 
court. The prisoner calls on the President of the court and Lieu- 
tenants Poulden and Timins for a character, and those members 
are glad to have it in their power to give him the character of a 
good soldier. 

The court was of opinion that the prisoner is guilty of the crime 
laid to his charge, and falls under a breach of the 18th Article of 
the 1 4th section of the Articles of War, and do sentence him either 
to ask puljlic pardon before the battalion of William Dempsev, ''''^^^ 
the soldier whom he struck and injur'd, or to receive one hundred 
lashes on his bare back, by the drummers of the detachment, and 
where the commanding officer shall appoint. 

Watkix Tench, 
Capt.-Lt. Mars. [Marines] and President. 

The court having met a second time, by order of the command- Jtsconfirma- 
ing officer, to reconsider the nature and extent of the crime laid to 
the prisoner's chai'ge, the evidence in support of the prosecution, 
the prisoner's defence, and their own judgment, do not in delibera- 
ting among themselves see any cause to rescind the sentence they 
have already given. Watkix Tench, 

Capt.-Lieut. and President. 

Proposed Trading Settlement at Norfolk Island. 

London, May 24, 1788. 24 May. 
To the Right Honourable Lord Sydney, one of his Majestie's 

Principal Secretarys of State, etc., &c. 
The petition of Sir George Young, Knt., and John Call, Esquire, 

in behalf of themselves and others, — 
Sheweth — 

That your petitioners have it in contemplation to form a 
settlement on a small uninhabited island, first discovered" by 
Captain Cook, and by him named Norfolk Island,* lying in the 
latitude of 29^ 2' south, and longitude 108° IG' east from Green- 
wich, in the Pacific Ocean, in order to promote the cultivation of 
the New Z(!aland flax-jjlant, and the growth of pine timber for pjax and 
masts, being persuaded that if tliey ai-e fortunate enough to timber. 
succeed in their undertaking it will be attended with great 

■* The petitioners were ignorant of the fact that this island }ia(l been taken possession 
of by Lieutenant King, and a settlement planted there, three months before the date of 
their ai)pIication. 




. 21 Maj'. 

at Norfolk 

* July. 




5 July. 


national utility, by furnishing a future supply of those valuable 
articles of cordage and masts for his Majestie's ships-of-war in 
India, which have hitherto been obtained at an enormous expense, 
owing to the difficulty of conveying them thither, and from their 
scarcity have often reduced the maritime force employ'd in the 
East Indies to ajreat inconvenience and even distress. 

Your petitioners, therefore, considering the great expence and 
risque they must necessarily incur in prosecuting an enterprise 
in which if they succeed the nation cannot fail in being benehted, 
A free grant, humbly solicit from his Majesty a grant to them and their heirs 
for ever of the said island, to be held of the Crown as of the 
Manor of East Greenwich. Geo. Young. 

Jno. Call. 

Surgeon White to Governor Phillip. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

July the 4th, 1788. 
Among the troops, their wives and children, as well as 
the convicts who have been ill, the want of necessaries 
to aid the operation of medicine has been most materially and 
sensibly felt. My duty leads me to mention this circumstance to 
your Excellency in order that you may use such means for their 
procurement as may seem most expedient. 

For your Excellency's information I have taken the liberty to 
insert the articles in the marofin* which come under the head of 
necessaries, to which I beg leave to add blankets and sheets for 
the hospital, none of which are in the colony, altho' they are 
essential and absolutely necessary. The want of them makes 
that observance and attention to cleanliness (a circumstance 
which among sick persons cannot be too much inculcated or 
attended to), utterly impossible. With respect to necessaries, 
our situation here, constantly living on salt provisions without 
any possibility of a change, makes them more necessary than 
perhaps in any other quarter of the globe. I have, &c., 

John White, Surgeon. 


Spirits for 



Governor Phillip to Under Secretary ISTepean. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

Dear Sir, July the 5th, 1788. 

Having, pursuant to the instructions I received from the 

Right Honourable the Lord Sydney, ordered the Commissary to 

purchase a sufficient quantity of spirits at Rio de Janeiro to serve 

the garrison for three years from the time of their landing, the 

same is issued according to the instructions ; but the soldiers' 

wives soon after landing being sickly, and the surgeon judging 

that a small quantity of spirits would be of service, I then ordered 

the Commissary to issue to each soldier's wife half the proportion 

* Sugar, sago, barley, rice, oatmeal, currants, spices, vinegar, portable soup, tamarinds. 


of spirits allowed the husbands — that is, one-quarter of a pint 
per day, on condition that the quantity so issued should be here- 
after stop'd from the husbands' allowance if not approved of. ^ "^"^^'• 

The same ration is settled by the Navy Board for the detach- 
ment as for the convicts, and is as follows, viz. :— 

Rations for seven days successively for each marine and male Rations, 
convict — 

Seven pounds of bread, or, in lieu thereof, seven pounds of flour. 

Seven pounds of beef, or, in lieu thereof, four pounds of pork ; 
three pints of pease; six ounces of butter; one pound of flour, or, 
in lieu thereof, half a pound of rice. 

I am informed that seven pounds of pork is given to the 
soldiers in the settlement when they are served pork, and not 
four pounds of pork in lieu of seven pounds of beef ; and here, 
as is the custom of the Navy, the eighth is deducted. 

You will, sir, be so good as to explain the intent of Government stoppage of 
on this head. The eighth is stopped for the benefit of the Crown, Percentage. 
and to make up for the loss in serving in small quantities. The 
Commissary, of course, has not any advantage from the provisions. 

The one pound of flour is not clearly understood. If intended 
to be given weekly, as is done, or if it was intended to be given 
in lieu of pease, which from the manner of wording the order 
from the Navy Board does not appear to have been the intention 
of Government. If it is not the intention of Government that the what does 
eighth should be stopped, I have promised that they should be Q^fvemment 
repaid when the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of intend ? 
his Majesty's Treasury have signified their pleasure thereon. 

Every possible attention will be given to the cultivation of the piax. 
flax-plant when circumstances permit, and on our first arrival in 
this port it was frequently met with ; but when I judged the 
seed to he ripe, and ordered it to be collected, veiy little was found, 
and none in those places where it had been seen in any quantity, 
which I impute to the natives pulling up the plant when in 
flower to make their fishing-lines. A few plants have been 
collected, and which are sent home under the care of the agent 
of the transports. 

Sheep do not thrive in this country at present, but as many cows sheep do 
with one or two young bulls as the ships intended for this settle- nottlirivc. 
ment that touch at the Cape can receive on board will, I hope, be 
ordered, as likewise seeds and a few quarters of wheat, barley, 
and Indian corn. 

Cloathing for the natives, if sent out, will, I daresay, be very clothing for 
accejjtable to them when they come amongst us. I should recom- *^^ natives 
mend long frocks and jackets only, wliich will equally serve both 
men and women. 

A great part of the cloathing I have, sir, already observed was Bad 
very bad, and a great part of it was likewise too small for people clothing. 




5 July. 

Presents for 
the natives. 

9 July. 



\ new 




of common size. If some coarse blankets were to be sent out they 
would greatly contribute to preserve the health of the convicts. 

In addition to the frocks and jackets for the natives, good house 
carpenters' axes, hats, hooks and lines will be the most beneficial, 
as well as most acceptable, to the natives. I have, etc., 

A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Secretary Stephens. 

Camp, Sydney Cove, New South Wales, 

Sir, 9th July, 1788. 

You will please to inform their Lordships that I have 
permitted First Lieutenant James Maxwell and Second Lieutenant 
William Collins to return to England, in consequence of the report 
made to the Governor and me of the impossibility of their recover- 
ing their health in this country. 

Enclosed you have a copy of the report of the surgeons,* and the 
Governor is to order them a passage in such of the returning 
transports as he chooses. 

I have directed them, upon their arrival in England, to transmit 
to you a copy of their letter of leave, as likewise an account of 
their then state of health, and to request their Lordships' orders 
for their future proceedings. 

The several duties we have to perform being very sevei'e upon 
the officers in general, and the subalterns in particular, I beg to 
assure their Lordships that nothing less than the chance of saving 
those officers' lives could have made me grant the leave they 
requested, and therefore hope their Lordships will ajiprove of what 
I have done. 

I have taken them off the strength of the detachment, and 
Second Lieut. Dawes, who has been discharg'd from the Sirius's 
books, has taken the place of Second Lieutenant Collins in it. 

I have likewise turned a drummer, a very bad one, into the ranks, 
and replaced him with a very fine, stout boy, son to one of the 
detachment, in order to draw as few men as possible from the 
Sirius ; and, sir, as he is attested, he stands upon the strength of 
the detachment. I have, etc., 

Pt. Pioss, Major. 

Major Poss to Secretary Stephens. 

Camp, Sydney Cove, New South Wales, 
Sir, 9th July, 1788. 

Inclosed you have for their Lordships' information a general 
return of the state of the detachment under my command. By it 
you will see that we want one second lieutenant to complete the 
four companies. 

* Surjreon White, chief surgeon of the settlement, and Surgeon Worgan, of the Sirius, 
reported that Lieut. Collins suffered from dysentery and Lieut. Maxwell from amaurosis. 


As I have ever since my arrival here entered my son, John l'^88 
Ross, as a volunteer, serving without pay, may I presume to 9 July, 
solicite their Lordships to do me the honor of appointing him to johnRoss. 
that vacancy in the detachment 1 

What emboldens me to pray their Lordships for this particular 
mark of favor is, my knowing the attention shown by the Board 
of Admiralty in giving a preference to the children of old officers. An old 
among which number I may, after two-and-thirty years' actual ° ^'^^ ^ ^°"' 
service, surely class myself. I have, <fec., 

* R. Ross, Major. 

[Enclosure. ] 

Officers of the Detachment of Marines. 

Mojor-Commandant : — Robert Ross. 

Captains : — James Campbell, John Shea. 

Captain- Lieutenants : — James Meredith, Watkin Tench. 

First Lieutenants : — George Johnston, John Johnstone, John 
Creswell, James Maitland Shairp, Robert Kellow, Thomas Davey, 
John Poulden, Thomas Timins. 

/Second Lieuteiiants : — Ralph Clarke, William Faddy, William 

Adjutant Second Lieutenant : — John Long. 

Quarter-master First Lieutenant : — James Furzer. 

Judge- Advocate : — -David Collins. 

R. Ross, Major. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

Sydney Cove, New South Wales, 
My Lord, July the 9th, 1788. 

T have had the honor of informing your Lordship of the 
situation of this colony prior to the 15th of May, since which 
two stores have been finished, and the ships are now landing stores and 
the remainder of the stores and provisions. provisions. 

The commandant of the detachment, having enclosed letters 
from First Lieutenant James Maxwell and Second Lieutenant officers 
William Collins, and desired that their requests to return to retumins^on 
Europe might be complied with, if their state of health was found 
by the surgeon to be as represented, and the surgeon having 
reported First Lieutenant Maxwell as incapable of duty, from a 
defect in his sight, and Second Lieutenant Collins to be so 
debilitated in state from a long illness that his life depends on his 
returning to Europe, these officers have my leave ; and Lieutenant 
Collins is charged with the despatches for your Lordship. Lieu- Lieutenant 
tenant Dawes,* who came out as a lieutenant of marines on board ^^'''^^• 
the Sirius, replaces one of these officers. 

The hutting the battalion is still going on, and though from Building 
seventy to one hundred convicts have been almost constantly *^"^'*' 

* William Dawes, Second Lieutenant of Marines. Officer of Enjjineers and Artillery. 




9 July. 






Failure to 




transports to 

A convict 



employed assisting in this business, it "will not, I apprehend, be 
finished before the end of July ; and every day proves the neces- 
sity of proper persons being sent out to superintend the convicts. 
If a small number of carpenters and bricklayers are sent out with 
proper people, who are capable of superintending the convicts, 
they will soon be rendered serviceable to the State, and without 
which they will remain for years a burden to Government. 
Xumbers of them have heen brought up from their infancy in 
such indolence that they would starve if left to themselves ; and 
many (their numbers now exceed fifty), from old age and dis- 
orders which are incurable, and with which they were sent from 
England, are incapable of any kind of work. 

Thus situated, your Lordship will excuse my observing a second 
time that a regular supply of provisions from England will be 
absolutely necessary for four or five years, as the crops for two 
years to come cannot be depended on for more than what will be 
necessary for seed, and what the Sirius may j)rocure can only 
be to breed from. Should necessity oblige us to make use of 
wliat that ship may be able to procure, I do not apprehend that 
the live stock she will bring in twelve months will be more than 
a month's provision for the colony ; and the supply is totally 
unfit for a service of this kind. 

Lieutenajit Ball returned the 25th from Lord Howe Island, 
where I had sent him in hopes he would have been able to pro- 
cure some turtle for the sick, but the weather was bad, and that 
island, not having any good water, will not be of any service to 
us, for Lieutenant Ball did not see any turtle, nor does he suppose 
they were bred there. The transports that sailed for China* had 
my directions not to go to that island, but they all appeared 
there before the Supply left it, and one was near Ijeing lost. 

The store-ships and transports, as cleared, are ordered to 
prepare to return to England immediately, but some of their 
sheathing being much destroyed by the worms, it is necessary to 
permit several of those ships to heave down. 

One of .the convicts who, in searching for vegetables, had gone 
a considerable distance from the camp, returned very dangerously 
wounded in the back by a spear. He denies having given the 
natives any provocation, and says that he saw them carrying 
away a man that had gone out for the same purpose, and who 
they had wounded on the head. A shirt and hat, both pierced 
with spears, have been since found in one of the natives' huts, 
but no intelligence can be got of the man, and I have not any 
doubt but that the natives have killed him, nor have I the least 
doubt of the convicts being the aggressors. Eleven male and 
one female convicts have been missing since we landed. A bull 

* Scarborough, Charlotte, and Lady Penrylm. They sailed respectively on the 5th, 6th 
and 8th May. Ante, p. 136. 


calf has likewise been wounded by a spear, and two goats have 1788 
been killed by some of our own people, the skin of one being 9 July, 
found where the natives never appear, so that the little stock we 
now have is likely to decrease ; and though robberies are punished 
with severity, there is not a week passes but there are people who 
lose their provisions and cloaths, which in our present situation 
it is impossible to prevent. 

I should hope that few convicts will be sent out this year or Despatch of 
the next, unless they are artificers, and after what I have had ghouid^be 
the honour of observing to your Lordship I make no doubt Ijut restricted. 
proper people will J)e sent to suj^erintend them. The ships that 
bring out convicts should have at least the two years' provisions 
on board to land with them, for the putting the convicts on board 
.some ships and the provisions that were to support them in others, 
<is was done, I beg leave to observe, much against my intimation, 
must have been fatal if the ship carrying the provisions had 
been lost. 

I have the honour to enclose your Lordship the intended yAan Plan of 
for the town. The Lieutenant-Governor has already begun a ''^ "f^" 
small house, which forms one corner of the parade, and I am 
Ijuilding a small cottage on the east side of the cove, where I 
shall remain for the present with part of the convicts and an 
officer's guard. The convicts on both sides are distributed in 
huts, which are Ijuilt only for immediate shelter. On the point 
of land which forms the west side of the cove an Observatory is vatory. 
building, under the direction of Lieutenant Dawes, who is charged 
by the Board of Longitude with observing the expected comet. 
The temporary Ijuildings are marked in black ; those intended to 
remain, in red. We now make very good bricks, and the stone is 
good, but do not find either limestone or chalk. As stores and other no 
buildings will l)e begun in the course of a few months, some regular limestone, 
plan for the town was necessary, and in laying out of which I 
have endeavoured to place all public buildings in situations that 
will be eligil)le hereaftei', and to give a sufficient share of ground 
f<jr the stores, hospitals, etc., to be enlarged, as may be. necessary 
in the future. The principal streets are placed so as to admit a 
free circulation of air, and are two hundred feet wide. The The streets 
ground marked for Government House is intended to include the ^^la^^^^ 
main guard, Civil and Criminal Courts, and as the ground that 
runs to the southward is nearly level, and a very good situation 
for )>uildings, streets will be laid out in such a manner as to ail'ord 
.1 free air, and when the houses are to be built, if it meets with 
your Lordship's apprcjijation, the land will be granted witli a 
clause that will ever prevent more than one house being built on BuiifHntr 
the allotment, which will be sixty feet in front and 150 feet in restrictions, 
depth. This will preserve uniformity in the buildings, prevent 
narrow streets, and the many inconveniences which the increase 



9 Julv. 





Murders bj- 

The blacks 
not the 

But they 





of inhabitants would otherwise occasion hereafter, 
is a building that will stand for some years. It 

The hospital 
is clear of the 
town, and the situation is healthy. The barracks and huts now 
building for the officers and men will stand three or four years. 
If water could be found by sinking wells on the high ground 
between the town and the hospital, I pi'oposed building the 
barracks on that spot, and sui'rounding them with such works as 
we may be able to make, and which I did intend beginning as 
soon as the transports were cleared and the men hutted ; but I 
now find that without some additional workmen the progress 
must be so very slow that that design is laid aside, and the only 
building I shall attempt will be a store-house. That will be secure, 
those we have already built being not only in danger from fire, 
from being thatched, but of material that will not stand more 
than two years. The barracks, and all buildings in future, will 
be covered with shingles, which we now make from a tree like the 
pine-tree in appearance, the wood resembling the English oak. 

The 30th of May two men employed collecting thatch at some 
distance from the camp were found dead ; one of them had four 
spears in him, one of which had passed through his body ; the 
other was found at some distance dead, but without any apparent 
injury. This was a very unfortunate circumstance, and the more, 
as it will be impossible to discover the people who committed 
the murder, and I am still persuaded the natives were not the 
aggressors. These men had been seen with one of their canoes, 
but I was not informed of that circumstance for some days. 
Though I did not mean to punish any of the natives for killing 
these people, which, it is more than probable, they did in their 
own defence, or in defending their canoes, I wished to see them, 
and as they had carried away the rushcutters' tools, I thought 
they might be found out, and some explanation take place, for 
which purpose I went out with a small party the next day, and 
landed where the men were killed ; but after traversing the country 
more than twenty miles we got to the north shore of Botany Bay 
without meeting any of the natives. There we saw about twenty 
canoes fishing. It was then sunset, and as we made our fires and 
slept on the beach I did not doubt but some of them would join 
us, but not one appeared; and the next morning, tho' fifty canoes 
were drawn up on the beach, we could not find a single person ; 
but on our return, keeping for some time near the sea-coast, we 
came to a cove where a number of the natives were assembled, I 
believe more than what belonged to that particular spot. Though 
we were within ten yards when we first discovered each other, 
I had barely time to order the party to halt before numbers 
appeared in arms, and the foremost of them, as he advanced, made 
signs for us to retire, but upon my going up to him, making signs 
of friendship, he gave his spear to another, and in less than three 


minutes we were surrounded by two hundred and twelve men, 1788 
numbers of women and children were at a small distance, and 9 July, 
whether by their superiority of numbers, for we were only twelve, 
or from their not being accustomed to act with treachery, the 
moment the friendship I offei'ed was accepted on their side they Friendship 
joined us, most of them laying down their spears and stone hatchets accepted. 
with the greatest conhdence, and afterwards brought down some 
of their women to receive the little articles we had to give them. 
I saw nothing to induce me to believe these people had been con- 
cerned in the murther which had been committed. We parted on 
friendly terms, and I was now more than ever convinced of the 
necessity of placing a confidence in these people as the only means How to treat 
of avoiding a dispute. Had I gone up to them with all the party, '^ "aiues. 
though only twelve, or hesitated a moment, a lance would have been 
thrown, and it would have been impossible to have avoided a dispute. 

Here we saw the finest stream of fresh water I have seen in this a fine 
country, but the cove is 023en to the sea. When the natives saw water. 
we were going on towards the next cove, one of them, an old man, 
made signs to let him go first, and as soon as we were at the top 
of the liill he called out, holding up both his hands (a sign of 
friendship) to the people in the next cove, giving them to under- Friendly 
stand that we were friends ; we did not go to that cove, but saw "**'*«^- 
about forty men ; so that, unless these people had assembled on 
some particular occasion, the inhabitants are still more numerous 
than I had imagined. I have V^efore had the honor of observing 
to your Lordship that we had traced the natives thirty miJes 
inland, and this morning, in crossing the hills between Botany Bay inland 
and Port Jackson, we saw smoke on the top of Landsdowne Hills, ^^ '^®^" 
so that I think there cannot be any doubt of there being inhabitants 
fifty miles inland. 

His Majesty's birthday was observed with every possible mark The King's 
of attention our situation permitted. The three men that liad "' ' ^^' 
been reprieved from death, in order to be exiled, were fully 
pardoned, and for the twenty -four hours I believe there was not 
one heavy heart in this pai't of his Majesty's dominions. 

If we had been unfortunate in our live stock in general, I had 
the satisfaction of seeing the cows and horses thrive ; but the man 
who attended the former, having left them for a short time, they 
strayed and were lost.* The loss of four cows and two bulls will Cattle lost, 
not easily be repaired. Pardon, my Lord, these tedious relations 
of robberies and losses ; it is the only means I have of giving your 
Lordship a faint idea of the situati<jn in which I am placed. Of 
the live stock purchased at the Cape, part died on the passage, and 
the greatest part of what remained since landing. 

* The cattle made their way to the Cowpastures on the Neptan River, where they were 
found by Governor Hunter, 20th November, 1795. They had increased to upwards of 60 
head. Collins, vol. I, p. 430. 




9 Julj-. 





reason to believe that one 




preparing to 

A fine 

Tne people 

of the natives had been 
murthered and several wounded, which, it is probable, occasioned 
the attack on the rushcutter, I have promised to emancipate any 
convict that will discover the aggressors ; it will, T hope, at least 
prevent anything of this kind in future. 

A convict who had committed a robbery, and absconded the 
5th of June, returned the 24th, almost starved ; he found it 
impossible to subsist in the woods. One of the natives gave him 
a fish, but then made signs for him to go away. He says he after- 
wards joined a party of the natives, who would have burned him, 
Ijut that he got away from them, and that he saw the remains of 
a human body on the fire. In the woods he saw four of the natives 
who were dying, and who made signs for food. This man was 
tried, pleaded guilty, and suffered with another convict. He 
persisted in the story respecting the natives intending to burn 
him, and I now believe they find the procuring a subsistence very 
difficult, for little fish is caught. 

The 22nd of this month (June) we had a slight shock of an 
earthquake ; it did not last more than two or three seconds. I 
felt the ground shake under me, and heard a noise that came from 
the southward, which 1 at first took for the I'eport of guns fired 
at a great distance. 

Four ships are now clear, and preparing to sail the first week 
in July ;* a fifth will be clear in a few days, if the heavy rains we 
have had these two days will cease, and will sail with them. The 
store-ship that has the spirits on board must remain some time 
longer. I hope to send her away by the middle of August. 

Tho' we have had heavy rains at the change of the moon, 
this cannot be called a rainy season. The climate is a very fine 
one, and the country will, I make no doubt, when the woods are 
cleared away, be as healthy as any in the world, but is, I believe, 
subject to violent storms of thunder and lightning. Soon after we 
landed, several trees were fired by the lightning, and several 
sheep and hogs killed in the camp. 

Of the convicts, 36 men and 4 women died on 


men and 8 women since 


-eleven men and one 




absconded ; four have been executed, and three killed by the 
natives. The number of convicts now employed in erecting the 
necessary buildings and cultivating the lands only amounts to 
320 — and the whole number of people victualled amounts to 966 
— consequently we have only the labour of a part to provide for 
the whole. 

Your Lordship will doubtless see the necessity of employing a 
considerable force in the country, and I presume an addition of 

* The greater part of this despatch appears to have been written before the date it 




five hundred men will he absolutely requisite to enable me to 1788 
detach three or four comi^anys to the more open country near the 9 July. 
head of the harbour. 

I could have wished to have given your Lordship a more T^e outlook 
pleasing account of our present situation ; and am persuaded I i„fr. 
shall have that satisfaction hereafter ; nor do I doubt but that 
this country will prove the most valual^le acquisition Great 
Britain ever made ; at the same time no country offers less assist- 
ance to the first settlers than this does ; nor do I think any 
country could be more disadvantageously placed with respect to 
support from the mother country, on which for a feAV years we 
nmst entirely depend. 

The heavy rains have prevented the provisions and stores being Heavy rain, 
landed so soon as I expected. It is now the 9th July, and the 
ships sail the 12th. Duplicates and triplicates of my despatches 
to your Lordship go by these ships, and I have the honor of 
enclosing your Lordship the returns of the detachment and of 
the sick ; the necessary demands for the hospital, &c., are sent to 
the Under Secretaries of State. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 
[Enclosure. ] 

Ax Account of Live Stock in the Settlement, May 1st, 1788. 

To whom 





















GoTernment . . 

Lieut. -Governor 

Officers ami men 


detachment . . 








1 ram 
12 ewes 
3 wethers 
1 ewe 
1 lamb 

' 11 




1 boar 

19 sows 









■ ■ 




















Otlier individuals ,. 











Since the 1st of May, three sheep dead, and the cows and bulls lost, 

Andkew Millek, Commissary. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean.* 
3Iy Dear Sir, Sydney Cove, July the 9th, 1788. 

You will see by my letters to Lord Sydney that this colony 
must for some years depend on supplies from England. 

The Sirius will l)e sent to the northward for live stock as ThcSiriusto 
soon as we can spare her carpenters ; and from what Monsieur f°J^^ '*^ "^ 

* A private letter. A ffreat deal of the information it contains is given in Phillip's 
despatch to Lard Sydney of the same date. 



Land in 





Losses of 
live stock 

1788 La Perouse said to Captain Hunter, one of the lies des ISTaviga- 
9 July, teurs is the most Hkely to furnish us with what we want. But 
though these islands supply two or three ships very abundantly, 
they will afford but very little towards the support of this colony, 
the situation of which I have particularly pointed out in my letter 
to Lord Sydney, and which I shall recapitulate in this, as the 
ship by which 1 now write may arrive before either of those that 
have my despatches on board. 

The Lieutenant-Governor has about four acres of land in culti- 
vation. I have from eight to ten in wheat and barley. The 
officers will be able to raise sufficient to support the little live 
stock they have, and which is all that can be expected from 
them. All the corn raised this year and the next will be saved for 
seed, and if necessity should oblige us to use it it would be only 
a few days' sujjport for the colony ; and from the rats and other 
vermin the crops are very uncertain. 

This country is subject to very heavy storms of thunder and 
lightning, several trees having been set on fire and some sheep 
and dogs killed in the camp since we landed. 

All the provisions we have to depend on until supplies arrive 
from England are in two wooden buildings, which are thatched. 
I am sensible of the risk, but have no remedy. 

The greatest part of the stock brought from the Cape is dead, 
and from the inattention of the men who had the care of the 
cattle, those belonging to Government and two cows belonging 
to myself are lost. As they have been missing three weeks, it is 
probable they are killed by the natives. All my sheep are dead, 
and a few only remain of those purchased for Government. The 
loss of four cows and two bulls falls very heavy. The horses 
do very well. 

With respect to any resources that the Cape of Good Hope might 
afford, I have only to observe that the strong westerly winds that 
prevailed all the year between that Cape and the southern ex- 
tremity of this country would render a passage to the Cape very 
tedious if attempted to the southward, and little less so if ships 
go to the northward. "Batavia and our own settlements are at a 
great distance, and when the transports are sailed I shall have 
only the Sirius to employ on a service of this kind ; and as I should 
not think myself at liberty to send either to the Cape or the East 
Indies unless in a case of the greatest necessity, it would in all 
probability then be too late. I mention these circumstances just 
to show the real situation of the colony, and I make no doubt but 
that supplies will arrive in time, and on which alone I depend. 
The provisions sent to support this colony for two years being 
A great risk, put on board three ships was running a very great risk, for had 
they separated and afterwards been lost the consequence is obvious, 
for this country at present does not furnish the smallest resource 

Difficulty in 




except in fish, and which has lately been so scarce that the natives 1'''88 
find great difficulty in supporting themselves. Any accident of 9 July, 
this kind will be guarded against, of course ; and soldiers or pighTpoor 
convicts when sent out will be put on board the ships with pro- resource. 
visions to serve them for two years after they land; and in our 
present situation I hope few convicts will be sent out for one year No drones 
at least, except carpenters, masons, and bricklayers, or farmers, who ^^" ^ • 
can support themselves and assist in supporting others. Numbers of 
those now here are a burthen and incapable of any kind of hard 
labour, and, unfortunately, we have not proper people to keep those 
to their labour who are capable of being made useful. 

Officers decline the least interference with the convicts, unless officers win 
when they are immediately employed for their (the officers) own "°'' ^^^^^' 
conveniency, or when they are called out at the head of their 
men : the saying of a few words to encourage the diligent when 
they saw them at work, and the pointing out the idle when they 
could do it without going out of their way, was all that was 
desired. The convicts were then employed clearing the ground 
on which the officers were encamped, and this they refused ; they 
did not suppose that they were sent out to do more than garrison 
duty, and these gentlemen (that is, the majority of the officers) 
think the being obliged to sit as members of the Criminal Court Judicial 
an hardship, and for which they are not paid, and likely think objected to 
themselves hardly dealt by, in that Government had not determined 
what lands were to be given them. But I presume an additional 
force will be sent out when the necessity of making detachments in 
order to cultivate lands in the more open country is known, and 
from four to six hundred men will, I think, be absolutely necessary. 

If fifty farmers were sent out with their families they would Farmers as 
do more in one year in rendering this coloiiy independent of the ^'^*'*'^s'^^- 
mother country, as to provisions, than a thousand convicts. There 
is some clear land, which is intended to be cultivated, at some 
distance from the camp, and I intended to send out convicts for 
that purpose, under the direction of a person that was going to 
India in the Charlotte, transport, but who remained to settle in 
this country, and has been brought up a farmer, but several of 
the convicts (tiii-ee) having been lately killed by the natives, I 
am obliged to defer it untill a detachment can be made. 

The natives are far more numerous than they were supposed to The natives 
be. I think they cannot be less than fifteen hundred in Botany 
Bay, Port Jackson, and Broken Bay, including the intermediate 
coast. I have traced thirty miles inland, and the having lately seen 
smoke on Landsdown Hills, which are fifty mUes inland, I think 
leaves no doul)t but that there are inhabitants in the interior 
parts of the country. 

Lists of what articles are most wanted will be sent by the 
Commissary ; and I am very sorry to say that not only a great 





9 Julv. 

Provost - 


and Golden 


China for the 

The climate. 

in the bush. 

pai't of the cloathing, particularly the women's, is very bad, but 
most of the axes, spades, and shovels the worst that ever were seen. 
The provision is as good. Of the seeds and corn sent from 
England part has been destroyed by the weevil ; the rest in very 
good order. 

The person I have appointed Provost-Marshall is likewise very 
useful in superintending the carpentry ; the person sent out by 
the contractor, who assists the Commissary in the delivery of 
provisions, one that was clerk of the Sirius, a master smith, and 
two farmers are very useful people, and I beg leave to recommend 
them to Government. The granting them lands would draw their 
attention from their present occupations. 

We had a slight shock of an earthquake in the afternoon of the 
22nd [June] ; it lasted between two and three seconds, and was 
attended with a noise like the report of very distant cannon, 
which came from the southward. 

The Fishburn, store-ship, is detained until a proper j^lace can 
be provided for the spirits ; and the rains have for some days 
prevented the landing the remainder of the provisions from the 
Golden Grove ; therefore those two ships will sail together, I 
hope, by the end of August ; the other ships have all cleared, and 
preparing to sail. » 

The masters of the transports having left with the agents the 
bonds and whatever papers they received that related to the 
convicts, I have no account of the time for which the convicts 
are sentenced, or the dates of their convictions ; some of them, 
})y their own account, have little more than a year to remain, 
and, I am told, will apply for permission to return to England, or 
to go to India, in such ships as may be willing to receive them. 
If lands are granted them. Government will be obliged to support 
them for two years ; and it is more than probable that one-half 
of them, after that time is expired, will still want support. Until 
I receive instructions on this head, of course none will be per- 
mitted to leave the settlement ; but if, when the time for which 
they are sentenced expires, the most abandoned and useless were 
permitted to go to China, in any ships that may stop here, it 
would be a great advantage to the settlement. 

The weather is now unsettled, and heavy rams fall frequently, 
but the climate is certainly a very fine one, but the nights are 
very cold, and I fi'equently find a difference of thu"ty-three degrees 
in my chamber between 8 o'clock in the morning and 2 o'clock in 
the afternot)n, though the sun does not reach the thermometer, 
which is at the west end of ray canvass house. 

A convict who fled to the woods after committing a robbery 
returned after being absent eighteen days, forced in by hunger ; 
he had got some small support from the people, and the few fish 
left by accident on the beach after hauling the seine, and had 


endeavoured to live amongst the natives, but they could give him 1788 
but little assistance; he says they are now greatly distressed for 9 July. 
food, and that he saw several dying with hunger. It is possible 
that some of the natives at this time of the year might find it 
easier to support themselves on birds, and such animals as shelter 
themselves in the hollow trees, than on fish ; but then, I think, 
they would not go to the top of the mountains, where at present 
it must be very cold. I intend going to Landsdown or Carmar- intended 
then Hills as soon as the weather permits, if it is possible, and ^^^ '^'^^ '°°" 
which will explain what is at present a mystery to me, how people 
who have not the least idea of cultivation can maintain them- 
selves in the interior parts of this country. When I went to the 
westward, in hopes of being able to reach the mountains, we 
carried six dtxys' provisions, and proceeded five days to the west- 
ward ; returning we were very short of provisions, and our guns 
only pi'ocured us two scanty meals. 

I shall now conclude with saying that I have no doubt but that a predie- 
the country will hex'eafter prove a most valuable acquisition to '■''*°- 
Great Britain, though at present no country can afford less 
support to the first settlers, or be more disadvantageously placed 
for receiving support from the mother country, on which it must 
for a time depend. It will require patience and perseverance, 
neither of which will, I hope, be wanting on the part of 

Dear Sir, Yours, etc., 

A. Phillip. 

His Majesty's Commission, with that for establishing the Courts 
of Civil and Criminal Judicature, were read soon after landing, 
and as it is necessary in Public Acts to name the county, I Thecounty 

of Ciiniber- 

named it Cumberland, and fixed its boundaries by Carmarthen and land. 
Landsdown Hills to the westward, by the northern parts of 
Broken Bay to the northward, and by the southernmost part of 
Botany Bay to the southward. 

I have enclosed copies of a letter I have received fiom the Hospital 
surgeon,* reporting the state of the hospital and the great necessity n^^^essanes. 
of blankets and sheets, as well as sugar, and those articles coming 
under the denomination of necessaries, and the want of which is 
ecjually felt by the marines and convicts. 

Tlie numljer of marines now under medical treatment ... 3G 
Convicts ... ... .. ... ... ... ... ... 6f> 

Unfit for labour from old age and infirmities ... ... 52 


A List of Articles uwat wanted in the Settlement. 

House carpenters' axes Iron in bars 

Chalii-lines (none sent out) Steel in ditto 

Felling-axes Armourers' tools (none sentout) 

Cross-cut saws Gunpowder, inuscjuct balls and paper 

Pit saws for the use of the garrison (none 

Saw setts sent out) 

* Ante, p. 142. 



9 July. 

List of Articles — continued. 

Files for cross-cut and pit saws (a 
considerable number, as they soon 
wear out) 

Gimlets, augers, chissels and gouges 

Iron pots of 3, +, and 5 gallons 
(much wanted at this time) 


Scyths and reap-hooks 

Nails, 'mostly of 18, 20, and 24 penny 

Nails (spike), brads 

Sheet and pig lead 

Swan and buck shot 

White and red paint 

Oil for ditto 

Canvas, No. 3, 6 bolts ^ 

p. c 

>» 3) ') )> 

M )) 8) 6 ,, J_ 
Twine, one liundred weight 
Sail needles 
Copper nails for repairing boats 

9th July, 1788. 

For boats' 

Strong double tin plates 

Stonemasons" tools 

Trowels for bricklayers 

Glass, not less than 10 inches by 8 

Fifteen puncheons of red wine, for 

the use of the hospital 
Hooksand fishing lines forthenatives 
Cloathing for the men and women 

convicts, with a large proportion 

of shoes 
Long frocks and strong jackets for 

tlie natives 
Soldiers' blankets for the convicts 
Twelve turn-over carts 
Wheel- bar r ws 
Four timber carriages 
Blacksmitlis' liammers 
Carpenters' ditto 
Turkey stones for the carpenters' 

tools (none sent out) 
Rope, of H inch, 1 coil 

Andw. Miller, 





Major Ross to Secretary Stephens.* 
Sir, Camp, Sydney Cove, 9 July, 1788. 

I am very much concerned at the necessity I am under of 
acquainting you, for their Lordships' information, with a trans- 
action that took place in the detachment which their Lordships 
have honoured me with tlie command of, on the 18th of March 

From the papers herein enclos'd their Lordships will see that 
it relates to a court-martial, which I had ordered to assemble on 
that day, for the tryal of a private of the detachment — for dis- 
orderly behaviour. 

On perusing the proceedings of the court-martial, which had 
been brought to me by the President, I observ'd to him that they 
had found the prisoner guilty of the crime with which he stood 
charg'd, and that the sentence past upon him was such as I 
could by no means approve of, as it was of such a nature as to 
leave it in the breast of the prisoner to I'eceive or not receive the 
punishment. That it was wresting out of the hands of the com- 
manding officer a most essential and necessary power, the power 
of mitigating or inflicting the punishment order'd the prisoner, as 
he might see cause ; that the passing of two sentences upon a 
prisoner try'd but for one crime, and leaving the option of the 
punishment to be inflicted in the breast of the prisoner, was 

* See PhiUip's despatch, 16 May. Ante pp. 139-141. 


contrary to, and out of, the common practice of the service. I 1788 
therefore requested that he would get it alter'd to either one or 9 j^jy. 
other of the sentences, I did not care which. 

Captain-Lieutenant Tench, the President, carried with him the 
proceedings — soon after he came to me again with the proceedings 
of the court, in the state of the inclos'd copy of it. From their 
mode of proceeding, finding that they wanted to deprive me, as 
commanding officer, of a power which I did not think myself Command-^ 
authorised to give up into the hands of others, I directed the p"owers^'''^ 
adjutant to write the letter of which No. 1 is a copy. To this invaded. 
letter I very soon after received an answer, of which reply to 
ISTo. 1 is a copy. Not being yet out of hope but that they might 
be induced to make an alteration in their sentence, I caused the 
adjutant to write the letter of which No. 2 is a copy, directed it 
to the President and members of the court, at the same time 
desiring the adjutant to inform them that it should be the last 
time I would write to them on the subject, and that I should 
look upon their refusal as a disobedience of orders. But tliis. 
message, the adjutant says, he did not deliver; the reason why is 
best known to himself. To this letter I received an answer, of 
which reply to No. 2 is a copy. From their last answer, finding 
them obstinate in assuming a power which I did not think vested 
in them, and not deeming it prudent, in my present critical situ- 
ation, to give up any pai-t of the power or authority with which 
their Lordships have honoured me, I found myself reduced to 
the disagreeable necessity of either giving up the consequence of 
the commanding officer, or putting the President and members 
of the court under an arrest, and the latter I did as the mode officers 
least likely to injure the service, till the return of the Governor, ^\^^^ 
who was then absent on a party of discovery, when I hoped the 
affair might be settled without my having occasion to trouble their 
Lordships with it. On the return of the Governor I had still 
more reason to be of this opinion, for, when I laid the court-martial, 
together with the letters that passed on the occasion, before his 
Excellency, and a verbal report of my having put the President 
and members under arrest, he very humanely wished me to leave the 
papers with him, saying that he would send for Captain Tench, and 
endeavour to accomodate the matter, as he judged that the making The 
an alteration of a few words in the sentence would make it a ^"J,^!""ts'"j^ 
proper one, but this endeavour his Excellency was not able to )inj3us 
accomplish, and I have since been inform'd by him of his having """"^ '" 
proposed to those gentlemen that the business should be left to 
the decision of any three, five, seven, or nine officers to be named 
by me and them, unless we wished him to name one of them. 
To this they desired a short time to consider, and that they would 
send their answer in writing, which should be final. In their 
answer,* which I hope, and have requested, the Governor has still 

• Post, p. 104. 




9 July 

The officers 
on their 

Report to 





return to 





in his possession, they say that nothing short of what could not, 
possibly, in our then situation, be granted — a general court- 
martial, or a public reparation for the indignity done them — would 
satisfy their feelings. 

Upon the Governor receiving the above answer, he told me 
that if I meant to Jproceed in the business I should send him a 
report of the whole in writing. Of this report No. 3 is a copy, 
in answer to which I received the reply to No. 3, and was, at 
the same time, told by H. Excellency that he had determined on 
the steps he was to take ; but that before he could or would 
make his intention known to any person it was necessary that 
I should first apply to him for a general court-martial upon them. 
Having complied with his desire by writing him a letter of 
which No. 4 is a copy, he soon after gave out the order of 
which No. 5 is a copy. Of this order I had not the most distant 
knowledge til it was bro't to me by the adjutant copied into 
the orderly-book of the detachment, and when I had read it I 
desired that the adjutant would, before he gave out the orders 
for the day, shew it to the President and members of the court- 
martial. On his return from them he gave a note, of which 
No. 6 is a copy, and, as soon as the orders were given out, the 
officers who had been under the arrest returned, and were by 
me received, to their duty, which they still continue doing. 

Since the above transaction, this detachment being mostly 
composed of young officers, some of whom being without much 
experience or military knowledge are led away into party, which 
has, in a great measure, destroy'd that hai'mony so very essential 
to good order and military discipline, and, indeed, I may say, of 
which it is the very soul ; and I have found myself from my 
present situation obliged to put up with such mortifying things, 
more particularly from Captn. -Lieut. Tench, as nothing else than 
that situation, my distance from their Lordships, my ardent 
wish to promote the publick good, as well as my wish and 
determin'd resolution to keep every kind of dissension (as far as 
in my power lay) from the knowledge of the privates of the 
detachment, could possibly make me submit to. Soon after my 
having order'd the above officers under an arrest, I asked Captain 
Campljell, the next officer to me in command, and an officer of 
one-and-thirty years' experience in actual service, what judge- 
ment he formed of the proceedings ; and I found him with me 
in opinion, that if the officers who compos'd the court-martial 
deem'd themselves injur'd or oppress'd by the request and order 
they received, the time and situation they took to show their 
obstinacy was highly improper, for even supposing them to 
think their commanding officer wrong in his idea of the propriety 
of their sentence, they well knew where they were sure of 
obtaining redress (by laying their grievance before their Lord- 


ships) without impeding the service ; and I have myself ever l^SS 
made it a rule to obey all ordei-s, and if I thought them 9 July, 
oppressive, made my complaint after having carried them into 
execution ; nor do I believe it to be a very uncommon thing for 
young officers to submit their own opinions iu military affiiirs to 
the judgement of the more experienced, who are presumed to be 
the best judges how far situation and the nature of the service 
employ'd on may render it necessary to deviate from general rules. 

I have, therefore, earnestly to I'equest you will move their Lord- 
ships to take such steps in this affair as may to them appear most 
proper and necessary ; and I must, at the same time, take the 
liberty of observing that unless some decisive step is taken by their a decisive 
Lordships to put a stop to the present disseution, and the restoring necessary, 
subordination, it will be absolutely impossible for any commanding- 
officer ever to carry on the service in such manner as to be either 
useful to the publick or satisfactory to himself. 

In justice to many officers of this detachment, I must take 
the liberty of observing to their Lordships that I by no means 
intend the above observation as a general one, as many of the 
officers under my command do all the duties ordered them very 
much to my satisfaction, and with a chearfulness and alacrity Some 
that does them honour, and I cannot but likewise observe that praised, 
the duties they have to perform are more severe than I ever 
knew it upon any other service. 

The same may, with justice, be said of the non-commissioned ^0°^ 


officers and privates, who, a very few excepted, seem impress'd of the 
with a very proper sense of the natui'e of the service on which '■egr""ent. 
they .are emjjloy'd, and perfoi'm all their duties, as well as the 
different works order'd them, very much to the satisfaction of 
every person in any kind of authority over them. I have, &c., 

R. Eoss, Major. 
[Enclosure No. 1.] 

Adjutant Long to Captain-Lieutenant Tench. 
Sir, Camp, Port Jackson, March the 18th, 1788. is March. 

I am directed by the commanding officer to inform you 
that the court-martial of which you was President, and which 
met this morning for the tryal of Jcjseph Hunt, private in the 
15th Compy., for striking William Dempsey, pte. in Captn. 
Mcicdith's cy., having pass'd a sentence by no means consistent The 
with the martial law, it is therefore his orders that you con- be"rc\ iewed 
vene the officers composing that court and proceed to passing 
a sentence without the choice of two sentences, either to the 
commanding officer or prisoner, and enclosed herewith you will 
receive the original proceedings for such alterations as you and the 
rest of the court may think necessary. I am, &c., 

J. LoNC, 2nd-Lieut and Adjut. 


1V88 [Reply to Enclosure No. 1.] 

„ ^ Officers' Reply to Adjutant Long. 

18 March. 

Port Jackson, March 1 8th, 
Sir, 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 

We have had the honor of receiving your letter of this 
afternoon, address'd to Captn.-Lt. Tench, ordering him to convene 
us for the purpose of revising a second time the sentence we pass'd, 
after the strictest deliberation and most impartial enquiry, on 
Joseph Hunt, privte. in Captn. Campbell's cy., for striking Wm. 
Dempsey, private in Captn. Meredith's compy., and beg leave to 
The court acquaint you that we do not think ourselves authoriz'd to sit in 
third thiie* ^ judgment a third time in the same cause, as the latter part of 
the 10th Article of the Act of Parliament for the regulation of 
his Majesty's marine forces while on shore expressly instructs us 
"that no sentence given by any court-martial, and signed by 
the president thereof, is liable to be revised more than once." 
We have, &c., 

Watkin Tench, Capt.-Lt. and President. 
RoBT. Kellow, '\ 

rp ^ -p. ^ ' ' > 1st Lieuts. and Members. 
Thos. Timins, j 
[Enclosure No. 2.] 
Adjutant Long to Officers. 
Sir, Camp, Port Jackson, March the 18th, 1788. 

The I am directed by the commanding officer to acquaint the 

anth'i'^tracts officers Composing the court that there cannot be two sentences 
the court, past On a prisoner tryed for one crime, and as in their original 
proceedings they pass'd two sentences, leaving it to the choice of 
the prisoner which shall be inflicted, therefore returning those 
pi"oceedings could not be a reversal, because it was not a sentence. 
It is, therefore, his orders that you do immediately proceed to 
finish the court-martial that you were in orders for, by passing 
only one sentence for one crime. I am, &c., 

J. Long, 2nd Lieut, and Adjt. 

[Reply to Enclosure No. 2.] 
Officers to Major Ross. 

Port Jackson, 18th March, 1788, 
Sir, 7 o'clock in the evening. 

W^e have been honored with your answer to our letter of 
this afternoon, wherein you state that the proceedings of the 
court-martial held this morning would not be sent back a second 
time by you for a reversal, because a sentence was not passed. 
The court "^g now beg leave to observe to you that we could not then, or 

do we now, conceive it possible for us to alter a judgment which 


we gave after the most impartial enquiry and most mature delibera- ^^^^ 

tion without revising and I'econsidering the nature of the crime for is March. 

which the prisoner was tried, the evidence given in, and the 

defence — matters which we cannot think it proper or miHtary to 

come again under our cognizance after we had revised them, 

agreable to the latter part of the 10th Article of the Act of 

Parliament for the regulation of the mai'ine forces while on shore, 

and the custom of the Army. 

We have, <kc., 

Watkix Texch, Captn.-Lt. and President. 

Robert Kellow, \ 

John Poulden, { -, . t . , ^t i 
n, -r^ V 1st Lieuts. anci Members. 

Ihos. Davey, I 

Thos. Timins, j 

[Enclosure No. 3.] 
Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

[In a letter to the Governor there is first a copy of the above 
letter (7 o'clock in the evening) and then : — ] 

From the above answer, finding that the court-martial seemed 
determened to wrest all power from the commanding otficer, by 
passing such a sentence on the prisoner they tried as to leave it 
solely in his power to be punished or not, as he chose, I did 
not think it consistant with my duty, either to the publick or 
myself, to resign all authority into their hands, and give up the 
command of the detachment entrusted to my care, — and from 
their determined obstinacy I had no alternative left but the very 
mortifying and disagreeable one of suspending the president and 
memljers that composed the court-martial from all duty, by officers 
putting them under an arrest, which I ordered the adjutant to an'est "'"^'^"^ 
do for disobedience of orders, til such time as the opinion of 
more competent judges than either them or myself might be had 

Your Excellency will therefore please to take such steps in this 
disagreeable business as may appear to you most proper for the 
establishment of good order and military discipline, so indis- 
pensible and al)solutely necessary in our present critical situation. 

I have, &c., 

R. Ross. 
[Reply to Enclosure No. 3.] 

Governor Phillip to Major Ross. 

Sir, Head-quarters, 20th March, 1788. 20 March. 

I have this moment received yours of this day's date, 
informing me that you had suspended from all duty Capt.-Lieut. 
Tench, Lieuts. Rol)ert Kellow, John Poulden, Thos. Davey, and 
Thos. Timins, by putting them under arrest for disobedience of Tiie arrest. 




20 ilarcli. 

su<j!,'ests a 

■21 March. 

A disasree- 
-able duty. 

orders, until such time as the opinion of more competent judges 
than either them or yourself might be had, or the sentence past 
by those officers, who were ordered l)y you to assemble on the 
18th inst. for the trial of a private marine for unsoldierlike 
behaviour ; your not approving of the sentence past by the said 
officers, which, by your letter, left a choice of two sentences to 
the prisoner, and they refusing to make any change in the 
sentence, which in their letter they say they had revised once, 
and were not at liberty to revise a second time, by the Act of 
Parliament past for the regulation of his Majesty's marine forces 
while on shore. 

As there are only four captains and twelve lieutenants in the 
detachment, two of which from their sickness are unable to do 
their duty, the having one captain and four lieutenants under 
arrest out of so small a number must very materially affect the 
service. The opinion of most competent judges, if you mean the 
opinion of the officers who compose the detachment, may be had 
without any official application to me for that purpose, if you 
and the officers under arrest are satisfied to leave it to their 
decision ; and I shall be very happy if it can be immediately 
settled by this means, and which I hope neither you nor the 
officers under arrest will refuse, as I know no other alternative, 
if not immediately settled, but that of a general court-martial. 

I am, lire, 

A. Phillip. 


[Enclosure No. 4.] 
Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

Camp, Port Jackson, 21 March, 1788. 

of discipline. 

Request for 

Having found myself reduced to the most disagreeable 
necessity of ordering Captn.-Lieut. Watkin Tench, First Lieut. 
Robert Kellow, First Lieut. John Poulden, First Lieut. Thos. 
Davey, and First Lieut. Thos. Timins, the first as president and 
the others as members of a court-martial, which I ordered to 
assemble on the 18th for the trial of Joseph Hunt, pte. marine, 
and both of the detachment under my command, under an arrest 
for passing what they call a sentence on the prisoner tried l)y 
them of such a nature as, in my opinion, tends greatly to the 
subversion of all military discipline, by passing two judgements, 
and thereby leaving it solely in the breast of the prisoner, after 
finding him guilty, whether he should or should not receive 
corporal punishment, and for positively refusing when directed 
by my order to make any alteration in the sentences they had 
pass'd on the above Joseph Hunt, — • 

I have therefore to request that you will please to order a 
general court-martial to assemble for the trial of the above 
officers for refusing to make any alteration in a sentence passed 
by them on the prisoner tried, which, if suffered to pass, introduces 



ii precedent iii its consequences subversive of all order and military 1738 
discipline, and takes all the power of mitigation out of the hands 21 Marc 
of the commanding officer, or in any other manner that may 
appear to your Excellency most likely to restoi-e harmony and 
support that military discipline and good order which is absolutely 
necessary to maintain in the present critical situation of tha 
detachment. I have, &c., 

R. Ross, Major. 
[Enclosure Xo. 5.] 

Gexeual Order. 
Parole, Bengal. Head-quarters, 22nd March, 1788. 2-2Mirch. 

The major commandant of the detachment doing duty in this 
.settlement having, by letter dated the 21st instant, reported 
the following officers under an arrest, viz. : — Captain-Lieutenant 
"NVatkin Tench, First Lieutenant Robert Kellow, First Lieutenant 
John Poulden, First Lieutenant Thos. Davey, and First Lieu- 
tenant Thomas Timins, the first as president and the others as 
members of a court-martial which he ordered to assemble on the 
18th inst., for the trial of a private belonging to the detachment. The 
the said court having, in his opinion,, passed a sentence which P°^'''°" 
tends to the subversion of all military discipline, and requesting 
that a general court-martial may be ordered to assemble for the 
trial of the aforesaid officers for refusing to make any alteration in 
the said sentence, or that it might be settled in any manner most 
likely to restore harmony and support that military discipline and 
gof)d order which is so absolutely necessary to be maintained. 

The officers under arrest liaving declined the proposal made 
of submitting the determination of this affiiir to any number of 
officers, and having informed the Judge-xldvocate, who had orders 
to propose that or any other mode of settling this matter without officers wish 
a general court-martial, that they being put under an arrest by for court- 
the Commandant did not conceive that anything less than a legal 
<lecision by a general court-martial, or a public reparation from 
their commandant, would clear their characters. 

The service does not at this moment permit a general court- a -fenerai 
martial to be assembled, the officers composing the detachment ^^^^^{^i 
(exclusive of the five ofiicers under arrest) being no more than impossible 
three captains and eleven subalterns, one of which is confined to 
his bed by sickness, which reduces the number of officers in this 
settlement eligible to sit on this occasion to thirteen, con- 
sefiuently not leaving any one officer for duty. It is therefore 
oi-dered tliat the minutes of the trial of the aforesaid private 
sf>ldier, with the letters that have passed on the occasion between 
the couit and the commandant of the detachment, l)e delivered 
to the Judge- Ad v(K-ate, that when the service permits by there 
l)eing a sufficient numl^er of officers to form a general court- 




22 March. 

To be held 



Officers to 
return to 

Read.v to 
meet the 

19 March. 

The officers 




refuse to 
leave arrest. 

martial, and for the necessary duty of the camp, a general court- 
martial may be then held on the said Capt.-Lt. Watkin Tench, 
First Lt. Robt. Kellow, First Lt. John Poulden, First Lt. Thos. 
Davey, and First Lt. Thos. Timins, if such general court-martial 
shall be then required by either of the parties. 

The officers now under arrest to return to their duty. 

Geo. Johnston,* Adjut. of Orders. 
A true copy from the original. 

David Collins, Judge-Advocate. 

[Enclosure No. 6.] 
Declaration of Officers. 
We are put under an arrest by the commanding officer for dis- 
obedience of his orders. We are now ordered out of it, and 
whenever Major Ross shall think proper to bring the merits or 
demerits of our conduct to a legal decision we are ready to meet 
the charge, and we once more repeat that a general court-martial 
only can bring the matter to a proper issue. 

Watkin Tench, Capt.-Lt. of Mars. 

Robert Kellow, 1st Lt. 

John Poulden, 1st Lt. 

Thos. Davey 1st Lt. 

Thos. Timins, 1st Lt. 

Officers to Governor Phillip.! 
Sir, Port Jackson, 19th March, 1788. 

The friendly and handsome part you have taken in endea- 
vouring to reconcile the unfortunate difference of opinion which 
subsists between us, as the members of a court-martial, and Major 
Ross, as commandant of the battalion of marines, demands our 
warmest and most respectful acknowledgments. It is not, at the 
same time, without pain that we state to you that we conceive 
the treatment we have received so violent, and our present dis- 
graceful situation so notorious, that we cannot, without injustice 
to our feelings, consent to have the arrest we now suffer under 
taken off until a public reparation should have been made for the 
indignity we have been used with. We farther, sir, beg permission 
to say that it is our unanimous opinion, should the measure we 
have stated be deemed ineligible by the commanding officer, that 
no meeting of officers, short of the customary usage of service in 
like cases, can adequately and properly fix on a mode of extricating 
us from the ignominious condition in which we have the honour to 
subscribing ourselves, sir. Your most. Arc, 

Watkin Tench. John Poulden. 

Robert Kellow. Thos. Davey. 

Thos. Timins. 

* First Lieutenant of Marines. 
t See Major Ross's despatch, 9th Jul}-, ante, p. 157. 


Major Ross to Secretary Stephens. 1V88 

Camp, Sydney Cove, New South Wales, lo Ju'y- 

Sir, 10th July, 1788. 

Inclosed you will lind some letters from officers of this Officers who 
detachment requesting to be relieved at the expiration of the ^'^"um. 
time for which they understood their Lordships intended they 
should continue here. 

You will therefore please to communicate them to their 
Lordships. I am, &c., 

R. Ross, Major. 


Sir, Camp, Port Jackson, 24th June, 1788. ^*"^""^- 

I beg you will be pleased (the first opportunity) to forward 
my request to my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that I "'^ ^"" 
may be relieved at the expiration of three years, or at the first 
relief of this garrison, as my private affairs will require my 
attention in England by that time. I am, itc, 

John Poulden. 

Lieut. Timins, July 8th, said — " My private affairs being so Timins. 
situated as to render a longer absence from them highly in- 

Liettt. Davey, July 9th — Ditto to Lt. Timins. Davey. 

Lieut. Cla.rke, June 22nd — Ditto to Lt. Timins. Clarke. 

Lieut. Creswell, June 15th — "A longer stay in this country Creswell. 
than the term of three years will be injurious to my private 

Lieut. Kellov), July 18th — "As a longer stay in this country Keiiow. 
will be very injurious to my private affairs." 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens.* 

Sydney Cove, New South Wales, 

Sir, July 10th, 1788. lOJuly. 

You will please to inform the Right Honorable the Lords Derarture 
Commissioners of the Admiralty that I sailed from the Cape f™in the 
of (iood Hope with the ships under my command the 12th of ''^^^^' 
November, leaving my despatches for their Loixlships with 
Captain Cox, who was at the Cape on his way to Europe from 

The wind continuing southerly for some days after we sailed, 
it was the 23rd bef«jre we past the Cape, and the 25th being 
eighty leagues to the eastward of it, then having strong westerly 
winds, I left the Sirius and went on V)oard the Supply, armed On boani 
tender, in order to precede the transports, in hopes of gaining *^® ^"W% 
a sufficient time to examine Botany Bay, and fix on the most 

* a portinn of this despatcli Tieiii},' identical with Phillip's despatch to the Home Office, 
May 15, 17sS, is omitted. The passages omitted are iiidiuated by asterisks. 


1788 eligible situation for the colony ; at the same time I named 

Lieutenant Shortland, the agent for the transports, who was 

10 July. *^^ board the Alexander, to follow with that ship, the Scarborough, 

and Friendship. They sailed better than the other transports, 

and I wished to make some preparation for landing the stores 

and provisions, which the convicts on board those ships would 

enable me to do, if they arrived soon after the Supply, and before 

Hunter with the other ships, as I had reason to expect. Captain Hunter, in 

transports, the Sirius, was left with the rest of the transports. This was the 

first separation that had taken place since we left England, and 

the ships were then all very healthy. The strong westerly wind 

continued, shifting regularly from the N.W. to the S.W. quarter, 

and then backing round to the northward, very seldom coming to 

the eastward, and then for a few hours only, untill the 3rd of 

Janviary, when we saw the southern extremity of New South 

Wales. The westerly winds now left us, and we had variable 

winds with southerly currents until the 1 8th, when we anchored 

Botany Baj-. in. Botany Bay. The Alexander, Scarborough, and Friendship 

came in the next day, and the Sirius, with the rest of the ships, 

the day following. These ships had all continued very healthy. 
* * * * * 

Major Ross having, by letters of the 8th and 10th of IMay, 
requested that the surgeons might be ordered to examine into the 
Sick officers, state of health of Fii'st Lieutenant James Maxwell, who had not 
done any duty for some months, on account of a defection in his 
sight, and of Second Lieutenant William Collins, who from a very 
long and severe illness was in so weak a state that there were no 
hopes of his recovery in this country, an order was given to the 
principal surgeon of the garrison and the surgeon of his Majesty's 
ship Sirius to enquire into the same, who have given it as their 
opinion that the recovery of these officers depended on their return 
to Europe, they have my leave ; the report of the surgeons is 
enclosed for their Lordship's information. 

As Major Ross will inform their Lordships of the particulars 
respecting the detachment of marines under his command, I do 
not trouble their Lordships with a repetition, and only inclose 
the returns. Lieutenant Dawes, of the Sirius, who had done duty 
with the detachment for some time, replaced Second Lieutenant 

The transports began to land their provisions and stores as 
o^The^lii*^ soon as store-houses were ready to receive them. The Prince of 
Wales was cleared the 23rd of May, and the Borrowdale the 12th 
of June ; the rest of the ships in succession, and, the Fishburn 
and Golden Grove excepted, all were cleared by the 25th These 
ships as they were cleared had orders to get ready to return to 
Europe, but the worm had so much destroyed their sheathing 
that most of them were oblij^ed to heave down. The Fishburn, 



having the spirits on board for the garrison for three years, 1788 
was retained untill a proper place could be got ready to receive lOJuiy. 

Lieutenant Ball, in the Supply, having sailed the 6th of May, 
returned the 25th without being able to procure any turtle ; by 
the accjunt that officer now gives of the island* it will not be any 
great use to us ; no turtle breed there, there is no good water, or 
any anchoringground ; the Supply being obliged to come too lost The Supply 
an anchor and cable. The three transports that sailed for China a"fchor"and 
came to this island before the Suj)ply left it, and one of them was cable. 
near being lost. 

I shall send the Sirius to the northward as soon as her carpenter 
can be spared, and from what Monsieur La Perouse said I think 
one of the Isles des Navigateurs the most likely to furnish the 
refreshments we want ; at the same time, no supplies we shall be Supplies 
al)le to procure in this country for several years will maintain the [siands'and 
colony, and regular supplies of provisions must be sent from from 
Europe. The seeds we have been able to put in the ground this """""P®- 
year will, I hope, furnish sufficient seed for the next year, and 
that is the most I expect. Of the live stock brought from the 
Cape the greater part is dead ; several of the sheep have been Loss of live 
killed, and it is doubtful whether by the natives' dogs or by some ^*°''''- 
of our own people. 

The natives, who are far more numerous than I expected to 
find them, have lately revenged the insults they received from 
some seamen and convicts, by wounding one of the convicts, and 
carrying off a second, who, from circumstances, there is no doubt 
but they killed ; these people were out collecting vegetables ; and 
two men who were cutting rushes have been killed by the natives. Men killed 
As I am well convinced that we have been the agressors, and ^^ "'^♦'i^es. 
it is not possible to find out the people that committed these 
murthers, I have only taken such steps as may prevent the like 
accidents in future, and have endeavoured, by going to the places 
to which the natives generally resort, to satisfy them that our 
intentions are friendly ; but since these accidents, except two 
canoes that went alongside the Sirius, the natives generally avoid 
U.S. The day after the two last men were killed I went out in 
hopes of finding their tools on some of the natives, which might 
have enabled me to have come to an explanation with them ; but 
not a native appeared in Botany Bay, where I slept that night. The blacks 
and though twenty canoes were fishing when we made our fire on '^'s=iPP'^''''» 
the beach, none came near us ; fifty canoes wer'e seen on the 
beach next morning, but not a man could be found, and, on oui' 
return to Port Jackson, in a small cove on the sea-shore, we fell 
in with a number of hutts, and the moment we appeared, the 
natives armed, and made signs for us not to advance, but on my 
going forward unarmed, and making signs of friendsjiip, most of 

* Lord Howe Island. 




10 July. 





The natives 
hold aloof. 


The climate 

Danger f I'on 

Two years' 

them laid down their spears, and thoiigh we were within ten 
yards of them before they discovered us in less than three minutes 
amounted to two hundred and twelve men. We parted with 
these people on good terms, and their behaviour convinces me 
that they will never be the first agressors, though I have been 
fully satisfied that they revenge the smallest affront. Whether 
from their superiority of numbers, for we were only twelve, or 
from their not being accustomed to act with treachery, the 
moment the friendship I offered was accepted on their side they 
joined us, most of them laying down their arms ; and afterwards, 
with the greatest confidence, brought down their women to receive 
fish-hooks, and what we had to give them. 

Of these people we know little ; for though I go amongst them 
as often as the many circumstances which draw my attention 
permit, yet not being able to remain any time with them, and 
they never coming near us, but when we are near the coves in 
which they reside, or for a few minutes in their canoes alongside 
the Sirius, very few words of their language are attained. 

The store-ships and transports are now preparing to return to 
Europe, the Fishburn excepted. That ship camiot be cleared 
untill a secure place is made for the spirits, which I hope will be 
done, so as to permit her to sail before the middle of August. 

I have only to add that, with respect to this country, the 
climate is very good, and it will, I make no doubt, be as healthy 
as any in the world when the woods are cleared round us. At 
present the only disorder that prevails is the scurvy, which still 
rages. The storms of thunder and lightening, judging from what 
we had soon after we landed, must be very heavy in the summer ; 
and as several trees have been fired and some sheep and hogs 
killed in the camp, all the provisions the colony has to subsist on 
untill fresh supplies are sent from Europe being in two stores, 
which are thatched, give me some anxiety, but for which there is 
no remedy at present. Had the three store-ships parted company 
and afterwards been lost the consequences must have been fatal 
to the settlement, for no resources within our reach would have 
supported us untill supplies could have been procured from the 
Cape or any European settlement. 

Their Lordships will, without doubt, order that those sent out 
in future are embarked in the ships that bring the provisions 
intended to support them for two years after they land, which is 
the least time they can be victualled for, untill a regular cultivation 
has taken place, and which will, I apprehend, be four years. The 
islands may furnish us with live stock to breed from, but I am 
fully satisfied that all the Sirius will be able to procure in a year 
will not be more than a month's subsistence for the colony, should 
we be obliged to make use of it. The Supply is no way calculated 
for a service of that kind. Cloathing in this country is full as 


necessary as in England, the nights and mornings being very cold ; 1788 
and before any supplies can be sent out most of the people will lo July. 
be without shoes, the most necessary article. 

Of the convicts, thirty-six men, four women died on the passage,* Deaths, 
twenty men eight women since landing ; eleven men and one 
woman have absconded, and are supposed to have perished in the 
woods ; three have been killed by the natives, and four have been 

The rains setting in have prevented the Golden Grove being jRain. 
cleared, and that ship will sail, with the Fishburn, as soon as 
possible after the other ships. 

The weekly accounts, returns of marines on board the Sirius, 
and last weekly return of the detachment serving on shore are 
inclosed. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Secretary Stephens, t 

Camp, Sydney Cove, New South "Wales, 
Sir, 10th July, 1788. 

You will please to inform the Right Honourable the 
Loi'ds Commissioners of the Adm'lty that since my last letter 
from the Cape of Good Hope, which we left the 13th Novr., 
1787, nothing material happen'd till a few days after, when 
Governor Phillip inform'd me for the first time of his intention Altered 
of proceeding to Botany Bay in the Supply, tender, as he wished, p'^°^- 
if possible, to arrive there some time before the rest of the fleet. 
He likewise said that the Alexander, Scarboro', and Friendship, 
the best sailing transports, should be order'd to follow him under 
the direction of the agent, and that the other transports, with 
the victuallers, were to be left with Captain Hunter. He then 
asked me if I chose to proceed in either of the first-named 
transp'ts. I told him I was there to be dispos'd of in whatever 
way he might think I could be made most useful for carrying on 
the publick sendee ; but as the principal part of the detachment 
under my command were on board the transports which were to 
•proceed with the agent, I thought it best to go with them if he 
approv'd of it. I could not, I confess, but feel myself much hurt 
at His Excellency's not having given me the most distant hint 
of his intention pidor to our quitting the Cape, that I might No notice 
have made some preparation for such an event, and more par- K»ven. 
ticularly so as I found that it had been made known to others, as 
a proof of which I received my first intimation of his design from 
the mess of the Sirius's gun-room. 

* Aceordinff to the official return, post, p. 193, there also died five convicts' children, one 
marine, one marine's wife, and a marine's child, niakinjf the total number of deaths on the 
passa'/e 48. 

t Major Ross, in this despatch, writes upon matters which are dealt with in Phillip's 
desi)atch of loth May. Ante, pp. 121-136. 




10 July. 

On board 
the Scar- 


Botany Bay. 

A bad situ- 



ships in 
Botany Bay, 

On the 25th November, the Governor, with Lieut. King and 
Lieut. Dawes of the Sirius's detachm't of marines, embark'd on 
board the Supply, myself and the Adjutant onboard the Scarbro', 
and the Qr.-master, who I thought it necessary to carry Avith nnj 
(to take charge of such marine stores as might be landed), on 
board the Alexander. At 1 2 o'clock we parted company, and in the 
evening of the same day we lost sight of both the Supply and Sirius. 

From this time til our making the South Cape we were most 
fortunate in fair winds, but from thence to Botany Bay we had 
bafeling, and at times, strong gales. 

On the morning of the 19th of Jan., 1788, the Alexandei-, 
Scarl^ro', and Friendship entered Botany Bay, where we found 
the Supply had arrived the evening before, and the next morninu 
the Sirius, with the other transports and victuallers, joined us. 

Immediately on my arrival I waited upon the Governor, whom 
I accompanied in quest of the most proper spot for carrying his 
Majesty's intention of forming a settlement on this coast into 

Meeting with no eligible situation on this or the following- 
day's excursion, the whole country, as far as we saw, appearing 
to us to be either sand, rock, or swamp, and, as far as we could 
judge, unfit for any kind of cultivation. From this appearance 
his Excellency, before he would land the detachment or the 
convicts, detex-min'd to explore the nearest harbour (mention'd 
by the late Captn. Cooke) to the northward. 

Before he left us (22nd Jan'y) he directed me to land a certain 
number of men on the south side of the bay every morning to 
fall trees and form saw-pits, in order that the whole might be set 
to work in errecting stores, &c, in case he did not meet with a 
more promising situation. On his return he inform'd me that he 
found Port Jackson one of the finest harbours in the world ; that 
he had determin'd to fix the settlement in one of the many coves in 
it, and that he would proceed before us in the Supply, the Sirius, 
with the transports and victuallers, to follow as soon as possible. 

On the 25th, his Excellency, with a detachment of two subalt'ns, 
a proportion of non-commiss'd officers and twenty j^rivates, sail'd 
for Port Jackson ; and on the 27th the Sirius, with her convoy, 
with much difficulty worked out of the bay, and just as the night 
came on got safe into the cove, where we now are. 

I have to observe to their Lordships that on the day we left 
Botany Bay two French ships of war arrived there. I found 
they were on a voyage of discovery, but as Governor Phillip can 
give their Lordships a much better account of them than I have 
the power of doing, I must refer their Lordships to his letter on 
that subject. 

On the 26th his Excellency directed that a number of the 
convicts should be landed every morning for the purpose of falling 


ices ;ui(l forming saw-pits, go on l)()ai'd to dinner, land after it, 1788 
I'ld ))(' enil)ark'd again in the evening. This mode being found lojuly, 
trdious and troublesome, two days after orders were given to 
land the detachment and the convicts as soon as tents could be 
L;()t ready for them, which was soon accorapKshed, and all in 
health landed ; the Governor, with the civil department and a 
number of the convicts, taking possession of the east side of a Lauding, 
-mall stream which runs into the cove, and the marine detach- 
ment, with the rest of the convicts, of the west side of it, in 
which state we still remain, and send a subaltern's guard to the 
opposite side eveiy morning. 

Here, in justice to myself and the detachment under my com- 
mand, I must observe to their Lordships that the detachment is 
at this hour without any kind of place of defence to retire to in 
case of an alarm or surprize, tho' I have, in justice to myself. No defences, 
repeatedly mention'd and urged his Excellency to get something 
or other errected for that purpose. Indeed, a surprize seems to 
me, from all I have seen, to be the only danger we have to 
apprehend. The natives, tho' in number near us, shew no 
inclination to any kmd of intercourse with us, for ever since our 
arrival there lias not one of them come near us on this side, and Natives shy. 
only two, who had been known at Botany Bay, visited the other 
side soon after our arrival. 

Tho' we have had little or no opportunity of coming at their 
i-eal dispositions and character, yet I am by no means of opinion 
that they are that harmless, inoffensive race they have in general 
been represented to be, and my suspicions have in some measure ,^ot sp 
been confirm'd by an event that Ciiptn. Campbell met with a few rcpiesented. 
weeks past. Being out with a party, he met with the bodys of 
two of the convicts (who had been sent out to cut thatch for 
covei'ing in the stoi-e-house), who had been most barbarously 
mangled and murther'd by the natives. One of the bodys had 
no less than seven spears in it, some of which went through and They kill 
througli, and the skulls of both wei-e fi-actui'ed. What appears convicts. 
A-ery e.xtraordinaiy is that they took away no part of the pro- 
visions or cloths belonging to the unfortunate men, but the whole 
of their working implements had Ijeen cai-ried off. But to return 
to the detachment. We still remain under canvas, no habitations Under 
being provided for either officers or men but what they themselves, '^'^"^'*** 
with the assistance of four carpenters and a few others, convicts 
(all of no trades), has been given me for the use of the detachment, 
were for some time errecting, and wlien any of them will be 
finished (the whole, from the nature of this sandy soil, being 
obliged to be constructed of wood) is impossilile for me to say ; 
but I fear it will be a length of time before the principal butts can Building 
possibly be finished, for the wood here is of so indifferent a (juality ''"*^- 
that we sometimes fall a number of trees before we meet with one 



10 July. 


Men from 
the ships 
assisting to 


King sent to 



ing country. 

that can be converted to any use, and as the huts are, for want 
of other mateiuals, to be shingled, it becomes a very tedious liit of 
work. The consequences to be apprehended from this delay are 
to me truely alarming, for our sick list increases daily, and the 
scurvy is making great havocks among us. 

Finding that the Governor had employed carpenters and sawyers 
from the Sirius, as well as the transports, paying them for their 
work, I applied to him for an order to employ such artificers as 
could be found in the detachment, in order to assist in hutting 
both officers and privates, without which we never should have 
got from under canvas covers, which order he granted, saying they 
should be paid agreeable to the usual custom of paying troops for 
extra work. I immediately caused that order to be made publick, 
and the artificers are now employed, with the four carpenters 
already mentioned, errecting the necessary buildings. 

I hope their Lordships will see the necessity I was under of 
adopting this method, and as I had no other method of retaining 
them, the men knowing that artificers employed by the Governor 
were to be paid for their work, I hope they will approve of what 
I have done. 

On the 23rd March, Lieut. Dawes, a corporal and eight privates 
of the Sirius's detachment of marines, were sent to do duty with 
the detachment on shore. Soon after liis Excellency order'd Lieut. 
Dawes to be discharg'd from the ship's books, and to be put 
upon the strength of the detachment in room of Second Lieut. 
William Collins, who from ill-health is obliged to be sent home, 
immediately after which he gave out in public orders that Lieut. 
Dawes was to do the duty of engineer and artillery officer, by 
which means the subalterns of the detachment are in no shape 
reliev'd by his joining us. 

Soon after our arrival here the Supply was order'd, with Lieut. 
King, of the Sirius, some male and female convicts, to Norfolk 
Island, but with what instructions or appointment I am entirely 

As I have not since my arrival here been out of hearing of the 
drums of the detachment but once by water with the Governor, 
it is impossible for me to give their Lordships any other account 
of the country than the little I have learned from those who have 
made excursions a few miles round, and sorry am I to say that 
the accounts are by no means of a flattering kind. The country in 
general is rocky and barren, a very few spots excepted. Nothing 
but small streams of water have yet been discover'd. All the 
stone yet seen is of one kind, something like our Portland stone. 
The face of the country is, as described by Captn. Cooke, covered 
with trees, the greatest part of which has the appearance, but 
the appearance only, of being very tine timber. The best kind is 
a tree with a pine top, but it is very hard, and in grain not 


unlike the English oak, and is the only one that can be made use 1788 
of, but it does not grow to any considerable size, and such as are lojuiy. 
of any tolerable size are all rotten in the heart. It may be poyT^ji^er 
worthy of remark that the same tree is often found to be for 
some feet perfectly sound, then decayed, then sound, and so on 
alternately, but of such, and cabbage-trees, are our officers and 
men, with great labour and difficulty, obliged to foi-m their hutts. 

Might I presume to intrude an opinion on their Lordships with 
respect to the utility of a settlement upon this coast, at least 
upon this part of it, it should be that it never can be made to 
answer the intended purpose or wish of Government, for the 
country seems totally destitute of everything that can be an The site 
object for a commercial nation, a very fine harbour excepted, and '^<^""^'"*'^ • 
I much fear that the nature of the soil is such as will not be 
brought to yield more than sufficient sustainance for the needy 
emigrants whose despei'ate fortunes may induce them to try the 
experiment. Here I beg leave to observe to their Lordships that 
the above is but a private opinion. The Governor's I am Ross' 
unacquainted with, as he has never done me the honor of inform- opinion, 
ing me of his or asking me for mine ; neither has he made me or 
any other person that I know of acquainted with any part of the 
intentions of Government, nor have I been let into any part of his 
plan, which will, I hope, be a sufficient apology for the very lame Jfot 
accounts in my power to give their Lordships, independant of PMiiip.'^ ^ 
what I have already said. The face of the country round us 
produces dreadful proofs of the devastation caused by the frequent 
lightnings, besides our having been already visited by a shock of Lightning 
an earthquake, which happened on the 22nd of June. The fatal ^u^^^gs'^'^" 
effects of the first Captain Campbell and myself have woefully 
experienced in having the principal part of our live stock (all our 
sheep and lambs, with some hogs which we purchased at the Cape 
of Good Hope) destroyed by it soon after our arrival, and what Live stock 
little remains among the whole of us are now in a starving con- '^^'''"J'^- 
dition for want of food to feed them. While I am on this subject 
I shall take the liberty of mentioning to their Lordships the 
quantity of provisions served to myself, the officers and men of 
the detachment, in which there is now no difference between us 
and the convicts, but in half a pint per day of P^io spirits, which Bad spirits. 
in taste and smell is extremely offensive. Indeed, I may say that 
nothing short of absolute necessity could induce men to use it. 
What makes this the more severely felt Vjy many of us is our not 
having known what we were to be supplied with till it was nmch 
too late to make any other provision for ourselves. 

I have likewise to oljserve to their Lordships that the quantity 
of provision served to the detachment is short of what it used to Shortration. 
be. On my mentioning this, at the request of the officers and 
privates, to his Excellency, he said that it was by particular 




10 July. 


A broken 


The Sirius. 

Wine and 



direction from the Navy Board he was to deduct a certain weight 
from each species of provisions issued. I then inform'd him of 
its being the first instance I had ever known in which a Com- 
missary made any deduction from the daily ration, unless it was 
by a general order to put the whole upon short allowance. If 
his Excellency thought it right to give such an oi'der, I would 
answer for the detachment receiving whatever he ordered without 
a murmur ; but that men never would without such order be 
satisfied with fourteen for sixteen ounces of anything. I like- 
wise mentioned to him that this detachment came out with a 
promise from their Lordships of their being properly victualled 
while they remained here, and that I had myself been informed 
by Mr. Nepean, of the Secretary of State's office, that we were to 
be victualled in every respect the same as the garrison of Gib- 
raltar, only not to pay for our rations. That had I not under- 
stood it so, and could I possibly have imagined that I was to be 
served with, for instance, no more butter than any of the con- 
victs (nearly six ounces per week), I most certainly would not 
have left England without supplying myself Vi^ith that article, as 
well as many other, or oyle, for my own use. His Excellency 
then said that he would write home for permission to increase the 
present allowance, which he hoped and had no doubt would be 
granted him, in which case every deficiency from the time of 
our landing should be made good ; but it may be necessary to 
observe that this declaration followed my observing to him the 
customary ration I had ever known troops to receive, and that I 
thought it aljsolutely necessary to inform their Lordships of our 
present situation. 

On the 20th June his Excellency order'd the corporal and 
eight privates lent from the Sirius to be sent on board again, 
saying that he would discharge three privates from the ship's 
books to complete the detachment, which he did on the 2nd 
instant, and now we are complete with the same number of men 
we first eml^ark'd with. I likewise beg you will inform their 
Lordships that on the 8th instant the Governor read the copy of 
a letter from Mr. ISTepean, of the 10th May, 1787, wherein he 
authorizes his Excellency to purchase on the jDassage a proportion 
of wine or spirits to serve the marines three years, but that it 
must be understood that at the expiration of that time there 
would be no more wine or spirits allowed. 

It is therefore, in justice to the detachment under my com- 
mand, my earnest request that their Lordships will please to take 
us under their protection, and cause us to be properly victualled 
in the manner they intended ; and as it is not possible to suppose 
troops can subsist with comfort on salt provisions and water 
only, it is hoped this request will be attended to, as I can affirm 
that no troops in the King's service ever had such severe duty to 


do ; so can I with equal truth say that duty can never be done ^"''^^ 
with more alacrity than it is done by this detachment. icuuiy. 

But should their gropf be stopt I dread the consecjuences, and Grojr indis- 
must pray that before such an e^■ent takes place, should it be so P'=''^^J<^- 
intended, their Lordships will order the detachment to be relieved, 
;ind shall hope I may be permitted to share with tliem in the 
same induli:'ence. 

I also beg leave to mention that clothing will be very much Clothing. 
wanted for the detachment, they being already intitled to the 
tpiantity first sent out. 

I must likewise intreat their Lordships will please to order a 
supply of stationary to be sent out, as the quantity we have stationerj-. 
lirought with us is far too small for the necessary uses of the 
detachment, guards, &:c. I am, etc., 

R. Ross, Major. 

SuRGEOx White to Lord Sydney.* 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

:\Iy Lord, New South Wales, July, 1788. 

The jirevalence of disease among the troops and convicts, 
who on landing were tainted with the scurvy, and the likelyhood of 
its continuance from the food (salt provisions) on which they are 
from necessity obliged to live, has made the consumption of 
medicines so very great that the inclosed supply will be very More 
much wanted before any ships can possil^ly arrive here from required!^ 

The distress among the troops, their wives and children, as 
well as among the convicts, for want of necessaries to aid the 
operation of medicines has been great. What are included under 
the head of necessaries I take the liberty to enumerate, which 
are sugar, sago, oatmeal, bai'ley, rice, currants, different spices, Medical 
vinegar, and portable soup. Indeed, our situation, not having any ^'""'°"^ 
fresh animal food, nor being able to make a change in the diet, 
which has and must be salt meat, makes these things more 
necessary here than, perhaps, in any quarter of the globe. How- 
e\er, the necessity of having these things sent out by the first 
opportunity will no doubt be strongly recommended to your 
Lordship's notice by his Excellency Governor Phillip. I have 
mentioned them lest they should escape him through the multi- 
plicity of matters all new settlements afford. I have to entreat 
your Lm-dship will be pleased to cause the medicines to be sent Medicines 
from Apothecaries' Hall, where they are sure to be genuine and 
fresh, a cii-cumstance, considering the immense distance we are 
off, and the length of time which it will take before we can 
receive them, that cannot be too much attended to. Care in the 

* See Wliite to Phillip. Ante, p. 142. 


1788 puting them up and having them placed in a dry place where 
10 July, no wet can come at them during the voyage, is another circum- 
stance equally to be attended to. 

I have, &c., 

John White, Surgeon. 

Major Ross to Uxder Secretary Nepeax.* 
Camp, Sydney Cove, New South Wales, 
My Dear Sir, 10th July, 1788. 

I know not whether the Secretary of State expects I am 
to write to him or not, but I suppose rather not, for as I came 
out without any orders or instructions from your office with 
respect to the intentions of Government, so am I still ignorant of 
it, for the Governor has never told me, neither has he ever 
advised or consulted with me on the subject, and I beleive every- 
body else are in the dark as well as myself. Should his Lordship 
Ross's expect letters from me, I hope you will think the above a sufficient 

" "' excuse, for I cannot see how I could write without informing 

him of the manner in which the Governor treats me as Lieut. - 
Governor ; and as to the detachment, they have just the same 
cause for complaint that I have. This you will see cannot be 
done without my letter coming in the manner of a complaint, 
which I by no means wish to be the case at this stage of the 
business ; but I will not answer for what may be the case here- 
General dis- after, for, take my word for it, there is not a man in this place 
but wishes to return home, and indeed they have no less than 
cause, for I believe there never was a set of people so much upon 
the parrish as this garrison is, and what little we want, even to 
a single nail, we must not send to the Commissary for it, but 
must apply to his Excellency, and when we do he allways sayes 
there is but little come out, and of course it is but little we get, 
and what we are obliged to take as a mark of favor. 
The 'oountrj' If you want a true description of this country it is only to be 
con emue . £q^j-^j amongst many of the private letters sent home ; however, I 
will, in confidence, venture to assure you that this countiy will 
never answer to settle in, for altho' I think corn will grow here, 
yet I am convinced that if ever it is able to maintain the people 
here it cannot be in less time than probably a hundi^ed years 
hence. I therefore think it will be cheaper to feed the convicts 
Convicts and On turtle and venison at the London Tavern than be at the 
turtle. expence of sending them here. 

I have now only to add my hope that yourself, Mrs. Nepean, 
and the family are well, and to assure you that it is not possible 
you can be better than you are wished to be by James Campbell,! 
as well as by, my dear sir, Yours, &c., 

R. Ross. 

* A private letter. f Captain Campbell. 


GovEKNOR Phillip to Lord Sydxey. 1788 

:\Iy Lord, Sydney Cove, July the 10th, 1788. i'^-^"'-^- 

In obedience to the instructions I received under the Royal 
Sign Manual, resjjecting the natives, and* transmitting an account 
of the nature and quality of the soil in and near the settlement, 
and the mode, and upon what terms and conditions, according to 
the best of my judgment, lands maybe grafted,* I have the honor 
(jf inf(jrming your Lordship that the natives have ever been treated The natives. 
with the greatest humanity and attention, and every precaution 
that was possible has been taken to prevent their receiving any 
insults ; and when I shall have time to mix more with them every 
means shall be used to reconcile them to live amongst us, and to Their fiieii<i- 
teach them the advantages they will reap from cultivatmg the ^ "^' **^"'' 
land, which will enable them to support themselves at this season 
of the year, when fish are so scarce that many of them perish witli 
hunger, at least, I have strong reason to suppose that to be the 
case. Their numljer in the neighbourhood of this settlement, that Their 
is within ten miles to the northward and ten miles to the south- "'™ '''" 
ward, I reckon at fifteen hundred. 

With respect to the soil, I have had the honor of informing your 
Lordship that near the head of the harbour there is a tract of 
country running to the westward for many miles which appears 
to be in general rich, good land ; the breadth of this tract of Good laixi. 
country I have not yet been aljle to examine, but I believe it to 
be considerable. These lands, and several particular spots, may ])e 
settled, and the ground cleared of timber, without the great laljour 
we experience in the situation in which I have been obliged to fix 
the colony. Farmers and people used to the cultivation of lands. Farmers as 
if sent out (and without which agriculture will make but a very '^"''^'■^• 
slow progress), must be supported by Government for two or three 
years, and liave the labour of a certain numljer of convicts to 
assist them for that time, after which they may be al)le to support 
themselves, and to take the convicts sent out at the expence which 
Govei'nment is put to for their transportation ; but then, I presume, 
none should be sent whose sentence is for a less term than fourteen 
years. A yearly fine to be paid for the lands granted, after the Limd tyrants. 
fifth year ; the fine to be in grain, and in proportion to the crop ; 
and this, T should liope, would be the only tax laid on the crop.s, 
giving the church lands in the room of tythes. 

The .sending out settlers, who will be interested in the laljor of Settlers 
the convicts, and in the cultivation of the country, appeai-s to me ^'''"''®'^' 
to be absolutely necessary. 

Lands granted to officers or settlers will, I presume, be on Conditions 
c<jndition of a certain proportion of the lands so granted being [,^J,t"'^" 
cultivated or cleared within a certain time, and which time and 
(quantity can only be determined by the nature of the ground and 

N ♦ Ante, pp. 85-91 




10 July. 

An opinion 
to order. 

situation of the lands ; and, in that case, when lands are granted 
to officers, the garrison must be sufficient for the service of the 
place, and to permit such officers occasionally to be absent at the 
lands they are to cultivate, and for a certain time ; they likewise 
must be allowed convicts, who must be maintained at the expence 
of the Crown. 

Your Lordship will be pleased to consider this opinion as given 
in obedience to orders, on a subject which requires more considera- 
tion than I can give it at present, and at a time when I have 
only a very superficial knowledge of the country for a few miles 
around. I have, ifec, 

A. Phillip. 

of Port 

Letters from 
La Peroiise. 





Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean.* 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

Dear Sir, July the 10th, 1788. 

By the Alexander, under the care of Lieutenant Short- 
land, agent for the transports, I have sent dispatches to the Right 
Honourable the Lord Sydney and for yourself, with a rough sur- 
vey of Port Jackson. Duplicates of these dispatches go by the 
Friendship, under the care of Lieutenant Collins, of the marines, 
triplicates of most by the master of the Borrowdale, and a 
quadriplicate of my publick letters to you by the Prince of 
Wales. With your dispatches I have sent duplicates and tripli- 
cates of my publick letters to the Admiralty and Navy Board, 
and I have taken the liberty of troubling you with some private 

Lieutenant Shortland is likewise charged with a box of letters 
from Monsieur La Perouse for the French Ambassador. 

Yesterday twenty of the natives came down to the beach, each 
armed with a number of spears, and seized on a good part of the 
fish caught in the seine. The coxswain had been ordered, how- 
ever small the quantity he caught, always to give them a part 
whenever any of them came where he was fishing, and this was 
the first time they ever attempted to take any by force. While 
the greatest number were seizing the fish, several stood at a 
small distance with their spears poised ready to throw them 
if any resistance had been made, but the coxswain very pru- 
dently permitted them to take what they chose, and parted good 
friends. They, at present, find it very difficult to support them- 

In consequence of what happened yesterday, no boat will in 
future go down the harbour without an officer. 

I have, etc., 

A. Phillip. 

* a similar letter was sent to Secretarj- Stephens. 


Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney.* 1783 

My Lord, Sydney Cove, tJuly, 1788. lojuiy. 

The publick letters to your Lordship will show the situation 
of this settlement, and the little diflicultys we have met with. Difficulties, 
which time, an additional force, and prosier people for cultivating 
the land will remove; and your Lordship may be assured that 
anxious to render a very essential service to my country, by the 
establishment of a colony, which from its situation must here- 
after be a valuable acquisition to Great Britain, no perseverance 
will 1)6 wanting on my part, and which consideration alone could 
make amends for the being surrounded by the most infamous of 
mankind, it is to your Lordship and to Nepean only that I make 
a declaration of this kind. Time will remove all diflicultys, and Time will 

with a few familys who have been used to the cultivation of fe'^o^e 
111- •!! 1 • 11 them. 

lands, this country will wear a more pleasing aspect, and those 
who are to come out, knowing what the country really is, will be 
less disapointed. As to myself, I am satisfied to remain as long 
as my services are wanted : I am serving my country, and serving Devotion 
the cause of humanity. I flatter myself that by the return of *° ^"'••''• 
the ships that brought us out provisions, and on wliic.h is 'placed 
our sole dependence, I shall be able to give your Lordship a more 
satisfactory account of this country. 

Lt. Philip Gidley King, the second lieut. of the Sirius, who is King 
at Norfolk Island, is a very steady, good officer. He, too, is cut off P''^'^^^- 
from all society, and is in a situation that will require patience 
and perseverance, both of which he possesses, with great merit in 
the service as an officer ; as such I beg leave to recommend him to 
jour Lordship. The rank of master and commander he well His pro- 
earned in the late war, and I should be very happy if he now asked"or 
attained it, thro' your Lordship. | I have now, my Lord, only to 
request that my compliments may be made acceptable to Lady 
Sydney and family, and as I have directed my official letters to 
Mr. Nepean, to Mr. Townshend in particular, I hope he will not 
forget his exiled friend. 

Of your Lordship's friendship I have had proofs, and of which 
I retain a just sense; add to the obligation, my Lord, by believing 
that I merit the friendship you honor me with, and that I am, 
with esteem, — Your Lordship's, &zc., 

A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney.§ 

My Lord, Sydney Cove, July 10th, 1788. 

I have now closed all my pu})lick letters, which, from the 

hurry in which they have been written, will appear unconnected, 

♦ A private letter. 

t The (lay of the month is not ffiven, but the letter was probably written on the same day 
Jis the oHicial despatches, i.e., luth July. 

} King was promoted 2iid .March, IT'.U. § A private letter. 



10 July. 

Care for the 

for England. 


A kanajaroo. 

12 July. 





and stand in need of an apology. Your Lordship will see by the 
last letter that the natives, armed, took some fish by force from 
the boat's crew. The temptation was great, for the quantity 
caught was considerable, and fish is now very scarce. We shall 
guard against any dispute on tliis head in future, and when the 
ships sail I shall have time to go amongst them and to give them 
some little assistance if, from the rains having ceased, fish can be 
caught in any quantity. 

The enclosed memorandum contains the articles for your Lord- 
ship, which are on l^oard the Alexander, and of which I beg your 
acceptance. The wine will, I hoj^e, be improved by the voyage. 

I have once more the pleasure of assuring your Lordship of my 
esteem, and of a just sense of the friendship with which I am 
honor'd, and of requesting that my respects may be made accept- 
able to Lady Sydney, with compliments to Mr. Townshend. The 
birds from Lord Howe Island may be acceptable to Lady Chatham ; 
and I am sorry that I have not been al)le to procure any small 
birds for Miss Townshend, to whom, likewise, your Lordship will 
please to make my compliments. 

The kangurroo* for your Lordship is the largest I have yet 
seen. As it stands it measures five feet nine inches. This extra- 
ordinary animal makes the same use of his fore feet as the monkey 
does. Major Ross has one alive. It is young, very tame, and 
comes to you and embraces your hands with the fore feet. The 
female was killed, and the young one remained by the body. 

Wishing your Lordship health, I have the honour to be, with 

the greatest esteem, &c.. 

A. Phillip. 

Lt. Collins, whose bad state of health obliges him to return, I 
beg leave to recommend to your Lordship's notice. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

My Dear Sir, Sydney Cove, July 12th, 1788. 

To the articles which I have mention'd as moi'e immedately 
wanted, the following, tho' so very necessary, have escaped my 
memory till this moment. Leather for soals for the men's shooes, 
and the materials for mending them. Shooes here last but a very 
short time, and the want of these materials, and thread to mend 
the cloathing, will render it impossible to make them serve more 
than half the time for which they were intended. This country 
requires warm cloathing in the winter ; the rains are frequent and 
the nights very cold. 

You will excuse the repetition of our wants ; they will, I hope, 
be less in future. I have, &g., 

A. Phillip. 

Vinegar will be very acceptable ; it is very much wanted. 

* Up to this time no agreement seems to have been come to as to the spelling o 
" kangaroo." 


Thk Rev. Ricuard Johnson to Under Secretary Nepean, ^^^^ 

Port Jackson, in the county of Cumberland, " " ^ 

Hon'd. Sir, New South Wales, July 12th, 178S. 

Though I have nothing particular to mention to you, I 
cannot think of letting the fleet return to England without droping 
you a single line to inform you of my health and welfare. It 
would be unnecessary for me, sir, to give you any account of the 
various circumstances or incidences respecting the fleet during 
<;)ur late passage from England to .this distant part of the globe, 
as, no doubt, you will receive ample imformation respecting these 
matters, together with a description of this country as to climate, 
natives, &c., &c., from his Excellency Arthur Phillip, Esq., our 
Governour, and others. Everything here is as yet (as you may Things 
easily suppose) very unsettled, but hope in time our situation will "^settled. 
l)e rendered more comfortable ; and, even now, all things considered, 
thank God, I have no reason to complain. 

You may remember, sir, a circumstance which greatly interested 
the public a little before our leaving England. This was respecting 

the Norwich goaler and two convicts, and , which, 

with a child, were removed from Norwich gaol to Plymouth in 
order to be embarked on board one of the transports bound to 
New South Wales. These two persons I marx^ied soon after our Marriage of 
arrival here. Some persons made a charitable contribution for 
these two persons, collected the sum of £20, and laid this out in 
various articles, at the same time requesting I w'd see this delivered 
to them upon our arrival here. Unfortunately, these have not 
Ijeen found. This circumstance has been brought before the 
Ci\al Court here, when a verdict was found in their favor ag'st 
the captain of the Alexander. Am sorry this charitable in- 
tention and action has been brought to this disagreeable issue, the 
more so because the public seemed to be so much interested in 
their welfare. The child is still living — of a weakly constitution, 
but a fine boy. 

Hope, sir, you will excuse my freedom in directing these few 
lines to you, my chief intention, as I have already mentioned, 
l>eing to inform you of my health and welfare, and that I may have 
the honour of once more subscribing myself, &c., 

Richard Johnson. 

Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

Camp, Svdney Cove, New South Wales, 
Sir, " 22nd August, 1788. •■^sAug. 

Having on the 15th of May represented to your Excel- 
lency the absolute impossibility of erecting barracks for the 
officers and men of the detachment without employing such 
artificers for that purpose as could be found amongst themselves, 



Paid like 


and having at the same time said that they could not be re- 
22 Aug. tained at such work unless they were to be paid in the customary 
manner of paying all troojis employed on extra works for the 
public service, and more especially so as they knew that the 
Artificers, artificers employed from the ships of war and transports were to- 
be paid for work done on shore. 

Your Excellency having done me the honor of agreeing with 
me that it would be necessary to employ them, and that if it was 
customary, there could be no doubt but that the men so employed 
would be paid, I, in consequence, gave out an order on the 17th 
of May that such artificers as belonged to the detachment, and 
employed in erecting barracks or other public works, should in 
future be paid in the .same manner that troops usually have been. 

I do myself the honor of inclosing for your Excellency's inspec- 
tion a list of such artificers as have been employed from the date 
of the above order to the 17th of August, 1788. 

I have, etc., 

R. Ross, Major. 

GovERXOR Phillip to Lord Sydxey. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 
My Lord, 1st September, 1788. 

I had the honor of informing your Lordship of the situa- 
tion of this colony, by the agent for the transports, Lieutenant 
Shortland, who sailed the 13th of July, in the Alexander, with the 
Despatches. Friendship and Prince of Wales, transports, and the Borrowdale, 
store-ship ; duplicates of my letters to your Lordship being sent 
at the same time by Lieutenant William Collins, whose bad state 
of health obliged him to return to Europe ; and triplicates by the 
master of the Borrowdale. 

These ships went to the northward, intending to follow Captain 
Carteret's track between New Britain and New Ireland ; and as it 
is not now impossible but that the ships by which I have now the 
honor of writing to your Lordship may be the first that arrive, I 
shall recapitulate the heads of my former letters. 
[Here follow extracts from letters already given.] 

T have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

1 Sept. 




28 Sept. 

The Sirius 
sent to the 
Cape for 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 
My Dear Sir, September 28th, 1788. 

I have ordered the Sirius to the Cape, for the reasons 
assigned in my letter to Lord Sydney ;* all the seed wheat and 
most of the other seeds brought from England having been 
spoiled, as well as what wheat was put on board the Supply at 
the Cape ; several acres sown with this wheat have been sown a 

* Post, p. 188. 


second time, with the seeds preserved for next year, in case of 1783 
any accident happening to what we have in the ground, and i Sept. 
which has left us witliout a Imshel of seed in the settlement. 
Having only a year's flour in store, Captain Hunter has orders to 
purchase as much as the ship can stow, and I appi^ehend he will 
be able to bring six months' for the settlement ; as likewise what 
seed wheat, &c., we may want. The Sirius and Supply being 
victualled from the stores lessens our provisions ; and you will, I 
believe, see the necessity of having always two years' provisions Two years' 
beforehand ; a store-ship may be lost a long time before it is known pro°^?^s°ons 
here or in England. 

Xo kind of necessarys for the sick after landing was sent out. Hospital 
I enclose the surgeon's letter,* and what he has demanded for "^^ 
six months I have ordered to be purchased, and apprehend 
necessarys for the hospital will be sent out by the first ships. 
The cloaths for the convicts are in general bad, and thei-e is no Clothing 
possibility of mending them for want of thread ; it is the same *" ^ °*^^' 
with the shoes, which do not last a month ; these necessary articles, 
to the amount of a few pounds, I have likewise ordered to be 
purchased. A strong launch to remove provisions will soon be 
necessary, as some convicts are going to cultivate land near the A launch 
head of the harbour, and to bring timber, for what we now use '"<^fi"ir'-'<^'- 
is brought already from a considerable distance, and our roads 
after heavy rains are bad. 

Bills are given to the carpenters and sawyers of the Sirius and 
Supply for the time they have been ashore (certificates were 
given to those belonging to the transports). The whole amounts 
to £192 17s. 6d. These small bills will give the Treasury some 
trouble, but this country has no Treasury. There are now only 
ten convict carpenters ; more are absolutely necessary, as well as Carpentei-s 
bricklayers, for the building to secure stores will be a heavy work, ^"['kiavcis 
and must be undertaken ; at the same time I wish to avoid wanted. 
hiring the ships' carpenters in future. 

The tools and articles in the inclosed lists will be much wanted 
by the time they can be sent out, and I cannot help repeating Tools. 
that most of the tools were as bad as ever were sent out for 
barter on the coast of Guinea. 

Of the thirty pipes of wine ordered for the hospital, only fifteen wine, 
were purchased. There being no more port wine in the stores at 
Rio de Janeiro, you will be so good as to let orders be given for 
the remainder being procured at Teneriffe, if port wine is not 
sent from England. 

The ration, as settled by the Navy Board, is the same for the Ration too 
men convicts as for the garrison, and the giving of only four ''™'' 
pounds of pork in lieu of seven pounds of beef I think too little. 
The additional pound of flour a month is, I suppose, according to 
the custom of other garrisons, but this is the business of a Com- 

» Ante, p. 142. 




2S Sept. 


d .(iuction to 

be ta-keii off. 


Poor «ood- 



More help. 




The prood 

Biissary, and with which I am unacquainted. The eighth was 
stopped for some time in favoui* of Government, on account of 
the loss in issuing the provisions in small quantities, but being- 
desirous, if possible, to do away with every cause of discontent, on 
Major Ross informing me that it never was done in any garrison 
to his knowledge, the full weight being given, and the loss falling 
on Government, I have ordered that deduction to be taken off, 
and the garrison and convicts receive their full allowance. 

The women have two-thii"ds of what is allowed the men, and 
the children one-third. The children's allowance is, I think, too 
little, ana I have been obliged in sevei'al instances to order 
children half the men's allowance, or two-thirds, as the women 
are allowed. 

The wooden ware sent out were too small ; they are called 
bowls and platters, but are not larger than pint basons. There 
was not one that Avoidd hold a quart. 

As the candles sent out will not last more than two years, I 
wish to know if it is the intention of Government to furnish the 
settlement with that article for any longer term. 

The requisites for mending the men and women's cloaths and 
shoes, as well as some kind of bedding for them, are very neces- 
sary, and some kind of covering will be wanted for the children. 
This is not an expense that will be necessary to continue aftei' a 
number of settlers are in the colony, for then the convicts will 
have some resources ; at present they have none. 

Amongst our many wants a few proper people to superintend 
the convicts has been mentioned, and we are at a great loss for 
the necessary jieople to attend the stores and see the provisions 
issued. The con-sicts who are proper for this are those who ha^s'e 
had some little education, and they are the greatest villains we 
have. In fact, there is no choice of persons of any class, and I 
am obliged to continue such as we have in places for which they 
prove themselves veiy unlit subjects. 

The paint I have desired is chiefly for the gun-carriages, boats, 

The knowing when the time expires for which the convicts 
have been transported is very necessary, many of whom will 
desire to return ; and there are many that will be a burthen to 
Government, and who I should be glad to send away. This I 
mentioned more particularly in a former letter. 

Copies of the order and instructions given to the Commandant 
of Norfolk Island are inclosed,* as likewise what articles are 
ordered to be purchased at the Cape. 

The good behaviour and industry of two convicts, 

and have induced me to request that their families 

may be sent to them.f The men are at Norfolk Island, and 

* Ante, pp. 136-13S. f The request was complied with. Post, p. 254. 


which they do not wish to leave after the time for which they 1^88 
have been transported expires. The names and places of abode 2S Sept. 
of these two families are inclosed. 

An account of the artificers belonging to the detachment who Ai-tificers' 
have been employed as such is inclosed in my letter to Lord ' " 
.Sydney. You wijl, sir, be so good as to inform me what they are 
to lie paid a day ; and, as the ships that may come out will bring 
many necessarys which these people stand in need of, they hope 
that money will be sent out to pay them, as bills would be attended 
M'ith great loss and inconvenience. 

The carpentei's belonging to the transports had notes given to Carijenters' 
them for what they had earned, at the rate of three shillings per ° 

The master carpenter of his Majesty's ship Sirius and the master 
carpenter of the Supply, armed tender, have been paid by bills at 
the rate of three shillings per day. The rest, carpentries and sawyers, 
have been paid by bills at the rate of two shillings per day. 

The master smith, who belongs to the Sirius, has no allowance The master 

. . . . smith 

for his work, as I have written by the ships that sailed in July ' 
to request he may be established in the settlement with such an 
allowance as may be judged proper. 

The Golden Grove is now ready to sail with one midshipman. Detachment 
one Serjeant, one corporal, and five privates, twenty men and ten ]sland"^^°''^ 
women convicts. These will make the number on Norfolk Island 
sixty, and I send eighteen months' provisions. The Fishburn will 
be ready to sail by the time the (iolden Grove returns, and both 
ships shall sail immediately for England. I have, «ic.. 

A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 
My Lord, 28th September, 1788. 

Extracts from my letters by the ships which sailed in July 
accompany this letter, and I have now the honor of informing 
your Lordship that the Supply sailed for Norfolk Island the 17th Noi-foik 
of July, and returning the 2Gth of August, brought me the 
following particulars from the Commandant of that island.* He 
says that immediately after being landed they proceeded to clear 
ground suflicient for building huts for themselves and a store-house, 
the whole island not affording a single acre free from timber. 
They were landed on the south-west end of the island, a rough 
sketch of which I received from that officer, and have the honor 
of enclosing your Lordship. The bay in which they laiuletl is 
sheltered by a reef of coral rock, through which there is a jiassage 
for a Ijoat, Ijut which, with the tide of flood when the Avind is 
westerly, makes the landing dangerous ; and a midshipman who 
was ordered to lay within the reef, in order to attend the boat.s 

* Despatches were sent from Norfolk Island on the 11th August. 



Rich land. 

A fine 


1788 coming on shore, imprudently letting the boat drive into the surf, 
28 Sept. was lost with four men. This was the second time the boat had 

Landiiio- been overset with that midshipman in her, and the first time one 

daji^erous. man was lost. 

The want of a good landing-place, and security for vessels in 
the winter, is the only thing to be wished for, the island being in 
every other respect one of the finest in the world. The earth is 
very rich^mould to the depth of five and six feet whei-ever they 
have dug so deep, and all the grain and garden seeds which have 
been put into the ground growing in the most luxuriant manner. 
This island, from the great quantity of pumice-stone found there, 
must formerly have been a volcano, the mouth of which, it is 
probable, will be found on the top of a small mountain near the 
middle of the island, which he has named Mount Pitt, f The island 
is exceedingly well watered, a strong stream, which rises at or 
near Mount Pitt, running through a very fine valley — sufiiciently 
strong to turn a mill, though divided into several branches ; and 
very fine springs of water are found in different parts of the island. 
There are several small bays, and there are some hopes of finding 
a better landing-place, but the necessity of employing everyone in 
sheltering themselves and stores from the weather, the small 
number of people, only seventeen men and six women, and the 
whole island being covered with wood, which a sort of supple-jack, 
interwoven with the trees, renders almost impassable, have hitherto 
prevented its being examined. With this small number, Mr. King 

Cultivation, has cleared sulficient ground to have vegetables of every kind in 
the greatest abundance ; three acres in barley, part of which had 
been first sown with wheat, but none of which came up, the grain 
being injui'ed by the weevil, and gi'ound was ready to receive rice 
and Indian corn, when the Supply was there. All his people were 
in good houses, and he says that he has no doubt but that within 
three years they shall be in such a situation as to support them- 
selves, with the assistance of a small proportion of salt provisions, 
and that they will not stand in need of that after the fourth year. 
They have fish in great abundance, some turtle in the season, great- 
number of pigeons, and have found the plantain growing wild. 
The flax-plant (some roots of which I shall send by the Sirius to 
the Cape, to be forwarded to England) is found very luxuriant 
all over the island, growing to the height of eight feet ; unfortu- 
nately, the person I sent, who calls himself a flax-dresser, cannot 
prepare it, as this plant requires a different treatment in the 
dressing to what the Eui'opean flax-plant does. Your Lordship, 
I presume, will order proper persons to be sent out, by which 
means that island will, in a very short time, be able to furnish a 
considerable quantity of flax. The pine-trees, in the opinion of 
the carpenter of the Supply, who is a good judge, are superior to 
any he has ever seen ; and the island affords excellent timber for 

t In honor of the Ptiir.e Minister, t Le Bif^ht IIoi culh Willii ni r!tt. 

The people 
well housed. 

Fish, turtle, 





ship-builcHn£;, as well as for masts and yards*, M-ith which I make 17£8 
no doubt but his Majesty's ships in the East Indies may be 28Sept 
supplied, as likewise with pitch and tar, the only difficulty being piue~tiniber. 
the want of a good landing-place, and I have not the least doubt 
but that one will be found in some of the small bays, or if not, 
Mr. King proposes blowing up two or three of the small rocks 
which make the x-eef dangerous, but if distippointed in both, there 
Avill be no danger in the summer-time ; and I am assured by the 
master of the Supply it Avill be safer for a ship to load with masts 
and spars at Norfolk Island than it is in Riga Bay, where so 
many ships load yearly. 

The Supply has been twice to the island, but in this season we 
haA'e blowing weather, and that has prevented our receiving any 
spars. The Golden Grove will sail the beginning of October, with Another 
one petty officer, a serjeant, corporal, and six marines, twenty men for Norfolk 
and ten women convicts, and eighteen months' provisions for the i^iaud. 
island ; and by that ship I expect spars, some of which shall be 
sent to the Commissioners of His Majesty's Navy, that they may 
be properly examined, as I believe the wood is nearly as light as 
the best Norway masts, and grows to a most extraordinary size. Great pine- 
some of the trees measuring from one hundred and sixty to one ''"'^'^^' 
hundred and eighty feet, and rise eighty feet without a branch ; 
the turpentine from them is veiy white, and in the opinion of 
those who have seen it is of the purest kind. The fern-tree is 
likewise found of a good height, measuring from seventy to eighty 
feet, and affords good food for the hogs, sheep, and goats, all which Thriving 
thrive ; and I shall send them what live stock we now have ^'^'^ ^'°° ' 
remaining of what was purchased on account of Government. No 
<]uadrupeds have been seen except rats, which at present overrun Rats. 
the island, but which the cats and terrior dogs intended to be sent 
will, I hope, soon destroy ; until that is done, their crops must suffer 
very considerably. There are, likewise, great plenty of cabbage- 
trees, but not a single Ijlade of grass has been seen on the island, No grass. 
the pigeons, sheep, and goats eating the leaves of the shrubs and 
of particular trees, with which they grow very fat. Two canoes 
were found on the rocks, probaVjly driven from New Zealand. 

They had not had such heavy storms of thunder as we have 
experienced, and the people have been very healthy. I think 
this island will answer the most sanguine expectations, and am 
satisfied that the officer who commands there will, in a very few ^.^^^ 
years, not only put that island in a situation to support itself, but inospects. 
to assist this colony. 

As soon as the rains permitted the getting the provisions on 
shoi-e from the two I'emaining store-ships, they were cleared, 
except of the spirits, which are on board of one of them, and 

• other experts were of a different opinion. Post, p. 400. The timber, when tried, was 
fouiid to be unfit for masts or j ards. See Hint's Description of Norfollt Island, post, p. 420. 




28 Sept. 

Failure of 

A second 






Grain from 
the Cape. 



Cellar for 

which will be landed the end of this month. It was my intention 
to send the two store-ships away together, and expected they 
would be ready to sail the first week in October, and the Sirius 
was ordered to be i-eady to sail about the .same time to the north- 
ward, in order to procure live stock ; but it was now found that 
very little of the English wheat had vegetated, and a very con- 
siderable quantity of barley and many seeds had I'otted in the 
ground, having been heated in the passage, and some much injured 
by the weevil. All the barley and wheat, likewise, which had 
been put on board the Sup2:)ly at the Cape were destroyed l)y the 
weevil. The ground was, therefore, necessarily sown a second 
time with the seed which I had saved for the next year, in case 
the crops in the ground met with any accident. The wheat sent 
to Norfolk Island had likewise failed, and there did not remain 
seed to sow one acre. I could not be certain that the ships which 
are expected would bring any quantity of grain, or, if put on board 
them, that they would preserve it good hy a proper attention to 
the stowage, to the want of which I impute our present loss. 

The colony not being in a state to support any considerable 
quantity of live stock, many being under the necessity at j^re.sent 
of frequently killing a part of what they have for want of food 
to support them, I should be obliged to kill what the Sirius 
might procure, and which could not be expected to exceed ten or 
fourteen days' provision for the settlement ; and we now have not 
more than a year's bi-ead in store, having been obliged to furnish 
the Sirius and the Supply with provisions. On these con- 
siderations, but more immediately from the fear of not having 
grain to put into the ground next year, when we shall liave a 
more considerable quantity of ground to sow, I have thought it 
necessary to order the Sirius to go to the Cape of Good Hope 
in order to procure grain, and at the same time what quantity 
of iiour and provisions she can receive. Captn. Hunter is like- 
wise ordered to purchase what necessarys the surgeon of the 
hospital demands for six months, no necessarys of any kind, 
according to his letter, which is inclosed, having been sent out. 
Fifteen pipes of wine were purchased at Rio de Janeiro, which 
were all that could be procured ; and I presume, as thirty pipes 
were ordered, the remainder will be sent out by any ship that 
may stop at Teneriffe. I have only ordered a sufficient quantity 
of necessarys to be purchased for that time, as a demand has 
been made in my first letter to your Lordship. The cellar for 
receiving the spirits will be finished, and the Fishburn store-ship 
cleared and ready to sail by the time the Golden Gi'ove returns 
from Norfolk Island, when both ships shall be immediately ordered 
to England. 

I send the store-ship to Norfolk Island, as I think the Supply 
may be necessaiy in the harbour while the Sirius is absent. 


Your Lordship will see by the returns the state of the garrison 1788 
aiul the provisions remaining in store. What the Sirius will as Sept. 
bring will be mostly flour, and that she may take on board as Ljj^hT^ng 
large a (juantity as possible I have ordered some of her guns to theSirius.° 
be landed. 

I presume that your Lordship will see the necessity of this 
colony having always a certain quantity of provisions in store. 

As soon as the 8irius sails I intend going up the harbour Fresh 
to the ground pointed out in my former letters as more easily ground. 
cultivated than the land round us,* with a small detachment, 
consisting of two lieutenants, one captain, twenty-five non- 
commissioned and privates, and forty or fifty convicts, who will 
be employed in cultivating the ground. I purpose remaining 
with this party until they are settled, and have no doubt when 
settlers ct)me out, and proper people to superintend the convicts 
that will be employed for the Crown, but that two or three years 
will give this country a very different aspect ; and in the mean- 
time the clearing the ground near the settlement shall not be 

The hutting the detachment has been going on under the direc- officei-s' 
tion of the IMajor-Commandant. The officers have all separate '^o^es. 
houses, and except one or two are now under cover. The barracks 
are still in hand. There being some carpenters and sawyers in the 
different companies, 1 ordered them to be employed as such ; and it 
being customary to pay the soldiers when so employed, and Major 
Iloss thinking that they could not otherwise be set to work as 
artificers, I have inclosed his report of such as have been employed 
for your Lordship's approbation. I have likewise the honour of 
inclosing your Lcjrdship his returns of such officers as wish to be Relief, 
relieved at the expiration of the three years for which they were 
sent outf, and of those who are desirous of remaining, as likewise 
copies of his letter and my answer respecting the encouragement 
offered by Government to settlers. 

The barracks, officers' houses, hospital, store-houses for the use 
of the detachment and for the public stores, ai^e buildings that Buildings, 
will stand fiir some years, as they will hereafter be walled up 
with brick or stone, if limestone can be found in the country, or 
if sent out as ballast in the transports. 

The dfitachment is now inclosing ground for their gardens, and KieWs and 
we have al>out six acres of wheat, eight of barley, and six acres '^'^'^ 
of (jther grain, all which, as well as such garden seeds as were 
not spoiled, promise well ; and though the soil is in general a 
light sandy soil, it is, I belie\e, as good as what is commoidy 
found near the sea-coast in other 2)arts of the world. The great 
inconvenience we find is from the rocks and the labour of clearing 
away the woods which suiTound us, and which are mostly gum- 
trees of a very large size, and which arc only useful as firewood, 

• Ro6c Ilill, named after Mr. G. Rose, Under Seeretarj-, The Treasury. f Ante, p. 165. 



28 Sept. 

Hea^•y rain. 



Tlie woman 

Want of 


Lead, iron, 
and copper. 

Clay for 

though I think that when we can cut them down in the winter and 
give them time to season they may be made useful in building. 

The fish begin to return with the warm weather, but I fear we 
shall never be able to save any part of the provisions by the 
quantity that will be taken. 

The rainy season is, I hope, nearly over, and though we have 
had very heavy rains they have not been more frequent than was 
expected, and were chiefly confined to a few days near the full 
and change of the moon. 

The climate is equal to the finest in Europe, and we very 
seldom have any fogs. All the plants and fruit-trees brought 
from the Brazil and the Cape that did not die in the passage 
thrive exceeding well ; and we do not want vegetables, good in 
their kind, which are natural to the country. 

With respect to the sending to the Islands for women, your 
Lordship will, I believe, think that in the present situation of 
this colony it would be only bringing them to pine away a few 
years in misery ; and I am very sorry to say that those we have 
are most of them very abandoned wretches. Still, more women 
will be necessary when more convicts are sent out. 

Stone houses that will not be in danger from fire will, if pos- 
sible, be erected in the course of the summer, as likewise a place 
of worship ; and if ships coming out bring limestone as ballast 
these very necessary works will go on fast. At present we are 
obliged to lay the bricks and stones in clay, and of course to 
make the walls of an extraordinary thickness, and even then they 
are not to be depended on. 

This country is supposed to have mines of iron and tin or silver 
by those who have been used to work in mines ; but I give no 
encouragement to search after what, if found in our present situa- 
tion, would be the greatest evil that could befal the settlement. 

A convict, used to work in the Staffordshire lead mines, says 
the ground we are now clearing contains a large quantity of that 
metal ; and copper is supposed to be under some rocks which 
have been blown in sinking a cellar for the spirits. I have no 
doubt but that the earth contains iron and other metals, and that 
mines may hereafter be worked to great advantage. The red 
used by the painters, and which they call Spanish brown, is 
found in great abundance ; and the white clay with which the 
natives paint themselves is still in greater plenty ; and which 
the Abbe that came out with Monsieur Perouse as a naturalist 
told me, if cleared of the sand (which may be done with little 
trouble), would make good china. Specimens were sent to Sir 
Joseph Banks,* and a stone taken out of a slate quarry that I 
thought contained some metal. 

* Mr. Josiah Wedf^fwood, to whom a sample of the clay was submitted, declared it to be 
"an excellent material for pottery." He made from it a medallion, which is now in the 
possession of R. Tangye, Esq., of Birmingham. 


Your Lord>;liip will, I hope, judge it expedient to send out 1788 
settlei-s, to whom a certain number of convicts may be given ; 2S Sept. 
they, my Lord, will be interested in cultivating the lands, and Another 
when a few carpenters and bricklayers are sent out who will act request 
as overseers, and have some little interest in the labour of the 
convicts who are under their care, a great deal of labour will be 
done by them who are employed on the public works. I have in 
a former letter mentioned that a couple of decked vessels of 30 
or -10 tons burthen, if sent out in frames, and two or three good 
shipwrights, wovdd be of great service. 

The natives, though very friendly whenever they are met by Attacks by 
two or three people who are armed, still continue to attack any 
of the convicts when they meet them in the woods, and two or 
three have been lately wounded by them. I have been with a 
small party to examine the land between the harbour and 
Broken Bay ; we went as far as Pittwater, and saw several of 
the natives, but none came near us. There are several hundred 
acres of land free from timber, and very proper for cultivation, • 

when a small settlement can be made on the coast. On our 
return to the boats near the mouth of the harbour, we found 
about sixty of the natives, men, women, and children, with whom 
we stayed souie hours ; they were friendly, but, as I have ever Friendly 
found them, since they find we intend to remain, they appeared '"te>"cou«^e- 
l^est pleased when we were leaving them, though I gave them 
many useful articles ; and it is not possible to say whether it 
was from fear or contempt that they do not come amongst us. 
I have already had the honor of informing your Lordship of the strange 
little we know of these people. Most of the women, and all the <>"'^t'^"i^- 
female children I saw had lost two joints from the little finger -of 
the left hand, and two women were scarred on the shoulders like 
the men, the first I had seen. The women, when we first came 
on the beach, were in their canoes fishing, which is their constant 
employment, the men chiefly employing themselves in making 
canoes, spears, fizgigs, &c. 

The day before we returned, the boat that was waiting for us, A comi)at. 
near the liai-bour's mouth, saw about two hundi'ed men, who 
assembled in two parties, and who, after some time, drew up 
opposite to each other, and from each party men advanced singly 
and threw their spears, guarding themselves at the same time 
with their shields. I suppose this to have been no more than an 
exercise, for the women belonging to both parties remained 
together on the beach ; though towards the end of the combat 
they are said to have run up and down, uttering violent shrieks. 
As it had Vieen supposed that many of the natives had left 
this part of the coast on account of the great scarcity of fish, the 
different parts of the harbour were examined in one day, and the Q„„nji„„ 
canoes counted ; not more than sixty-seven canoes and one hun- the natives. 




23 Sept. 

Native food. 


Tiie native s 
not migra- 


Live stock 

Pigs do well. 

died and thirty-three people were seen ; but it was the season iu 
which they make their new canoes, and large parties were known 
to be in the woods for that purpose. I went a few days after to 
examine the coast between this harbour and Botany Bay, in which 
journey few of the natives were seen ; but a young whale being- 
driven on the coast, all we met had large pieces, which appeared 
to have been lain on the fire until the outside was scorched, in 
which state they eat it. These j^eople last summer would neither 
eat shax'k nor stingray ; but the scarcity of fish in the winter, I 
believe, obliges them to eat anything that affords the smallest 
nourishment. They have two kinds of root which they chew 
after roasting ; one is the fern-root ; they eat together, that is, in 
families, and seldom broil their fish (the only way they ever dress 
it) for more than a few minutes. I am sorry to have been so 
long without knowing more of these people, but I am unwilling to 
use any force, and hope this summer to persuade a family to live 
with us, unless they attempt to burn our crops, of which I am 
apprehensive, for they certainly are not pleased with our remain- 
ing amongst them, as they see we deprive them of fish, which 
is almost their only support ; but if they set fire to the corn, 
necessity will oblige me to drive them to a greater distance, though 
I can assure your Lordship that I shall never do it but with the 
greatest reluctance, and from absolute necessity. 

As there are paths which are much frequented between this 
harbour and Broken Bay, I apprehend they frequently change 
their situation ; but have no reason to suppose they go to the 
northward in the winter, and return in the summer. 

The kangaroo is the only animal of any size that we have yet 
seen, and they are frequently killed ; they ai-e of two sorts, one 
seldom weighing more than sixty pounds ; these live chiefly on 
the high grounds ; the hair is of a reddish cast, and the head 
shorter than the large sort, some of which have been killed that 
weighed one hundred and fifty pounds ; both are of the opossum 
kind, and the young ones, several of which have been taken, 
grow veiy tame in a few days, but none have ever lived more 
than two or three weeks. 

I have now given up all hopes of recovering the two bulls and 
four cows that were lost, and one sheep only remains of upwards 
of seventy which I had purchased at the Cape on my own 
account and on Government's account. It is the rank grass 
under the trees which has destroyed them, for those who have 
only had one or two sheep which have fed about their tents ha^e 
preserved them. 

Hogs and poultry thrive and increase fast. Black cattle \\ill 
thrive full as well, and as we shall be able in future to guard 
against their straying, your Lordship will please to determine 
whether it Avould not be necessary to order any ship that was 


0(imiiig to the settlement with provisions to purchase at the Cape ^788 
us many cows as could be conveniently received on })oard, with a 28 Sept. 
couple of young bulls. But the ship for that purpose should be cattiefrom 
able to stow them between decks; and I beg leave to observe that the Cape, 
a forty or tifty gun ship that brought out provisions and stores, 
leaving her guns out, would answer the purpose better than any 
transpi )rt, and at once stock this settlement. Savu is at too great a 
distance for the Sirius to be employed on that service to any extent. 
Your Lordship will, I hope, excuse so long a detail of matters 
trifling in themselves, and which I should not have dwelt on but 
that I wished the situation of the colony to be known as fully 
as possible. I have, etc., 

A. Phillip. 

Return of men, women, and children belonging to the settlement Mortaiiiy 
that have died since the 13th of May, 1787.* ^''"• 

Died on the passage. 

Marines ... ... .. ... ... ... 1 

Do. wives ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Do. children ... ... ... ... ... 1 

Convicts — Men .. ... ... ... ... ... 36 

Do. women ... ... ... ... ... 4 

Do. children . . ... ... . . ... 5 

Total number dead on the passage ... 48 
Died since Lvnding. 

Marines ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 

Do. wives ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Do. children ... ... ... ... 2 

Convicts — Men (including 3 killed by the natives) 26 

Do. women ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Do. children ... ... ... 9 

Total number dead since landing ... 52 

Total number dead since leaving England 100 
Eleven men and one woman missing. Four executed. 

David Collixs, Secretary. 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

Si)-, September 28th, 1788. 

Lieutenant Shortland, who sailed fr-om hence the 13th of 

•luly, in the Alexander, with the Friendship, Prince of Wales, 

and Borrowdale, ti-ansports, was charged with my dispatches foi- 

the Right Honouraljle the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. shij>s went to the northward, intending to follow Captain Carteret's 
Carteret's track between New Britain and New Ireland. "'^*^''" 

You will please to inform their Lordships that as soon after 
the .sailing of those ships as the weather permitted the two 
remaining store-ships were cleared of the provisions; and the 

' Apparently up to September 28th, 1788. 



• 1788 

28 Sept. 








Golden Grove was immediately hove down and ordered to prepare 
for sea, the Fishburn being obliged to remain with the spirits on 
board untill a place of security was prepared. Lieutenant Ball 
sailed the 20th of July with provisions for Norfolk Island, and 
returned the 26th of August, having met with very strong gales 
in his passage, and very indifferent weather while he was off the 
island. From Lieutenant Philip Gidley King, the Commandant 
I received the following particulars.* 

The having a settlement on Norfolk Island, and the extent of 
this harl^our, as well as the great necessity there will be of pro- 
curing that kind of wood which is proper for building, and which 
is not to be got even at present but with the labour of a great 
number of convicts, will render two vessels of thirty or forty tons 
of infinite service to this settlement. I presume they might be 
sent out in frame, but it will be necessary to send a few ship- 
wrights to put them together, and who, as well as a mast-maker, 
and one that understands the manner of tapping the pine-trees, 
will be of great service. 

I inclose the state and condition of his Majesty's ship Sirius, 
and Supply, armed tender, the returns of the detachment of 
marines, and the returns made by the surgeon of the hospital. 

The Sirius is now I'eady to sail for the Cape, and the Golden 
Grove for Norfolk Island. 

The sketch of Howe Island made by Lieutenant Ball is 
inclosed. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Skcretary Stephens. 

Camp, Sydney Cove, New S. Wales, 

Sir, 1st October, 1788. 

Governor Phillip having determin'd to order the Sirius 
to the Cape of Good Hope, this letter will be convey'd so far by 
Captain Hunter, who is to sail in the course of the week. 

By the transports which sail'd for England in July I did 
myself the honor of transmitting to you, for their Lordships' 
information, two sets of letters — one set by Lieut Shortland, 
agent for transports, and the other by Lieut. Maxwell, of the 
marines, who, with Second Lieut. Collins, had been ordered home 
for the recovery of health. 

With my letters I transmitted effective lists, made up to the 
first of July, a general return of the detachment, a list of such 
necessaries as I judged we should be in absolute want of for the 
use of the detachment at large, as well as such articles as the 
surgeon repoi'ted to me to be indispensibly wanted for our sick 
in quarters, as well as hospital. I likewise took the liberty of 

* The information given in the despatch to Lord Sydney, September 28th, 1788, is 
repeated. Ante, pp 1S6-187 


expressing to their Lordships a wish that they would please to 1783 
authorize the person who furnishes the corps with slops to send i Oct. 
some articles of clothino; for the wives and children of the soldiers, ciothin^ for 
which, when issued, can be charg'd against the husbands' or women and 
fathers' pay. I also mentioned my having taken the lil)erty of 
gratifying the earnest request of the detacliment in purchasing 
some tobacco from the master of one of the transports for their Tobacco, 
use, and my having drawn bills upon their Lordships for its value. 
This tobacco is in charge of the quarter-master, and is charg'd 
against the men's pay as it is issued out by hLin. 

By the same conveyance I found myself under the necessity of 
laying before their Lordships a copy of a court-martial held here Coun- 
the 18th April [March]* with copys of several papers relative to '"^'^^^l- 
the said court-martial, with an observation of its then appearing to 
me, as it still does, that the proceedings of that court-martial tended 
to endeavour to wrest an essential power out of the hands of the 
commanding officer, and if suffered to pass unnoticed might tend 
much to the prejudice of the service, by leading astray the minds 
and judgments of inexperienced officers who might otherwise be 
well dispos'd. 

It is with much regret that I now inform their Lordships of Neglect of 
my finding my fears in some measure verified, in a shameful inat- '^'*'^®''^- 
tention of all the capta'ns (Captn. Campbell excepted) to the 
errecting the barracks for their companies ; in place of which 
their attention seems to have been chiefly employ'd in the errecting 
houses and outhouses for themselves, their servants, and stock, 
otherwise I am convinced the whole of our men w^ould long ere 
now have been comfortable in their barracks. As a proof of this 
inattention, I have only to observe that tho' the barracks for 
Captain Campbell's company is equally large with the others, and Captain 
has been entirely constructed by such men only as he could find exceptoi.^" 
in his own company, I am convinced that had I not found myself 
oljlig'd to deprive him, and him only, of the use of the whole of 
his working men for some time, for the purpose of expediting a 
store-house for the reception of the clothing and stores of the 
detachment from the Sirius, prior to her going to sea, all his 
company would have been comfortably settled in their barracks 
long ere now. And yet, even as it is, they will be in in the 
course of the next week. I wish I could say when the others 
will be finish'd, tho' I am not out of hope but that the plan now 
pursued two or three months more will nearly, if not entirely, 
get them out of hand. 

The backwardness of the other barracks induced me to ask Capt. Shea 
Captain Shea some questions respecting his, when, in place of ^round."^ 
such answer as I thought I had a right to expect from him, he 
told me he did not conceive it to be any part of his duty to 
superintend the errecting a barrack ff^r his company. I then 

• See despatch and enclosure >. Ante, pp. 156-164. 




1 Oct. 

Refuses to 
building- of 




20 August. 

A ffeneral 



31 August. 


told him that as he had at first undertaken it, I judged ho sh(juld 
go on with it, but if he thought it was not any part of his duty 
he should manfully say he would or he would not do it, to which 
he replied, in the presence of Captain Campbell, that he would 
not. On receiving this answer, I found myself oblig'd to infornt 
the Governor of it, who seem'd astonish'd at the idea that any 
officer should not suppose it a part of their duty to attend to the 
errecting barracks for their own men. I then observ'd to H. 
Excellency that Captain Shea's answer might have proceeded 

from passion, and the vexation of 


the barrack for his 

company so much neglected, and that I hoped and believed he 
would before morning see his error, to which the Governor was 
pleas'd to I'eply he hoped it Avould be so, and that he would 
himself be over in the morning and talk to him, which he did, 
when, to his ab well as to iny very great surprize, Captain Shea 
told him twice, in the presence of Captain Collins, Lieut. G. 
Johnston, and Adjutant Long, that he did not conceive it to be 
any part of his duty, but that he would do whatever he was 
order'd. Leaving Captain Shea's answer to be determ'd by his 
Excellency, in whatever way he might think proper, I requested 
that he Avould (if he thought it a part of the duty of officers) 
please to give out such an oi'der as would enable me to oblige the 
officer to attend to the errecting the barracks. In consequence, 
his Excellency was pleas'd to give out the following genei-al order : — 

" General Oi'der. 

Head-quarters, August 29th, 1788. 
Parole, Garth ; C. Sign, Wiltshire. 

The major-commandant of the detachment having represented 
that he cannot make the necessary inquiry into the manner in 
which the barracks erecting for the detachment is carrying on, 
from some of the officers not conceiving it to be any part of theii- 
duty to direct the forwai-ding of that work, — and requesting that 
such orders may be given as may enable him to oblige them to 
attend that service, — the Governor is very sorry to be under the 
necessity of giving an order for any officer's attendance to which 
is undoubtedly a part of his duty, and particularly so in the 
present situation of the colony. The officers by every means in 
their power are to forward the erecting the barracks belonging 
to their respective companies, and make such report to their com- 
mandant as he may from time to time think necessary to demand." 

And I soon after gave out in the publick orders for the detach- 
ment an order, of which the following is a coj^y : — 

'' Battalion Order. 

31 August, 1788. 
In consequence of the general orders of the 29th inst., it is 
the commanding officer's orders that the captains do, or cause 


iin officer of their company to, superintend the artificers and 1783 

othei-s employ'd in errecting the public Ijarracks for their respec- ^j^.^ 

tive companies, by preventing such artificers, &c., from absenting — — 

themselves during the woi'king-hours. Mr. Brewer, who is barracks. 

appointed to direct the cari)enters and surveyors in the works to 

be performed by them, will give the captains and officers such 

information as they may think necessary for forwarding that work." 

Xotwithstandinij the above orders, finding the same degree of Special 

.,, '^ ., T • 1 1 1 /• I- j^i /-( insti-uctions. 

inattention still prevail, 1, with the approbation or the Governor, 

and the advice of Mr. Brewer, the architect granted by the 

(lovernor for directing the artificers and sawyers employ'd on and 

for the barracks, ordered that the whole of the artificers and 

sawyers employ'd on the three left-hand barracks should be set to 

work on only one at a time, and to begin with Captain Shea's. 

On the 11th September, to my great surprize and vexation, Conflictins 
Mr. Brewer came to me with a complaint, saying that two marine orders. 
sawyers employ'd, and paid by the publick, would not suffer him 
to bring away the rafters which I had order'd him to get from 
their pit, they saying they had Captain Tench's positive orders 
not to suffer anything to be taken from that pit without his 
orders and permission. 

On my sending the adjutant to Captain Tench to know the 
reason of it, he denied his having given any such order.s. This 
iinswer, for the sake of discij^line, made me judge it necessary to 
liave the sawyers tried Iw a court-martial for disobedience of Anoilier 
orders, etc., which court-martial, as thinking it a very extra- ^°artiai. 
ordinary one, I take the liberty of enclosing a copy of,* by which 
their Lordships will not only see the absurdity of the President 
iind members, l)ut likewise see that Cajijtain Tench makes a con- captain 
.spicuous figure in the proceedings, for, by his own evidence, he ac- ^o,"^'jJ(^^_ 
knowledges giving the order the men mention prior to my order 
of olst August, and his having neglected to recall that order on 
my giving the other, or (as is the invariable rule and custom of 
the service, and for the observance of which every officer com- 
manding a company is answerable) taking care that all orders 
issued by a commanding officer shall be made known to the whole 
of his company, and more especially explaining to those whom 
such order may immediately concern. As he has not thought it 
necessary to make any excuse or apology for this neglect, I can- 
not but be of opinion that it clearly proves a determin'd resolution obstruction. 
in him to retaid and perplex, as far as in his power, the carrying 
on the service in the manner good officers would wish for. 

Should this conduct apjjcai- to their Lordships in the same 
light that it does to me, I hope they will not wonder at my 
entreating (notAvithstanding his own wish of remaining three 
years longer in this country) that their Lordships will please to J^^^^^'^ 
order him to be recall'd. ^ly reason for pressing this is, there requested. 

* Post, pp. 199-201. 





Why Tench 
is not tried 
by court- 

at Rose Hill. 




Prospects of 



Military as 

not being a sufficient number of officers to try Captain Tench, 
and the members of the court-martial of the 18th April last, else 
that trial would have taken place long before now, and, as I have 
some doubt whether he can be tried for any other crime until 
his first offence has been ti'ied, I have not, therefore, reported 
him to the Governor, or I most assuredly would have had him^ 
tried on a charge of disobedience of oixlers, neglect of duty, and 
contempt to his commanding officer. And that he has been guilty 
of those crimes the enclos'd copy of the court-martial will, I have 
no doubt, sufficiently prove to their Lordships to be the case. 

I have a general order for a detachme't, consisting of one 
captain, two subalterns, two Serjeants, two corporals, one drummer, 
and twenty privates, to hold themselves in readiness to set out for 
the head of the harbour the beginning of next month. This 
detachment is to be commanded by Captain Campbell, and is 
intended for the protection of some convicts, which the Governor 
is going to send with him, for the purpose of clearing and culti- 
vating some ground for corn. As this place seems the most 
promising spot yet seen in our neighbourhood, so does it appear 
to me to be the only hope of raising grain. 

Captain Campbell's zeal and attention to the service in general, 
and to the settlement in particular, will, I am well convinced, in 
this, as on all other occasions, induce him to exert himself, in 
doing himself, and causing to be done by others, not only every- 
thing he may be commanded or instructed to do, but likewise 
everything that can possibly be expected or wished for. 

From my having in company with the Governor viewed the part 
of the country they are going to, and my knowledge of Captain. 
Campbell's attention and perseverance in forwarding everything 
that tends to the good of the public, flatters me with the hope that, 
under his fostering hand, the scheme may succeed.* But should 
the ground, unfortunately, not answer the intended purpose, I 
shall give up every hope of finding any place near as fit to 
form a settlement upon, much less the purpose of establishing a 

When it was supposed the Sirius was to go to the islands, 
and that the transports would sail for Europe, I judg'd it necessary 
to ask the officers and men of the detachment which of them 
would wish to continue in this country, either as soldiers or settlers, 
and which of them would wish to return to England, at, or as 
near as conveniently could be, the time mention'd in their Lord- 
ships' letter of the 8th October, 1786.t As that return was 
intended to be sent by the transports, which not being now to 
sail as soon as was expected, I, therefore, do myself the honor 
of enclosing it by the present conveyance for their Lordships' 

* The settlement (Rose Hill) was a success. Post, p. 306. 
t Ante, p. -23. 


information.* But should any change of sentiments take place in 1788 
the minds of either officers or men before sailing of the transports i Ott. 
their Jjordships shall then be made acquainted with it. 

With regard to myself, I have only to observe that this country Ross nr t 
is by no means a place that I wish to continue in, nor do I think remain! 
that any constitution can stand long against the scorbutick 
attacks natural to a salt diet, and I see not the most distant 
prospect of our being able to get any other. Yet, nevertheless, 
should their Lordships thiixk it necessary to continue me in the 
command for a year or two longer than their first intention, I 
shall be happy in obeying their commands. 

The marines' stores having been just landed, and being now 
under survey, does not give me an opportunity of letting their 
Lordships know the state in which they are found ; but by the 
transports, which I understand are to sail in six weeks, I shall 
find a return of the whole issued, damag'd, and remaining. I 
beg to observe that there is now no clothing in the store, the last no clothing. 
being in the hands of the taylors, and when finish'd will be given '"^ ^*°'^^- 
to the men, having been due to them for some time. Inclos'd 
you will receive a return from the quarter-master of such articles 
as had been furnish'd by Mr. Preater, so far as they have been 
survey'd. Many of the small articles would have been issued 
long ago, could we have got them on shore for that purpose. 

You will likewise receive with this the effectire lists for the 
two last quarters. I have, &c., 

R. Ross, Major. 

Proceedings of a Battalion Court-martial, held by order of Major 

Roliert Ross, Port Jackson, September 11th, 1788. " Sept. 

Capt. Shea, President. 

Members : — First. Lt. Shairp, First Lt. Timins, First Lt. 
Davey, Second Lt. Clarke. 

William Strong, private, 24th Company, and Richard Knight, 
private, 35th Company, brought to tryal by order of the com- 
manding f)fficer for disobedience of orders, in preventing the Charge of 
perscm authorized from bringing in materials to errect the bar- ent^e.*^ 
racks f(jr Captn. Shea's coy. 

Mr. Brewer prosecutes, and infoi^ms the court that the rafters T'le case 
that were sawed by the prisoners being wanted, he had applied to 
the commanding officer to have them brought in, when he gave 
orders for that purpose, desiring him to go himself and see it 
done. He (Mr. Brewer) took four people with him, and went to 
the sawpits, and repeated to the prisoners Major Ross's ordeis to 
take them away, ordering the people to take up the rafters, upon 
which William Strfing, p'te, express'd very civilly his appre- 
hensions of Captn. Tench's displeasure should he permit them to 

* Pest, p. 201. 



11 Sepi. 



go without his orders, and requested that a written order might 
be procured of Captn. Tench to let them go. As there were 
other rafters at the next pit, they wished he would take them 
until sucli order was obtained ; that he took the other rafters, and 
did not strenuously persist in taking those he was ordered to do ; 
that on his return to camp he acquainted the command'g officer. 

Question from the court to Mr. Brewer. — Did the prisoners at 
any time prevent your taking away the rafters ? No, they did 
not, but only requested me not to take them, for the reasons befoie 


The prisoners being put on their defence, call upon Captain 
Tench to inform the court what orders he had given them, and 
deny preventing Mr. Brewer bringing in the rafters. Captain 
Tench informs the court that the sawpit the prisoners worked at 
was dug by the company, and all the timber sawed by it brought 
in by them, and since the publick orders for the sawpit being 
under the direction of Mr. Brewer he never sent any orders to 
the sawyers to obey Mr. Brewer or not — that the piece that was 
then sawing was put on the pit by his (Capt. Tench's) orders some 
time since, and, when sawed up, suppos'd it would be converted 
to the use of the battalion. That the prisoners are men of very good 
character, and have always done their work to his satisfaction. 

Question from the court to the prisoners. — Did you ever receive 
any orders to obey Mr. Brewer 1 Answ'r. — No. 

The court are of opinion that the prisoners are not guilty of the 
crime laid to their charge, not having received any directions to 
obey Mr. Brewer's orders, and do therefore acquit them. 

Jno. Shea, Capt'n and President. 

Eevision of 


The court having met agreeable to the commanding officer's 
orders, to revise the proceedings of the aliove court-martial, find 
it necessary to call upon Capt'n Tench. The court being open, 
and the pi'isoners brought before it, — 

Question from the court to Capt'n Tench. — Have the prisoners 
been acquainted with the battalion orders of the 31st of August, 
1788, respecting the carpenters and sawyers being under the 
direction of Mr. Brewer. Anstv'r. — I have already answ'd the 
question, by saying that I never gave orders that Mr. Brewer 
should or should not have the stuff' saw'd up at the pit. Many 
months ago I directed the sawyers, on digging the pit, never to 
suffer any stuff saw'd up by it to be taken away without my 
knowledge or approbation — that I have desired the serjeant and 
corp'ls of my comp'y at hrst landing to read all orders to them, 
and have frequently since repeated them. 

Question from the court to Serft Smith, of Capt'n Tench's Co. — 
Was you orderly on the 31st Aug't last 1 Answ'r. — I was. Qiies- 
tion. — Did you read the orders of that day to the prisoners 



respecting the Scawyers and carpenters being under the direction 1788 
of Mr. Brewer/ Ayis'r. — 1 don't recollect I did; they were read ii Sept. 
to the conip'y, and I never received any order to carry them to 
the men at the sawpit. 

The court not being clear of the legality of calling in fresh Fresh evi- 
evidence, made application to the Judge- Advocate for his opinion jecteu. 
thereon, in ansWr to which he infonns them that the adducing 
of fresh testimony, either for or against the pi-isoners, would be a 
new tryal. 

The court, therefore, takes no notice of the questions ask'd Decision 
Serjeant Smith, and that having, with the most mature and strict 
deliberations, I'econsidered the whole of the pi'oceedings, find no 
cause to alter their original opinion. 

Jno. Shea, 
Capt'n and President. 

List of such Officers, Non-commission'd Olficers, Drummers, and 
Privates as are desirous of remaining in the country after the 
time their Lordships [Lords of tlie Admiralty] intended to 
relieve the detachm't, as express'd in their letter of the 8th 
October, 1786. New South Wales, 1st October, 1788 :— 

1 Oct. 

Names and Qlty. 

Desiroiis of reinainin;; in this Country. 

Watlsin Tench, Capt. -Lieut. 
George Johnston, F. Lieut. 

.lohn .Johnstone, do. 

James Maitland Shairp, do. 

William Dawes, 2nd Lieut. 
53 I William Baker, Serjeant 
I George Hemming, Pte. 

2C ■ Isaac Farr, 


X James Manning do. 

As a soldier for one tour of 3 yrs. more. 

( Having been so short a time in this country, can- 
not determine whether he would wish to remain 
( or not ; as to settling, can say nothing. 

(Do., do. ; as to settling, can say nothing until he 
I knows on what terms. 

( Ueing so short a time in the countrj', he cannot yet 
) judge whether he would wish to remain or not ; 
1 a-s to the settling, until he knows the terms and 
\ nature of the grant, can't determine. 

As a soldier for one tour of 3 yrs. more. 

As a soldier. 

As a soldier for 3 yrs. more. 

As a settler. 

As a soldier. 

Officers and 
marines who 
wish to 
remain in 
the colony. 

All the Officers, Non-commissiond Officers, Drummers, and 
Private men of the detachm't whose names are not express'd in tlie 
above list wLsh to return to England at the time propos'd l)y their 
Lord.ships' letter of the 8th October, 1786, or as soon after as their 
Lordships may find it convenient. 

R. Ross, Major. 



14 Oct. 


Judge-Advocate Collixs to Major Ross. 

Head-quarters, Sydney Cove, 14th October, 1788. 
I have to request you will be pleased to transmit one of 
the enclosed papers* to the Right Honuurable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty, and lay the other before his Excellency 
the Governor. I have, &c., 

David Collixs, 

17 Oct. 

martial on 

Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

Camp, Sydney Cove, New South Wales, 
Sir, 17th October, 1788. 

Having on the 1st inst. occasion to trouble your Excellency 
with a letter i-equesting you would be pleas'd to order a general 
court-martial to be assembled for the trial of Quarter-master 
James Furzer, for neglect of duty, contempt, and disrespect to his 
commanding oilicer, which letter, prior to its being left at your 
Excellency's house, I sent by the adjutant to Mr. Furzer, telling 
the adjutant at the same time that my motive for doing it was in 
consequence of the friendship I had for Mr. Furzer, and that by 
his seeing the letter he would have a choice in his power of having 
the buisiness inquir'd into by a general court-mai'tial, or if he 
judg'd any other method better or safer for himself he would then 
Explanation, know what to do ; but as Mr. Furzer declares that had my motive 
for sending him that letter been sufficiently explained at the time 
he would then have done what he this morning did, and which he 
hopes would have had the wish'd for effect in preventing the 
unfortunate steps that have since taken place. 

1 have the pleasure of assuring your Excellency that Mr. Furzer 
has now taken such steps as ai'e becoming him, both as an officer 
and a gentleman, and fully satisfies me that the like will not 
happen again, and as my disposition has ever been a wish rather 
to convince than punish, I therefore hope that from the same 
motive your Excellency will be pleas'd to grant my request that 
Proceedings my letter to your Excellency, together with your warrant, may be 
withdrawn in so effectual a manner as never to appear to the 
prejudice of either party. I have, &c., 

R. Ross, Major. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney.! 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 
My Lord, 27th October, 1788. 

I am very sorry to be under the very disagreeable necessity 
of troubling your Lordship with the following particulars, but the 
very unpleasant situation of the detachment doing duty in this 

* CoUins's opinion on officers' objections to sit on court-martial. Post, p. 210. 
t A similar despatch was sent to the Admiralty. 


27 Oct. 

with the 

COURT OF INQnilY. 203 

(;ountry, from the discontents between the Commandant and the 1788 

otiicers, will, I presume, satisfy your Lordship of that necessity, 27 Oct 

as I am sorry to say it is not in my power to restore that 

liarmony which is so very requisite in our situation. 

Having received a letter from Major Ross requesting a general ^^un-'^*' 

court-martial on an officer* for neglect of duty, contempt, and aiaatiaJ. 

disrespect to him, I issued a warrant for assembling a general 

court-martial ; but the thirteen senior officers, when assembled, 

declared that they could not sit as members of a general court- Officers 

. • 1 • rciusG to Sit 

martial under that warrant, being, as a part of his Majesty s marine 

forces, amenable only to the authority of the Commissioners for 
executing the office of Lord High Admiral of Great Britain. The 
warrant was issued under the authority of his Majesty's Com- 
mission for assembKng general courts-martial, but they declined 
sitting under the Act of Parliament made for the Army. 

Having assigned their reasons in writing to Major Ross (to Their 
whom the warrant was directed), I have the honor to enclose 
your Lordship a copy.f 

Though the letter from the commanding officer of the detach- • 
ment was very sufficient grounds for ordering the court-martial, 
if the officer could have been tried on the spot, as it was now 
determined that there was no legal authority in this country for 
ordering a general court-martial on any part of the marine corps, 
and the officer accused declared himself innocent of every part 
of the charge, I ordered a court of enquiry to be assembled to Court of 
enquire into the particulars of the charge, and to report whether o"jeJ.^ti_ 
there was, or was not, sufficient ground for a general court- 
martial, intending, if the court of enquiry reported that they found 
sufficient ground, to order a court of enquiry to examine fully 
into the charge and to report their opinion, which was the only 
means I had left of doing justice to both parties, as no court- 
martial could be held ; for though I knew that courts of enquiry 
always preceded courts-martial, yet in the present mstance I was 
fully satisfied that the warrant I had issued for holding the 
court-martial was totally done away [with] by the officers having 
denied the legality of it, as far as it respected themselves, and con- 
sequently a coui't of enquiry perfectly regular ; and I had reason 
to that both parties would have consented to such a 
determination, no other being possible, under our present circum- 
stances. The court of entjuiry met, and I received the following 
answers, signed by the President : — That had the business been Result 
referred to them before the application for a court-martial they 
might then have proceederl with the consent of both parties, V)ut 
that at present they thought themselves precluded from making 
any enquiry, and only reported that an application from a com- 
manding officer was always deemed a sufficient ground for a 
general coui-t-martial (which was never doubted). They had 

* Quarter-master Furzcr. Ante, p 202. t Post, pp. 205, 206. 




27 Oct. 




The original 



Taken by 

13 Oct. 

legally sit. 

refused to sit as membei's of the court-mai"tial, not deeming tlie 
waiTant legal, with respect to themselves, as being marine officers, 
and they now refused to make any enquiry because that warrant 
had been issued. 

To order an officer to return to his duty under the same com- 
manding officer A\'hom he was accused of treating with contempt 
or disrespect, or to let him remain vmder arrest until he could 
be tried in this country, might be attended with very disagreeable 
circumstances, for of seventeen officers composing the detachment 
five have been put under arrest by their commandant, and are 
only returned to duty by my order until a sufficient number of 
officers to form a general court-martial can be assembled, as I 
ha^■e in a former letter had the honor of informing your Lordship. 

I therefore ordered the evidence on both sides to be taken l)y 
the Judge- Advocate, and intended to send them home with the 
officer, but before that could be done I received a letter from 
Major Ross, informing me that the officer had fully satisfied him 
respecting the charge, and desiring that he might be permitted 
to withdraw his request for a court-martial. I therefore ordered 
the officer to return to his duty. 

When the warrant was granted for assembling a general court- 
martial, I did not know that an Act of Parliament had been 
passed for a limited time, by which the marines serving in America 
had been tried ; nor did anv officer in the detachment entertain 
a doubt of the propriety of their sitting under a warrant issued 
Ijy the authority of his Majesty's commission, until the evening 
before the court was to assemble, when the doubt arose, on the 
Judge- Advocate's reading over the oath. 

The present situation of the detachment will be obvious to 
your Lordship. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 


Captaix Campbell to Major Ross. 

Sydney Cove, Poi-t Jackson, 
Sir, 13th October, 1788. 

The officers assembled by your order for the purpose of 
holding a general court-martial beg leave to acquaint you that 
not conceiving they can legally sit as members of a court-martial 
under any other than a warrant from the Admiralty, enclose you 
their reasons for that opinion, which they request you will lay 
before his Excellency the Governor, and afterwards transmit a 
copy of the same to the Right Hon'ble the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty. 

They further request they may be allowed to accompany you to 
his Excellency with the statement of their ojiinion. 

I have, &c., 

Jas. Campbell, Captn. 

officers' objections to sit. 205 

[Enclosure.] 1788 

Officers' Objections. ^'^^^^ 

Tin: (jtticers of marines, assembled by order of their commanding 
officer,, for the purpose of holding a general court-martial, 
l)eg leave to state the following particulars : — 

Tin: Leirislature every vear passes an Act for the regulation of Act of 
,.,,., •",•'' 1-1 1 • 1 -j-i • Parliament, 

his Majesty s marnie forces while on shore in any ])lace within 

the realm of Great Britain, or in any other of his Majesty's 
dominions, which Act empowers the Lord High Admiral, or three 
or more oi the Commissioners for executing that office, to grant 
a commission to any officer of the said forces, not under the 
degi-ee of a field officer, for holding general courts-martial at any 
place within the intent and meaning of the Act, and to make 
articles for the punishment of mutiny and desertion. By this Articles of 
Act of Parliament, and by these Articles of War, the marine forces ^'^'''■• 
have always been regulated and governed, except during the late 
war in America, when the marines serving in that country were 
included in the provisions of an Act of the same Legislature, 
pass'd in the year 1775, for the purpose of amending and render- 
ing more effectual in his Majesty's dominions in America an Act 
for punishing mutiny and desertion, and for the better payment 
of the Army and their quarters. 

At the succeeding sessions the usual Act for the regulation of parliament. 
the marine forces while on shore was passed, that is for the 
regulation of such part of the coi-ps as were not in America, for 
the marines were included in the Act for the punishment of 
mutiny and deserti(jn amongst the trf)ops serving in that country; 
and at all general courts-martial where marine oiiicers sat in 
conjunction with those of the land forces, or appear'd before a 
military tribunal, they were guided and directed by the articles 
of war for the Ariiiy. 

In the oath prescribed by the (Marine) Act of Parliament the 
members swear not to divulge the sentence of the court until it 
shall have been approved by the Lord High Admiral, or three or 
more of the Commissioners for executing that office. Nor does it ^^'^^^^ 
appear in that Act of Parliament that they can assemble for the martial can 
trial of any marine officer or .soldier but by warrant from the 1^"' fvan-a*!u!' 
Admiralty. The Judge- Advocate is also directed to transmit the 
original proceedings and sentence of eveiy court-martial to the 
Secretary of the Adm'lty, as no sentence can be put in execution 
until a report shall have been made of the whole proceedings to 
the Board. Neither can a commissd marine officer be dismiss'd 
the service except by an order from his Majesty, or by the sen- 
tence <^f a general court-martial, approved by theii- Lordships. 

Hence it plainly appears that this Act of Parliament is meant ^.j^gj^, 
for the internal rei'ulation of the marine forces, and that whenever le-jislation 




13 Oct. 


Only tlie 








to law. 

it is intended they shall be under any other a particular Act of 
the Legislature has been deemed necessary. 

The situation then of that part of the corps of marines that 
is serving in New South Wales, under the Grovernment of bis 
Majesty's G-overnor-in-Chief and Captain-General of that territory, 
is attended with the following peculiarities : — 

A commission has issued from his Majesty empowering the 
said Governor-in-Chief to assemble general courts-martial for the 
trial of any officer or soldier of the troops under his command, and 
to confirm or set aside their sentence. 

The usual Act of Parliament for the regulation of the marine 
forces while on shore, passed a month or two before the departure 
of the detachment from that corps ordered for New South Wales, 
without any alterations or new provision being made for their 
particular situation. A Judge- Advocate was appointed by the 
Admi'lty, who was instructed in their warrant to keep the Act of 
Parliament constantly for his rule. No other power than the 
Admiralty is authorized to grant a warrant for their holding 
general courts-martial, and the members are sworn to the same 
oath of secrecy as their brethren at home. The prisoner also is to 
wait the approval of the Admiralty before he can know his fate. 

Under all these circumstances and considerations, the officers 
directed to assemble for the purpose of holding a general court- 
martial are humbly of opinion that, being officers of his Majesty's 
marine forces, they cannot sit for that purpose under the warrant 
of his Excellency the Governor, and beg leave to represent the 
unpleasant situation they feel themselves placed in, hoping that 
this statement of it may be transmitted to the Right Hon'ble the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, under whose direction 
they always consider themselves, and from whom they hope such 
remedy will be applied as their Lordships may think expedient. 

At the same time they solicit that in this business they may be 

understood to be acting only in conformity to an Act of the 

British legislature passed expressly for their regulation v/hile on 

shore in any part of his Majesty's dominions ; and that they have 

not in any shape been wanting in the respect that belongs to the 

high authority of his Majesty's commission, or to the officer 

invested with it in this country. 

Jas. Campbell, Captain. 

Jno Shea, do. 

Watkx. Texch, Capt.-Lieut. 

CrEO. Johnston, 1st Lieut. 

Jno. Creswell, do. 

RoBT. Kellow, do. 

John Poulton, do. 

Camp, Sydney Cove, 13th October, 1788. 

David Collins, Judge-Advocate. 

Jno. Johnstone, 1st Lieut. 
Js. M. Shairp, do. 

Thos. Davey, do. 

Thos. Timins, do. 

Ralph Clarke, 2nd Lieut. 
Wm. Dawes, 2nd Lieut. 


GovERXOR Phillip to Lord Sydney. ^"^^^ 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 30 Oct. 

My Lord, 30th October, 1788. 

By his Majesty's ship Sirius I had the honor of informing 
your Loi'dship of my reasons for sending that ship to the Cape The Sirius 
of Good Hope* ; the loss of all the seed wheat, and the greatest ca"pe!° ^^^ 
part of the other grains and seeds, brought from England, which 
had been heated in the long passage, and very little of which, 
when sown, ever vegetated ; all the seed wheat put on board the 
Supply at the Cape of Good Hope had likewise been destroyed 
by the weevil ; and after sowing the ground a second time with 
what seed had been brought from Rio de Janeiro and the Cape 
of Good Hope there did not remain sufficient to sow a single acre ; 
and the crops in the ground are exposed to various accidents in 
our present situation. 

The Sirius sailed the 2nd instant, to go round the South Supplies 
Cape ; and Captain Hunter has directions to purchase for the use purchased, 
of the gari'ison what flour the ship can receive, after having com- 
pleated his own provisions ; the quantity will not be very consider- 
able (at present we have 18 months' bread in store). Necessarys 
for the hospital were likewise ordered to be purchased, none of 
any kind being sent out either for the detachment or convicts 
after they landed. 

Your Lordship will see by my former letters the little progress Cultivation 
Ave have been al)le to make in cultivating the lands, and, I presume, ^^°^" 
the necessity of a few proper persons being sent out to superintend 
the convicts, as well as settlers, who have been used to cultivation ; 
for at present this settlement only affords one person that I can 
employ in cultivating the lands on the public account. Most of 
the officers have cultivated a little ground, but it is merely for 
their own conveniency, and none more than a single acre, except 
the Lieutenant-Governor, who has about three acres. I have 
sixteen at a small farm on the public account. 

It must, my Lord, be settlers, with the assistance of the convicts. Request for 
that will put this country in a situation for supporting its repeated 
inhabitants ; nothing but the uncertainty of the time in which 
my letters may reach England, and the possibility of those last 
written being the first received, would make me trouble your 
Lordship in this letter with a repetition of what I have fully 
explained in my former letters — that people who are not convicts 
are necessary for the stores, from which provisions or stores are store- 
delivering almost hourly, and that we want for superintending the "weepers 

•j_i 1 1 1 1 ■ T ,.'^. ,.,°, necessarj'. 

convicts such as have been brought up in the line in which they 
are to Vje employed. 

If the ships that bring out provisions were such as could receive 
on board black cattle at the Cape of Good Hope, T think we shall in 
future be able to preserve them ; and a ship to remain here as a 

* Ante, p. 188. 




30 Oct. 

kUled by 

The natives 



hold aloof 

Officers and 

asked to 
assist in 

They refuse. 

store-ship would be attended with many advantages. It is still a 
doubt whether the cattle we lost have been killed by the natives, 
or if they have strayed into the country.* I fear the former, and 
am sorry to say that the natives now attack any straggler they 
meet unarmed ; and though the strictest orders have been given 
to keep the convicts within bounds, neither the fear of death or 
punishment prevents their going out in the night ; and one hafi 
been killed since the Sirius sailed. The natives, who appeal- 
strictly honest amongst themselves, leave their fizgigs, spears, tfec, 
on the beach, or in their huts, when they go a-tishing ; these 
articles have been taken from them by the convicts, and the 
people belonging to the transports buy them at the risk of being 
prosecuted as receivers of stolen goods, if discovered. The natives, 
as I have observed, revenge themselves on any they meet unarmed ; 
it is not possible to punish them without punishing the innocent 
with the guilty, and our own people have been the aggressors. 

The natives still refuse to come amongst us, and those who are 
supposed to have murthered several of the convicts have removed 
from Botany Bay, where they have always been more troublesome 
than in any other part. I now doubt whether it will be possible 
to get any of those people to remain with us, in order to get their 
language, without using force ; they see no advantage that can 
arise from us that may make amends for the loss of that part of 
the harliour in which we occasionally employ the boats in fishing. 

If my former letters have reached your Lordship the situation 
of this settlement is known, and as most of the officers have 
declined any kind of interference with the convicts, except when 
immediately employed by themselves, the little progress made in 
clearing land that requires so much labour will be accounted for. 
A letter sent from the Admiralty to the commanding officers of 
marines at Portsmouth and Plymouth is what the officei"s say 
they govern themselves by, and in which they say no extra duty 
is pointed out. What I asked of officers was so very little, and 
so far from being what would degrade either the officer or the 
gentleman in our situation, that I beg leave to report once more 
to your Lordship the request I made soon after we landed, and 
which was made in the followijig woi"ds : — "That officers would, 
when they saw the convicts diligent, say a few words of encourage- 
ment to them, and that when they saw them idle, or met them 
straggling in the woods, they would threaten them with punish- 
ment." This I only desired when officers could do it without 
going out of their way ; it was all I asked, and was pointedly 
refused. They declared against what they called an interference 
with convicts, and I found myself ol^liged to give up the little plan 
I had formed in the passage for the government of these people, 
and which, had even that been proposed to the officers, required 
no more from them than the hearing any appeal the overseer 

Ante, p. 140. 


might find it necessary to make, and a report from the officer to 1788 
me, or to the Judge- Advocate, if he thought it necessary, but 30 Oct. 
which never has been asked of the officers, as they declined any 
kind of interference. 

The Golden Grove store-ship sailed for Norfolk Island the 2nd ^'orfoik 
of October, with provisions and some stores, and carried a midship- 
man, two seamen, a serjeant, corj)oral, and tive j^rivates, with 
twenty-one men and eleven women convicts. Their numbers will 
be increased in the course of the summer. 

The Fishburn is now fitting for sea, that she may sail with the 
Golden Grove, as soon as that ship returns from Norfolk Island. 

The same reason which makes me trouble your Lordship with 
tedious extracts from my former letters makes it necessary to 
point out in this letter that we at present depend entirely for 
pro\-i.sions being sent from England ; and I beg leave to observe 
that if a ship should be lost in the passage it might be a very 
coixsiderable time before it could be known in England. The Sirius, liixietieb. 
from the length of the voyage, would not be able to supply this 
settlement from the Cape, and though the Islands may furnish 
refreshments in great abundance to one or two ships, if the Sirius 
was employed between the Islands and this settlement, the quantity 
procured would be but .small for so great a number of people ; but, 
my Lord, I hope a very few years will put this country in a situation Prospects, 
to support itself, for I have the pleasure of seeing what land has 
been cleared in a very flourishing state. 

I am now preparing to go up the harbour with a small detach- Anewsettle- 
ment of one captain, two lieutenants, and twenty privates, who ™^" " 
are to protect some convicts intended to clear land near the head 
of the harbfjur,* where it is a fine open country, ha^dng very little 
timber, and being perfectly free from underwood. 

The Supply remains here, as I think that vessel necessary in the 
harbour at present, and which was my reason for sending the 
store-ship to Norfolk Island. 

Returns of the detachment and the quantity of provisions in 
store are enclosed to Mr. Nepean. I have, (fee, 

A. Phillip. 

Judge- Advocate Collins to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

Dear Sir, loth November, 1788. i5Xo\. 

I beg leave to trouble you with the enclosed paper. It con- General 
tains my opinion on the question respecting general courts-martial ^"artiai. 
in this country, and the expedient that I proposed for getting over 
the difficulty that was started by myself, and adopted by the officers 

I beg you to rest assured, and through the whole of your 
consideration on this affair, to take this with vou — that nothinj,' 

P * Rose Hill. 




10 Nov. 

and law 

13 Oct. 

legally act, 

but shnulfl 
sit and ask 

16 Nov. 

would give me more pain than to be thought to start difficulties 
for the sake of throwing obstacles in the way of the service. 
The doubts that occurred to me were deemed satisfactory to the 
officers of marines here, and the resolution adopted that you will 
find among the public letters from the Governor. I sincerely 
wish the expedient I proposed had also been adopted. 

I sincerely hope you enjoy your health, and remain, with great 
esteem, — David Collins. 

I should be glad of a fresh supply of paper, and would be 
extremely obliged to you if you would order Cooper to send me 
Blackstone's Reports, any author that treats on costs, and any 
law pubHcation of note that has appeared since my departure, 
with whatever Acts of Pai'liament you may think necessary. 

[Enclosure. ] 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 

13th October, 1788. 
To the question, " Whether a general court-martial formed of 
marine officers can assemble by virtue of a warrant from his 
Majesty's Governor-in-Chief of this territory, having a commis- 
sion to gi'ant the same," — 

I reply, I am of opinion that, being marine officers, they cannot 
comply with the directions of the Act of Parliament passed for 
their regulation while on shore in any part of his Majesty's 
dominions, and hold a general court-martial under the warrant of 
his Excellency the Governor of New South Wales. 

But vvhen I consider the time that must elapse before a remedy 
can be applied — when I consider how much his Majesty's service 
may and must suffer from the want of a tribunal to which officers 
should be amenable — when I consider that although the sti^ict letter 
of the law is against their sitting, it has been clearly the intention 
of every branch and department of his Majesty's Government that 
there should be such a tribunal in this country, I am of opinion 
that, waving the privilege of being assembled in conformity with 
their own Act of Parliament, they should sit under the authority 
of the King's commission and Governor of this territory, throw- 
ing themselves, with the strong j^lea of necessity, on the Right 
Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty for pro- 
curing them an indemnification for their having so acted. 

I have, &c., 

David Collins, 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 
My Lord, Novenil)er 16, 1788. 

Since I closed my letter of the 30th of October to your 
Lordship the Golden Gi'ove has arrived from Norfolk Island, where 


the people and provisions were landed, and from whence I have 1788 
received the most favourable accounts. They have vegetables in 13 Oct. 
great abundance, as well as fish. The grain that had been sowed q^^^ 
after the tu-st had failed (from having been heated in the passage, accounts 
or injui'ed by the weevil) promises a great increase. The soil is xorfoik 
extremely rich, and to the depth of many feet wherever they island. 
have dug ; the people very healthy, and perfectly satisfied under 
an officei', who will in less than two years render that island ^^^ '**''*"'' *'^ 
independent of this colony for the necessarys of life, if we can independent 
procure black cattle to send him.* He will have an additional '"ars? 
number of people in the course of the summer. A few honest, 
industrious families would then find themselves happy in a good 
climate, as healthy as this settlement (and no place can be healthier), 
with a rich land, easy of cultivation, and where the storms of 
thunder and heavy rains have not been felt. The flax-plant will Flax, 
supply the settlers on that island with rope and canvas, as well 
as a considerable part of their cloathing, when they can dress it 
properly : Ijut a person experienced in dressing flax is much 
wanted, as well as a few good husbandmen, for those we have 
been able to send there are not only in general idle and abandoned, 
but ignorant. A cocoanut that was as good as if just taken from 
the tree, and a small piece of wood, said to resemble the handle 
of a flyflap, as made in the Friendly Islands, and which did not 
appear to have been long in the water, have suggested an idea 
that some island which is inhabited lays at no great distance, but 
which my present situation does not permit me to determine. 
The remains of two or three canoes have been found on the rocks. 
Tiie Golden Grove, in her passage from Norfolk Island, saw a 
very dangerous reef, the south end of which lay in the latitude A danfrcrous 
of 29" 25' south, longitude 159' 59' east.f It appeared from the ^'^^ ' 
N.E. by X. to N. when they were four leagues from it, but no 
judgment can be formed how far it extends to the northward. 

T had the honor of informing your Lordship of my intentions Port 


of lixing a settlement near the head of the hai'bour,J and I have 
lately passed several days in examining the country. The land 
is good, and though there is none we can take possession of at a fresh 
present which can be cultivated without clearing the ground of 
the timber — for if the trees are at the distance of thirty or even 
fifty feet the roots spread — the labour there, nevertheless, Avill 
not exceed the fourth part of what is required in our ])resent 
situation, and there the land appears to be the best I have 
seen in this country ; and as far as I could examine, which was 
for a couple of miles round the spot on which I have flxed, I 
think the country as fine as any I have seen in England. I had country. 

* The anticipation was not realised. It was not known at this time, however, that so many 
convicts would be sent to Norfolk Island as was afterwards determined, 
t Post, p. 215. 
: Rose Hill. 



16 Nov. 

A soldier 

The people 

Flax and 

Black sand. 


of the 


A bad 

an officer and ten men with nie, which I left to finish a small 
redoubt, and in a few days the remainder of the detachment will 
be sent up with some convicts. 

A soldier has been lately missing, who, I suppose, lost his way 
in the woods, and has either been killed by the natives or died by 
a fit, to which he was subject. 

Except the old, and those who brought incurable complaints 
with them, the people are very healthy. The weather is now 
settled, and the two store-ships are ready to sail, and intend 
going round the South Cape. 

A small quantity of flax, as I received it from Norfolk Island 
is enclosed with the despatches. A plant that produces pepper, 
and supposed to be the same as the East India pepper, is found 
in great plenty in Norfolk Island. Several roots of this plant, 
and some of the pepper, are sent to Sir Joseph Banks, who I 
have requested to inform your Lordship or Mr. Nepean if it 
proves to be, as supposed, the black pepper used in England. 

In sinking a well the sand was thought to contain a very large 
proportion of metal, a small quantity of which is sent by the 
two ships. It has been twenty-four hours in a strong fire, but 
we could not get it to melt. I suppose it to be blacklead.* 

I have, (kc, 
A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Under Secretary Nepean.! 
Marine Quarters, Sydney Cove, 

My Dear Sir, 16th NoA^ember, 1788. 

I do not feel myself at all at ease with respect to you, as 
I much fear you expect to hear from me by every ship which sails 
from here. The truth of the matter is that I have no one thing 
to communicate to you that can give you either pleasure or satis- 
faction, for, unless I attempted to give you a description of this 
country, and of the hardships, mortifications, and I had almost 
said cruelties, we are obliged to submit to, I have no subject 
worth taking up your time with. 

From our Governor's manner of expressing himself, for he com- 
municates nothing to any person here but to his secretary (Capt. 
Collins), he has, I dare say, described this country as capable of 
being made the Empire of the East. But notwithstanding all he 
may from mterested motives say — and as this letter is only for 
your own private perusal — I do not scruple to pronounce that in 
the whole world there is not a worse country than what we have 
yet seen of this. All that is contiguous to us is so very barren 
and forbidding that it may with truth be said here nature is 
reversed ; and if not so, she is nearly worn out, for almost all the 

* A sample was submitted to Mr. Josiah Wed8'\\ood, who pronounced it to be 
species of plumbago or blacklead." 
t A private letter. 

'a pure 


seeds we have put into the ground has rotted, and I have no I'^^B 
doubt but will, like the wood of this vile country when burned 16 Nov. 
or rotten, turn to sand. This latter is a fact that has been 
proved, and will, I much fear, be fatally felt by some of its 
present inhabitants. I say the present, because if the Minister 
has a true and just description given him of it he will not surely No more 
think of sending any more people here. If he does, I shall not should be 
scruple to say that he will entail misery on all that are sent and sent. 
an expense on the mother country that in the days of her 
greatest prosperity she was not equal to, for there is not one 
article that can ever be necessary for the use of man but which 
must be imported into this country. It is veiy certain that 
the whole face of it is covered with trees, but not one bit of 
timber have we yet found that is tit for any other purpose than 
to make the pot boil. Of the general opinion entertained here 
oi the wretched prospect we have before us I cannot I think A wretched 
give you a moi'e convincing proof than that every person (except 
the two gentlemen already mentioned, whose sentiments I am 
perfectly unacquainted with) who came out with a design of re- 
maining in the country are now most earnestly wishing to get away 
from it. 

You will, no doubt, see a copy of the return which I am going 
to send to the Admiralty, as the Governor has requested it for 
your office. It is a return of that part of the marine detach- ^'arines who 
ment that wish to remain in this country, and the purposes for 
which they wish to stay.* I think this return [will] open people's 
eyes more than a volume writ upon the subject would. 

There is an effort making for clearing some land for "corn at Rose Hill, 
the head of this harbour. The party gone and to go ai"e to be under 
the care and protection of your old friend Campbell, who is to have 
two officers and twenty marines with him. His perseverance and 
attention to the forwarding the public service in general is too 
well known to require my saying anything on that head, unless it 
is to assure you that his abilities ever since his arrival here has 
been constantly employed with the most sedulous attention to the 
success of this settlement in particular, and was I in a situati(jn 
that would admit my doing it, I most assuredly would make the 
Secretary of State acquainted with his worth. But as that is Campbell's 
not the case, I dare say you will think it a justice due to any 
man, much more in the present instance, for your old acquaint- 
ance, whom I am sure you wished to ser\ e. I flatter myself you 
will have pleasure in representing him as he deserves, and 
possiWy by that means procuring for him that for which he has 
served so long for.f * * * * 

11. Ross. 

* Ante, p. 201. 

t The latter part of this letter is omitted by the transcriber as being devoid of public 




IG Nov. 


of ships. 

for Norfolk 

with the 

for the 


A marine 

Governor Phillip to Secretary Stephens. 

Sir, Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, November 16, 1788. 

By his Majesty's ship Sirius, that sailed from hence for the 
Cape of Good Hope the 2nd of October, I had the honor of trans- 
mitting, for the information of the Lords Commissioners, particu- 
lars respecting this settlement and Norfolk Island, with such 
drawings of that and Lord Howe Island as I had received from 
the lieutenants King and Ball. 

A survey, made by Captain Hunter and the officers of the 
Sirius, of this harbour was sent with my dispatches in July, under 
the care of Lieutenant Shortland. 

The loss of all the seed wheat and most of the other grain and 
seeds that Avas brought from England, by being heated, was my 
reason for sending the Sirius to the Cape. You will, sir, please 
to inform their Lordships that the Fishburn is now ready for sea. 
The Golden Grove sailed for Norfolk Island the 2nd of October. 
Both ships will sail for England as soon as that ship returns. 

I thought it necessary to keep the Supply, tender, here in the 
absence of the Sirius, which was my reason for sending the 
Golden Grove to Norfolk Island ; and I ordered the master of the 
Supply on board that ship, as he is acquainted with the island, 
where the landing is difficult. Eighteen months' provisions and 
stores, with a petty officer, one sergeant, one corporal, five privates, 
two seamen, twenty-one men, and eleven women convicts, were 
sent in the Golden Grove. These make the number of people on 
Norfolk Island sixty-one, and more will be sent in the course of 
the summer. 

The natives now avoid us more than they did when we first 
landed, and which I iijjpute to the robberies committed on them 
by the convicts, who steal their spears and fizgigs, which they 
frequently leave in their huts when they go out a -fishing, and 
which the people belonging to the transports purchase, though 
every possible precaution has been taken to prevent it. This the 
natives revenge by attacking any stragler they meet, and one 
convict has been killed since the Sii'ius sailed. 

The advantages attending a ship of the line as a store-ship in 
this harbour I have observed in my former letters. Such ship 
might bring a considerable quantity of black cattle from the Cape, 
as I presume she would have few guns on board. One or two 
small vessels of thirty or forty tons would, likewise, be employed to 
great advantage, and which I beg leave to submit to their Lord- 
ships' consideration. The necessity of a regular supply of pro- 
visions has been, likewise, pointed out in my former letters, as- 
the resources this country affords at present are very trifling. 

A marine has been lately missing, and it is doubtful whether 
he lost his way in the woods and was killed by the natives, or 
whether he died in a fit, he being subject to fits. 


The Golden Grove returned from Norfolk Island the 10th 1788 
instant, having landed the provisions and people. In her return ic Nov. 
they fell in with a dangerous reef, on which the sea broke; very j^ dangerous 
liigh. The south end of the reef only was seen, which, by Mr. reef. 
Blackburn's account (the master of the Supply), is in the latitude 
of 29° 25' S., longitude 155" 59' E.* It extended from N.E. by 
N. to north, but the weather did not permit him to examine how 
far it extends to the northward. They were, when the bearings 
were taken, four leagues from it, with light airs of wind. It shall 
be examined in the course of the summer. 

The accounts I have received from Norfolk Island are equally ^'^^'^j*^' ^^ 
favorable with those first received. Vegetables of every kind are island. 
there in abundance. The corn they have sown promises well, and 
the landing may be made much safer than it is at present. The 
two store-ships have each a lower yard and top-gallant masts from 
that island, which I have ordered them to deliver at Deptford 
Yard, by which it may be determined how far the pine of that 
island may be useful. We still continue clearing the land near 
us, and some convicts, with a small detachment, are settled near 
the head of the harbour, where the ground is better and less timber 
to clear itwa.j. 

The two store-ships are now nearly ready for sea. The state and ^^"^^''.'^{qJ?^ 
condition of his Majesty's armed tender Supply is inclosed. The sea. 
store-ships are to endeavour to make their passage round the 
South Cape. 

During the winter we had frequently very heavy gales of wind. Gales. 
several from the eastward ; but the weather is now settled, and 
we have had less rain in the winter than Avhat I have generally 
known in that season on the Brazil coast. 

Some driftwood, a cocoanut, and a small piece of wood like the 
handle of a fly-flap, such as are made in the Friendly Islands, 
having been driven on shore at Norfolk Island, not appearing to {^"j^l^J^^ 
have been long in the water, have suggested an idea there that island. 
some inhabited island is at no great distance. 

I have, &c., 
A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Secretary Stephens. 
Sir, Marine Q'rs, Sydney Cove, 16th Nov., 1788. 

Since I did myself the honor of writing to you on the 1st 
October by Captain Hunter, who was ordered to the Cape of 
Good Hope, I found myself under the necessity of ordering an 
officer into confinement, but as it has ever been my wish rather An anest. 
to convince than punish, I directed the adjutant to show the 
officer the letter I had written to the Governor-, re(i[uesting a 

* Middleton Reef, named after Sir Charles Middlcton, Comptroller of the Navy. The 
" Directory of the South Pacific Ocean " pives the latitude of the "west elbow" of the reef 
2!)" 27' 40" S., and the longitude 159° 3' 38" E. 


1788 general court-martial, telling him at the same time my motive for 
16 Nov. doing so was that if he felt himself sensible of the impropriety of 
his conduct he would then know what he had to do, and that 
then the letter would not be sent ; but if, on the contrary, he 
preferred a trial by court-martial, my letter would immediately be 
transmitted. To this the adjutant bro't me an answer that it was 
very well, and he had no objection to a general court-martial. 
A general In consequence of my application, the Governor sent me a 

martial. warrant for the assembling a general court-martial, which was 
accordingly ordered, and was for sojne days prevented from 
meeting by the indisposition of one of the members. This officer 
(Capt. Meredith) continuing to grow worse, it became necessary 
to order another member, which was done. On the 13th October 
the officers ordered to compose the court assembled agreeable to 
orders. Soon after, Capt. Campbell, who was to have been the 
President, delivered me a letter with a paper inclos'd, of which 
No. 1 is a copy,"^ and which, at his and the request of the other 
officers who were to have compos'd the court, I have the honor of 
inclosing, for their Lordships' information, together with a letter 
and paper given to me at the same time by the Judge-Advocate, 
of which No. 2 is the original.! The Judge- Advocate's motive for 
giving me this paper I find myself yet at a loss to account for, 
nor can I possibly here omit observing that there did not seem 
Doubts as to to be a doubt entertained of the Governor's being sufficiently 
Its legality, authorized to order a general court-martial till the Judge- Advo- 
cate called upon Captain Campbell, and in my presence told him 
it was his opinion that being marme officers they could not 
legally sit under a warrant from the Governor, as there was no 
power deligated to him for that purpose, either by Parliament or 
the Admiralty. 

The court-martial being now, as their Lordships will see by the 

above paper, out of the question, the Governor, without with- 

A court of clrawincf the warrant or returning my letter, order'd a court of 

influiry, '-^ . , 

enquiry to assemble and enquire into the charge, and report 
whether there was, or was not, sufficient grounds for a court- 
martial. The report of this court was made to the Governor by 
Captain Campl^ell, from whom I understand that he did not 
think himself at liberty, under the above circumstances, of enter- 
ing into the enquiry, and that the court only gave an opinion 
that an application from a commanding officer had ever been 
deem'd sufficient grounds for granting a general court-martial. 
At this stage of the business the Governor judg'd fit to send the 
The accused Judfje- Advocate to the officer in confinement, to inform him that 

to be . . . 

ordered he should Send him to England by the first ship, together with 
home. ^Y\e charge against him. 

At this time I received a letter from the officer purporting 
that the adjutant did not at the time I sent him with my letter 

* Ante, pp. 205-206. t See enclosure in CoUins's letter to Nepean. Ante, p. 210. 


inform him of my motives for so doing, else he would have done 1733 
everything in his power to have the letter stopt, and express'd le Nov. 
inuch sorrow at his having been so long kept in ignorance of my Anapoiogj-. 
intentions. This circumstance I communicated to the Governor, 
who told me it was then too late, for as the warrant had been 
granted the letters could not be recall'd, and that he found him- 
self under the necessity of sending them to England. This reply, 
I must confess, mortitied me, l)ut on my receiving the necessary 
apology from the officer I wrote a letter to the Governor, of 
which No. 3 is a coi^y,* in consequence of which he ordered the The officer 
officer to return to his duty, but has not given up the letters. duu"!"* ^^ 

In our present situation their Lordships will see the impos- 
sibility of our holding a general court-martial til such time as 
the difficulties mentioned in the paper No. 1 ai'e removed, which 
I am convinced their Lordships will cause to be done as soon 
as possible. 

I am sorry to inform their Lordships that on the 26th October 
James Rogers, a private marine, in the 15th Company, who had 
for some time been employ'd in sawing, was returning to his 
liutt, and the distance to it not more than a quarter of a mile, 
yet in that short distance he is suppos'd to have lost his way and Lost in 
wandered in the woods till he was starved, for he has not since ^^^ "* ' 
Ijeen heard of. I have repeatedly sent all the officers and men off 
duty, with all the dogs they could collect, in search of the body, 
but all to no purpose. It being impossible for a man to exist in 
the woods of this country, even supposing him to have his arms, 
which was not this man's case, and as he had always heexx looked 
upon as one of the best and quietest men in the detachment, I have 
no doubt of his being dead, and have thex'efore set him off as dead 
in the effective list. 

Another unfortunate circumstance has lately happened, which 
I have pain in I'elating. On the 6th inst. a quarrel happen'd 
overnight between Thomas Bulmore, a marine, and some of his 
comrades. It had not been so effectually settled that night as to 
prevent them from going out the next morning, which they unfortu- 
nately effected without the knowledge of either commissioned or 
non-commissioned officers. From the Ijruises or blows that Bulmore a marine 
received in the quarrel he died on the 10th. Four of the marines S^^^"* 
are now in confinement for it, and to be tried by the criminal 
court f. Should that coui't have determined their fate before the 
ship sails their Lordships shall be made acquainted with it. 

In my last letter I inform'd you of my having an order for a 
detachment to be in readiness for the head of the harbour the Rose Hill, 
first week in October. It was only a few days ago that a part of 

* Ante, p. 202. 
t They were found guilty of manslaughter, and sentenced to 200 lashes each. Post, p. 220. 




IC Nov. 



Bad paper. 

Island fla.x. 

that detachment was sent up to protect some men order'd to errect 
a store-house for provisions. The rest will, I beleive, in the course 
of a few days be ordered to join those already sent. 

In my last letter I informed their Lordships with the state of 
the barracks errecting for the detachment. Captain Campbell's 
company has for some time been in the one errected for his company, 
but to say when the other companys will be in theirs it is now 
impossible for me to say, though I much fear that it will not be 
for some months, as all the artificers have been drawn off from us 
for purposes that his Excellency imagin'd to be of more importance 
than the getting the detachment under proper cover. I have, 
Avith the Governor's assistance, contrived to have hammocks foi* 

our men. 





m general very bad, I hope their 


Lordships will be induced to direct the Navy Board to send a 
sufficient number, with the bedding which we want much for the 
detachment. My reason for preferring hammocks to standing 
beds is that they are much more easily kept clean, and, of course, 
more healthy for the men. 

The blacksmiths employ'd by the Governor are kept in such 
constant employ as to render it impossible for me to get them to 
attend to the arms of the detachment. Two of our firelocks have 
been in their hands for the last three months, and are now in the 
same state as when sent to them. This makes me fear that I 
shall be under the necessity of employing one of our own men, 

who is a gunsmith. 

Should it be so I shall endeavour to engage 

him upon the same terms with the people of that description 
employ'd at the different divisions, which will, I hope, meet with 
their Lordships' approbation. 

The Governor has informed me that he will order the detach- 
ment to be compleated from the party of marines serving on 
board the Supply, armed tender. If he does before the ships sail 
their Lordships will see it by the general return. 

T am sorry to say that the paper supplied for the use of the 
detachment is so spungy and of so inferior a quality as to be 
almost totally useless from its having got damped and mildew'd 
upon the passage. I therefore request that their Lordships will 
please to order me to be supplied with those articles of a better 
quality, and some of a larger kind than what was sent before. 

With this letter I transmit for their Lordships' information a 
copy of the effective list for the last quarter, a general return of 
the detachment, and an account of the issues and remains of the 
quarter-master's stores.* 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Dear Sir, Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 16th Nov., 1788. 

In the box which contains my despatches, on board the 
Golden Grove, I have put up some flax, as received from Nor- 

* Note by transcriber : — " Name of R. Ross omitted, though from him direct." 


folk Islaiul. 1 have before ol)sei-ved they have no person who 1788 
understands how to manage it. There is likewise a small box 16 Nov. 
with sand, which I suppose to contain blacklead. One paper in 
that box contains what was in as strong a tire as we could make 
for twenty-four hours, but did not melt. I have sent a small ^ji^j'^j^^aT'Jfnd 
quantity by the Fishburn to Sir Joseph Banks. Here is a vegetable. 
tree, of which we have whole forests, from the leaves of which is 
distilled an essential oil that appears to be equal to oil of pepper- 
mint.* The returns of the detachment, state of the sick, and 
quantity of provisions in store for the detachment and convicts 
(not including the ships' companies of the Sirius and Supply, 
who nuist Ije hereafter victualled from the store), are inclosed. f 

Two lower yards were cut at Norfolk Island for the two store- Spars, 
ships, and the masters have my directions to deliver them at 
Deptford Yard. By those spars they will be able to determine 
the quality of the wood. 

I have mentioned the situation of Lieutenant King, who is the 
Commandant of Norfolk Island, in my former letters to Lord 
Sydney and yourself ; and you will now permit me to mention Mr. 
Jamison, the surgeon, who is surgeon's first mate of the Sirius. Sui-freon 
He is a very good man, and if the surgeon was to die would 
lose his chance of promotion ■ at the same time, if the Sirius 
leaves the station, he would not be entitled to any pay from the 
Navy Board. At present he has only the pay of surgeon's mate. 

I have, &c., 
A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Sir, Sydney Cove, 17th November, 1788. 17 Nov 

The flax contained in this box is from Norfolk Island. 
I have mentioned in my former letters the want of a person Nm-foik 
that understands the preparing and manufacture of flax. If 
properly dressed, I think it would be superior to any that grows 
in Europe. 

Of the cotton seed brought from England \ery little vegetated. 

I have, &c., 
. A. Phillip. 

Major Ross to Secretary Stephens. 
Marine Quarters, Sydney Cove, 
Sir, New South Wales, 18th Nov., 1788. is Nov. 

I have to infonn you, for their Loi'dships' information, that 
since my letter of yesterday's date the criminal court have acquitted 

* See note to memo, by Sir Joseph Banks. Post, p. 283. 

t In the return of the civil establishment enclosed eleven ofBcersare mentioned, including 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Jud'^e-Advocate, cha])!ain, conmiissary, surgeon, surveyor- 
^'eneral, three assistant surgeons, and acting provost-marshal. The military force I'onsisted 
of 1(!0 privates, major, two captains, two captain-lieutenants, eight first lieutenants, three 
second lieutenants, adjutant second lieutenant, quarter-master first lieutenant, and 
Judge- Advocate (David Collins). 


^'''88 the marines (that were tried) of willful murder, and brought it in 
IS Nov. manslaughter, and have sentenced them to two hundred lashes 
each. I have, &c., 

R. Ross, Major. 

Mr. D. Considen* to Sir Joseph Baxks. (Banks Papers.) 
Sir, Port Jackson, Nov. 18, 1788. 

From the intimacy v.'hich subsisted between you and my 
friend, Capt. Charles Hamilton, I have taken the liberty of send- 
ing home some birds and a kangaroo skin, properly stuffed, to your 
care, to be forwarded to him as soon as possible. At the same 
time I beg your acceptance of five birds and a kangaroo skin — all 
properly prepared and stuffed. I have likewise sent two living 
opossums (one for you, the other for Captain Hamilton), and two 

Animals and beautiful paroquets alive (one for Mrs. Charles Hamilton, the 
other for your daughter). I sincerely wish they may reach you 
safe. Understanding you were a naturalist as well as a botanist, 
I have sent you some beetles, viz., tAvo species from S. America, 
and some flowei'-seeds (such as I could at present collect in this 
country), and specimens of two sorts of gum, the production of 
this country, the one red and the other yellow. The first is the 
red astringent gum well-known in England ; the other, I have 

Gnm. taken the liberty of naming the balsam to be of New South Wales. 

These I have used medicinally, and found them to answer my most 

Sweet tea. sanguine expectations. I have sent you some of the sweet teaf of 
this country, which I recommend, and is generally used by the 
marines and convicts. As such it is a good anti-scorbutic, as well 
as a substitute for that which is more costly. 

This country produces a variety of flowers and shrubs totally 
unknown in Europe, and five or six species of wild myrtle, some of 
which I have sent to you dried. An infusion of the leaves of one 
sort is a mild and safe astringent in the dysentery. We have a 

Flowers and large peppermint-tree, which is equal, if not superior, to our 

s. English peppermint. I have sent you a .specimen of it. If there 

is any merit in applying these and many otlier simples to the 

benefit of the poor wretches here, I certainly claim it, being the 

first who discovered and recommended them. 

Many of the shrubs are now in bloom, and many more have not 
yet ripened their seed. Therefore, I cannot send you that variety I 
could wish ; out I will inake it my business during my residence here 
to send you some by every opportunity, should it be pleasing to you. 
You are probably surprised I have not given you some account 
of the country, ifec, when I have taken the liberty of addressing 
you at all. For this I l)eg leave to refer you to Capt. Hamilton, to 
whom I have given a short sketch of it, together with my opinion. 

* Assistant Surgeon. 

+ The native sarsajiarilla. The herb is a common article of trade amongst Sydney herba- 
lists. — Maiden's "Useful Plants of Australia," p. 203. 

AN officer's ACCOrXT OF PORT JACKSON. 221 

I bad forgot to say that the red gum is produced by two very 1783 
difterent sorts of trees, and that the yellow gum is the production 18 Nov. 
of a small tree of the palmette kind, the seed of which I have sent Red aiid 
to you. It grows on a stalk from 6 to 12 feet long, and very yellow gum. 
much resembling a cane, out of the centre of the top of the tree, 
which is from 3 to 7 feet high, and the circumference from 18 to 
24 inches; the external surface appears as if burned, but upon 
examination it is only a black vein, which, if powdered, becomes 
of a red colour. 1 am, &c., 


Memo, of such things as I have sent to you and Capt. Hamilton 
by the Golden Grove, transport, of London, Wm. Sharp, master: — • 

Eight paroquets, prepared and stuffed ; a nameless bird, pre- 
pared and stufied; flying squirrel, prepared and stuffed ; 2 American 
beetles, prepared and stuffed; some seeds, all in one box; 2 live 
paroquets, in a cage ; 2 live opossums, male and female ; 2 kan- 
garoo skrus, stuffed ; and some of the native spears. 

Extract from a letter written by an ofiBcer of the marines, dated 
Port Jackson, 18th November, 1788 (Banks Papers).* 

Havixg experienced a long tho' favourable voyage from England, 
we arrived at Botany Bay on the 20th of January last, where we 
expected to lay a foundation for a colony, but I am sorry to say Botany Bay 
the country for several miles round the bay does not afford a spot ^^isappoiiit- 
large enough for a cabbage garden fit for cultivation. The bay 
itself is beautiful and capacious, but open to the south-east winds 
which prevail there at a certain season. It is surrounded with 
rocks, sandhills, and swamps, all which are covered as thick as you 
can possibly imagine with trees and underwood. You may easily 
suppose our disappointment was great in having our sanguine 
hopes so soon frustrated ; however, during our dilemma his 
Excellency the Governor explored the coast to the northward, and 
in a few days returned with the pleasing account of having dis- 
covered the finest harbour in the world, viz., Port Jackson, so Poit Jack- 
named by Capt. Cook. On the following morning we quitted ®°"" 
Botany Bay wich pleasure, and anchored in Sidney Cove, Port 
Jackson, in the evening of the same day. 

Port Jackson is, without doubt, the finest harbour in the known Thn "finest 
world. It extends from 15 to 20 miles into the country, forming the worW." 
beautiful bays and coves on every side, with deep water everywhere 
for ships of any burthen. Sidney Cove, which is the seat of 
Government, is 5 miles within the entrance of the harbor. The 
country all round the harbor is similar to that of Botany Bay, 
only more rocky, some few spots excepted, which may admit of 
cultivation with a deal of labor. The soil is in general sandy, Sandy soil, 
and no fresh-water river or spring has as yet been discovered ; some water 

* Sir Joseph Banks's handwriting. 




18 Nov. 

and nun. 



Trees and 


The natives. 

still, fresli water is found in many places, -which is only the over- 
flowing of swamps, consequently can't be very wholesome. It has 
on our arrival here, and still does occasion, many complaints, such 
as dysentery and worms. The climate is tine and temperate, and 
seems to be considerably influenced by the moon, as we have a 
deal of thunder and lightning at every change of that planet, 
besides torrents of rain. The lightning has done some damage by 
killing all the sheep belonging to the Lieut. -Govr. and others. 
"We have had a great deal of rain in the months of June, July, 
and part of August, whicli seem to constitute the rainy season 

The country, as far as we know, produces few quadrupeds. The 
largest is the kangaroo. They make use of their hind legs only 
in jumping or escaping from their enemies. The female carries 
and nurses its young in the pouch under its belly. The opossum 
is next in size. They are easily tamed, and eat anything. There 
are flying squirrels, a spotted animal of the cat kind, but larger- 
bodied, extremely destructive to fowls, and three sorts of rats ; 
the kangaroo rat, whicli partakes of that animal ; the flying rat, 
which, by the assistance of its bushy tail, flies from tree to tree, 
which are numerous and very troublesome. These are all the 
quadrupeds Ave have seen here yet, except the native dogs, some 
of which are large, and seem to be of the fox kind. 

The birds are not so numerous as you would expect in a wild 
country, but very beautifull in general, especialy those of the 
parrot tribe. The ostrich is here, and the black swan ; one of each 
has been killed, and several seen besides. Many other birds, large 
and small, which I can't describe. Twelve miles from this settle- 
ment I have shot wild ducks, pigeons, and quails. 

The country produces five or six kinds of trees, two of which pro- 
duce the same sort of gum, viz., a red astringent gum well known 

oTow to an amazing size, but are 
The only tree fit for building or 
any other use is the fir-tree, and even that is bad. There are here 
many shrubs, plants, and flowers totally unknown in Europe, 
some of which have been used medicinally with success by our 
surgeon, Mr. Considen, particularly the yellow gum, as a substitute 
for balsam of tolu. 

There is neither ore nor mineral as yet found, except iron, 
which is very common, and a small portion of copper. 

The natives do not appear numerous, but the most wretched of 
the human race. They are dressed in nature's garb, subsist 
cheifly on fish and roots we ai'e unacquainted with. They inhabit 
cheifly the cavities of rocks and trees ; their miserable huts, which 
are few, are constructed of the bark of trees. They do not wish 
to cultivate our acquaintance or friendship. They are treacherous, 
for they have murtherd several of the convicts and one marine, 

in England. 

scarce worth cutting down. 

AN officer's account OF FORT JACKSON. 223 

besides wounding many more. Indeed, tliey attack every person 1788 
they meet unarmed, and appear civil to all those they meet armed, is Nov. 
This is what induces me to call them treacherous. They have 
spears which they use in tishing and in impaling their enemies, 
besides stone hatchets and chizels. 

The kangaroo is a very timid animal, incredibly strong for its The 
size, and can jump faster than a horse can run. Its flesh is not kangaroo, 
bad eating, something like coarse mutton. 

Having given you a sketch of the country, I shall leave you to 
form your own opinion of it. At the same time I beg to give 
mine, which is, that it will never answer the intentions of Govern- 
ment, for two reasons : first, because it is at too great a distance 
from every trading country ; and secondly, it will never make any 
return to the mother country, nor can it support itself independent 
of the mother country these twenty years. I could adduce many 
other reasons besides these. 

I shall now say a few words about the internal management of 
affairs in this country. About six months ago only it was for- 
tunately discovered that there was not above eight months' flour in 
the colony. The consequence was that a council was convened, 
and the vSirius ordered to the Cape of Good Hope for a supply of 
that necessary commodity and the rations lessened. It was like- scarcity 
wise judged necessary by his Excellency to order a detachment of "^^^'^■ 
marines and convicts to a place about 14 miles distant to cultivate 
the land, which is thought by those who pretend to understand it 
to be better soil and easier of cultivation than any nearer to us. 
However plausible this may appear, still the detachment is not yet 
gone (a few convicts excepted), and the season so far advanced 
that it is impossible they can raise grain time enough to prevent 
the impending danger in case any accident should happen to the 

An elegant bi-ick house is built for the Governor, and another 
of hewn stone for the Lieut.-Govr. A hospital was began on our i"ents.^^ 
arrival here, and is not yet half-flnished, nor flt to receive an object. 
Two store-houses were bungled up, and are now in a tottering 
condition. Private convenience is the chief study, and I am sorry 
to add that neither order, mode, nor regularity has appeared in any 
department in this colony. About four months since every gentle- 0^^"^°^ 
man had a grant of two acres of land, and a labourer to clear and 
cultivate them. I can assure you that my brother ofticers and 
myself have been at a great deal of trouble and expence to effect 
this, and now, when we were likely to reap the fruit of our labour, 
the men are taken from us to be sent with the detachment above 
mentioned, and I myself am ordered on the same service. We have 
been here between nine and ten months, and we are not as yet all 
hutted. You will hardly believe me when I say that we ourselves 
have been obliged for the want of assistance to cut thatch and 




18 Nov. 

No proper 

by Sir 


3 Jan. 

wattles for our hntts, and now that I have nearly compleated mine 
I must quit it, and willingly obey orders. I have lived in a 
marquee since I arrived here, and am likely to continue it much 
longer. We have labor'd incessantly since we arrived here to 
raise all sorts of vegetables, and even at this distant period we 
can barely suj^ply our tables, his Excellency's not excepted. This, 
together with the miserable state of the natives and scarcity of 
animals, are convincing proofs of the badness of the country. You 
will, no doubt, have a flattering public account, but you may rely 
upon what I have advanced. Every gentleman here, two or three 
excepted, concur with me in opinion, and sincerely wish that the 
expedition may be recalled." 

Note hy Sir Joseph Banks : — N.B. — It would not be prudent to 
rely wholly upon what this gent has advanced, especially in that part 
of his letter that speaks of the quantity of Hour in the colony. The 
public return of provision, dated ISTov'r 16th, 1788, is as follows : — 

Months. Months. 

Beef and pork ... 20 Butter L3 

Flour aud rice ... IS Pease ... ... ... 16 

The Sirius 



The Cape 
Horn route. 


Captain Hunter to Secretary Stephens. 

Sirius, in Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope, 
Sir, 3rd January, 1789. 

His Excellency M. Van de Graave,* Governor of this settle- 
ment, having, upon my arrival here, very politely offer'd an im- 
mediate conveyance to Europe for any dispatches I might have 
to forward, I therefore embrace that opportunity of informing 
my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that, in obedience to 
an order from his Excellency Arthur Phillip, Esq., Governor of 
his Majesty's territory of New South Wales, &c., <tc., a copy of 
which I send enclosed, together with the state and condition of the 
ship,! I sailed from Port Jackson on that coast, in his Majesty's 
ship Sirius, under my command, on the 2nd day of October, 1788 ; 
but Governor Phillip having declined to direct by what rout I 
should perform the voyage, I judged that at that season of the 
year the rout to the eastward, by Caj^e Horn, promised fairest 
for an expeditious passage; I therefore steered for the South Cape 
of New Zealand, which I passed on the 12th, and made the coast 
of Terra del Fuego on the 26th November. The weather off Cape 
Horn, altho' the summer was well advanced, was so exceedingly 
cold, occasioned by the vast mountains of ice which we daily fell 
in with, that the sliip's company, who had been upon salt pro- 
visions ever since we left the Cape of Good Hope outward bound, 
and without any kind of vegitable, fell down very fast with the 
scurvy. I arrived in this bay on the 1st January, 1789, having 
buryed three seamen on the passage. 

* In other despatches the name is given as Von Graaffe. \ The enclosures are not recorded. 


On the clay I sailed from Port Jackson the ship sprung a leak, 1789 
which admitted 2 feet 4 inches water in the four hours, but as 3 jan. 
before my arrival here we had discovered it to be about two or ^ ^^~^ 
three feet below the wale, starboard side, I hope to be able to 
have it stoped before I sail on my return to the coast of New 
South Wales. 

I transmit by this opportunity a box containing dispatches 
from Governor Phillip, directed to Lord Sydney, one of his 
Majesty's Principal Secretarys of State. On the 12th of July 
last four transports* under the command of Lieutenant Shortland Transports, 
sailed from Port Jackson for Europe. They took tlieir route to 
the northward, and might possibly have called at Batavia. They 
have not touched here ; I therefore imagine they may have passed 
on to St. Helena and water'd there on their way home. 

I think it necessary, in case Governor Phillip's dispatches by 
the above transports should not arrive before this may reach the 
Admiralty, to mention for the information of their Lordships 
that the harbour of Port Jackson, which is about 4 leagues to 
the northward of Botany Bay, having been examined and found 
a safe, extensive, and commodious harbour, the Governor had 
fixed the seat of Government there, instead of Botany Bay. Its Botany 
latitude is 33" 50' and its longitude 151° 25' Et. of meridian of ^'''^'''■'*^'* 
Greenwich. The three transports chartered by the East India 
Company for Chinaf were discharged, and left Port Jackson on 
the 6th May last ; two of the store-ships remained when I sailed, 
and would be ready to sail for Europe about three weeks after 
my departure. 

As no part of the service on which I came to this place J is yet 
in any forwardness I cannot give their Lordships any informa- 
tion upon it, but will leave an account of my jjroceedings to be 
forwax-ded fi'om hence after my departure, if no opportunity 
should offer before I sail. I am, &c., 

Jxo. Hunter. 

Captain Hunter to Secretary Stephens. 

Sirius, Table Bay, Cape Good Hope, 
Sir, 20th January, 1789. 20Jan 

Upon my arrival in this bay an opportunity ofFer'd, of 
which I availed myself, and wrote you for the information of tlieir 
Lordships, signifying the service I came here upon, and enclosing 
a copy of my orders from his Excellency Arthur Phillip, Esq. In 
that letter, which was dated the 3rd instant, and goes by way of 
Holland, I mentioned that four of the transports which carried 
out the convicts to the coast of New South AVales had sailed fi-om 
Port Jackson in the middle of July last, under the command of pons.™'"* 

* Alexander, Prince of Wales, Friendship, and Borrowdale. Post, p. 2-'6. 

t Scarboroiigli, Charlotte, and Lady Penrhyn. 

J Hunter was sent to the Cape for supplies. Aute, p. 188. 



20 Jan. 

Ships in 


A transport 

The sick 

Plan of Port 


Lieut. Shortland, the agent of transports, but that they had not 
touched here on their way home. Having since the date of the 
above letter received some accounts of those ships, I judged it 
necessary to trouble their Lordships with such information as I 
had collected, and which has been so particularly told me that I 
have not the smallest doubt of its authenticity. A Dutch East 
India ship arrived here lately from Rio de Janeiro, the officers of 
which inform'd me that two ships arrived there seperately from 
the east coast of New Holland in so very distressed a condition by 
sickness and the death of many of their seamen that it became 
necessary for the boats which boarded them to stay and bring 
their ships to an anchor and to hand their sails. Those two ships, 
from the very particular description given of them, are, no doubt, 
the Prince of Wales and Borrowdale. 

A Dutch frigate arrived here yesterday from Batavia, by the 
officers of which T am informed that Lieutenant 8hortland had 
arrived at that port in the end of November, also in very great 
distress by sickness ; that out of the two ships which were together 
(Alexander and Friendship) they had lost so many of their people 
that it became necessary to destroy one ship to man the other ; the 
crews of Vjoth were put on board the Alexander and the Friendship 
was sunk ; and that the Alexander, when she came into the road 
of Batavia, was so sickly as to require the assistance of other 
ships to hand their sails and secure the ship, but when this frigate 
sailed (13th Decemr.) their sick were recovering fast, and the 
Alexander had been, by the assistance given them from other 
ships, re-fitted and put in a state for sea, so that I think it 
probable Lieutenant Shortland may arrive here before I sail on 
ray return to the coast of New South Wales. 

As Mr. Shortland is charged with Governor Phillip's dispatches, 
duplicates of which I think were on board the Friendship, with 
which are several copys of the plan of Port Jackson, it is not 
probable that their Lordships can be in possession of any sketch 
of that harbour until his arrival. I have, therefore, reduced the 
original scale upon which the harbour was done for the convenience 
of the present conveyance, and send by this opportunity a copy of it. 

I shall not be able to get the service upon which I came here so 
soon executed as I at first expected, chiefly for want of boats. 
Governor Phillip having found it necessary to keep the Sirius's 
long-boat and a smaller boat for the use of the settlement, which 
reduced ovir number to two six-oar'd cutters, and there is much 
difficixlty in getting craft to hire, owing to the great number of 
ships in the bay at this time. I am, tfec, 

Jno. Hunter. 

P.S. — This letter and the sketch of Port Jackson I put under 
the care of Lieut. Chevalier, of his Maj.'s 15th Hanoverian Regt., 
who has promised to deliver them at the Admiralty Office himself. 


Captain Hunter to Secretary Stephens. I'SQ 

Sirius, Table Bay, Cape Good Hope, is Feb. 

Sir, 18th February, 1789. 

I beg you will ])e pleased to inform their Lordships [the 
Lords of the Admiralty] that, having compleated the victualling 
of his Majesty's ship under my command to twelve months, and 
taken on board :\n additional quantity of flour for the use of his 
Majesty's settlement on the coast of New South Wales, I shall 
immediately proceed on my return to that coast. 

On the 20th ult'o I took the opportunity of an oflicer in his 
Majesty's service I'eturning from the East Indies to England to 
write you a few lines for the information of their Lordships, in 
which I mention'd certain accounts Avhich I had received from a 
Dutcli frigate from Batavia, resj^ecting two of the transports Tlie trans- 
which left Port Jackson in July last under the command of P'''^^ 
Lieutenant Shorthand, the agent, who arrived here last night in 
the Alexander, transport, and confirms the intelligence I gave 
their Lordships in that letter, and by whom I^ shall forward this 
to England. 

I have been so fortunate as to stop in a great degree the leak, The Sinus 
which I mentioned in a former letter the ship had sprung on the 
day I left Port Jackson, but as I imagine we shall be subject to 
such accidents frequently from the apparent cause of the last leak 
(holes left by the decay of a bolt and some large spikes which 
fasten'd on the skirting board under the wales) which gave way 
by the working of the ship, I shall request permission from 
Captain Phillip on my arrival at Port Jackson to lighten and To be 
examine the ship as far as I can below the water, for I find by 
the v.-arrant ofiicers, who have been many years in the Sirius, that 
the copper has not been taken off her bottom since she was first 
employed as an arnid store-ship,* which is now between eiglit and 
nine years. 

I have been able since my arrival in this bay, as will appear by Recmiiii-.g. 
the state and condition of the ship enclosed, to compleat the 
slap's company Avith British subjects, who, I am sorry to say, are 
in great numbers here, almost every foreign ship which arrives 
liaving some on l)oar(l. The Supply, arm'd tender, being short of 
complement when I sailed, I have taken on board a certain 
number to compleat her ; but I must beg leave to trouble their 
Lordships with an account of certain difficulties which attend the 
management of this business by taking his Majesty's subjects English 
out of foreign sliips here, wliere there is no consul to settle such f°,^f'"re"„n 
matters. In conse(juence of a letter I received from a number of siiips. 
English seamen serving in a Dutch East India shij^, requesting 
that they might be taken under the protection of his Majesty's 
flag, I made application to the Governor for the men. After some 

' She was then called the Berwi'k. Ante, p. 24. 




1'''89 time and farther application from me, the men were sent to 
18 Feb. prison and treated rather harshly, at which I expressed my 
surprise, and sent an officer to demand their release. The men 
were liberated and brought on board, but as they had wages due 
to a considerable amount, I also made application for that, but 
was told it could not be paid. How far it is recoverable I confess 
myself ignorant, for they have not given security to the people. 
This difficulty in recovering wages will, when generally known 
amongst seamen, be a means probably of disposing them rather 
to remain in the foreign ships than to offer themselves to his 
Majesty's with the certainty of loosing all the pay which may be 
due to them ; and altho' the commanders of King's ships can 
demand British subjects from a foreign service, yet when it is 
against the consent of the men themselves, they fly to tlie 
Subterfuge, subterfuge of calling themselves Americans, which I find is very 
common, and it is very difficult to detect such an imposition. 

I am, <kc., 
Jxo. Hunter. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

20 Feb. 



Major Ross 
and the 

Sydney Cove, February 20th, 1789. 
The present situation of this colony renders it necessary 
to state the following pai'ticulars, and which you will please to 
communicate to the Right Hon'ble the Lord Sydney. 

When on the death of Captain Shea, who died the 2nd of Feb., 
1789, Major Ross, as commandant of the detachment, came to 
inform me of that event, I observed to him that First Lieut. 
George Johnston, then doing duty as my Adjutant of Orders 
(and who was then present), would of course succeed to the capt.- 
lieutcy. whicli then became vacant, as being the oldest first 
lieutenant in the detachment, and that I should in future do with- 
out an adjutant, as there were so few officers. No direct answer 
was given by Major Ross, who left me, and sending for the 
Judge- Advocate offered him the company vacant by the death 
of Capt. Shea, telling him he was directed so to do by Lord 
Howe, and that if he accepted the comy. he was to give up the 
appointment of Judge- Advocate to the detachment. This offer 
being declined, any interference on my part was unnecessary ; 
but as a circumstance of this kind may happen in future, I beg 
leave to observe that if the Judge- Advocate had accepted of the 
company he must have given up the appointment of Judge- 
Advocate to the settlement, for he could not possibly have 
attended to that chai-ge, siipposing he had always remain'd at 
head-quarters, but which could not have been the case, for the 
captains relieve each other every three months at Rose Hill ; 
therefore, if officers who may be sent out in civil employs are at 
liberty to resign the place they hold when any vacancy happens 


in the detachment, the colony, in its present situation, may lose an 1789 
otticer who is immediately necessary, and who, as in the present 20 Feb. 
instance, cannot be replaced ; nor is there any officer in this 
settlement so absolutely necessary as the Judge- Advocate, who 
likewise acts as a Justice of Peace, and which employs a very 
considerable part of his tune. 

When this circumstance is laid before Lord Sydney, I doubt The civu 
not but his Lordship will see that the civil Government of this vursu"tife" 
colony may be very materially atlected by directions of such a military. 
nature being given to the commandant of the detachment, and by 
him carried into execution without the knowledge or consent of 
the Governor, and which I presume never was intended by Lord 
Howe. The tirst information I received of any such offer being 
intended was from the Judge- Advocate's saying that he would 
not accept the offer. 

I was the next day told by Major Ross that he intended to The Go- 
give commissions to the officers he promoted in consequence of MajoTRoss. 
Captn. Shea's death, and some days afterwards he came to ask me 
if his giving his son a commission as a second lieutenant would 
meet with my approbation. As Major Ross had not even at that 
time mentioned his having offer'd the company to the Judge- 
Advocate, or made any reference to me respecting the filling up 
the vacancys, I desired he would excuse me from giving any 
approbation to that appointment in particular. 

Captain Lieut. Meredith as succeeding to the vacant company, New- 
First Lieut. Geo. Johnston succeeding him as capt. -lieutenant. 
Second Lieut. R. Clark succeeding to the first lieutcy., and 
A. J. Ross (who appears in the returns as a volunteer doing duty 
without pay) as being appointed a second lieutenant in the 
detachment, were afterwards presented to me as such by their 
commandant. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Memorandum by Sir Joseph Banks (Banks Papers). 
The following memorandum, written upon a small piece of paper, 
has been found in the Brabourne Collection. The handwriting 
is that of Sir Joseph Banks : — 

Feb. 1789. 
I could not take office and do my duty to . the colony. My gjr Joseph 
successor would naturally oppose my wishes. I prefer, therefore, ^^g^^^^^g 
to be friendly with both sides. 


Sir Joseph Banks to Under Secretary Nepkan. 
Sir, London, 27th April, 1789. 27Ap.-U. 

Concluding that it will be thought a desirable Ol)ject to 
bring home for His Majestie's botaiuc garden at Kew some of 
the many beautifull and usefull Plants with which the Country 




27 April. 




29 April. 

for Port 

Ship to be 
fitted out. 

Wine and 
live stock to 
)ye boujrht. 

to be sent. 

in the neighborhood of Jackson's Bay is known to abound, 1 
beg leave to suggest to you, sir, that if the tafterell of the ship 
Guardian be fitted for the reception of Pots, in the same manner 
as was done in the case of the bounty, and one Line along the 
sides of the Great Cabbin, she will be able, without any incon- 
venience to the officers, to bring home a great number. 

If this plan is approv'd,* I shall be happy to pay all the atten- 
tion in my power to the Execution of it, which, as the Bounty has 
been so lately fitted, cannot be a matter of the least difficulty. 

I have, &c., 
— Jos. Banks. 

Lord Sydney to The Lords of The Admiralty. 

My Lords, Whitehall, 29th April, 1789. 

The letters which have been received from Captain Phillip, 
Governor of New South Wales, representing that a great part of 
the provisions sent out with him to the settlement lately madi' 
upon that coast had been expended, and that there is an imme- 
diate occasion for a further supply, together with certain articles 
of clothing, tools, and implements for agriculture, medicines, (tc, 
for the use of the convicts now at that place, his Majesty has 
given orders that one of his ships of war of tw(^) decks, with only 
her upper tier of guns, shall forthAvith be got ready to carry out 
the said provisions and stores.! 

I inclose to your Lordships hereA\'ith estimates Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 
and 5 1 of the several articles which are supposed to be indis- 
pensably necessary on the present occasion ; and I am commanded 
to signify to your Lordships his Majesty's pleasure that you do 
give orders that the same may be provided and he pvit on board 
of such ships as the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty may 
appoint for the execution of that service. 

I am also to acquaint your Lordships that the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admiralty have been directed to instruct the officer 
commanding the above-mentioned ship to call at Teneriffe, and 
purchase twenty pipes of wine, and also, in case he should touch 
at Rio de Janeiro or the Cape of Good Hope, to take on board as 
many black cattle or other live stock as he can conveniently 
accommodate, for the amount of which he is directed to draw bills 
upon your Lordships, which bills it is his Majesty's pleasure you 
do discharge whenever they appear, provided they are accom- 
panied by proper vouchers and certificates that the articles pur- 
chased shall have been obtained upon moderate terms. 

As there are at present but very few artificers and famiers 
amongst the convicts now in New South Wales, his Majesty has 
thought it adviseable that twenty-five of those confined in the 

* The proposal was carried out in a modified form. Post, p]i. 247-249. 

t The Guardian was chosen, and placed under the commanil of Lieutenant Riou. 

I These enclosures are not recorded. 


hulks in the river wlio ure likely to be the most useful should be 1789 
sent out in the ship inteiuled to convey the pr<jvisions and stores, 29 April, 
and that about eight or ten persons should also be engaged and 
take their passage in the said shiji, to be emj)loyed as ovei'seeis of 
the convicts. These measures, I must inform your Lordshi])s, 
have been strongly recommended by Captain Philli]!, particularly 
the latter, from his having found by experience that the c(jnvicts 
placed as overseers have not been able to enforce their orders and 
carry that connnand which persons in a different situation would 
be likely to do. His Majesty has, therefore, directed me to 
endeavour to engage the above-mentioned number of overseers, overseers, 
and to desire that your Lordships will make provision for their 
Scxlaries (which will not exceed forty pounds per annum each), as 
well as for reimbursing the Naval Department for the expences 
of their victualling, and that of the twenty-five convicts before 
mentioned, during their passage out. 

I understand from Mr. Richards, the contractor for the con- 
victs on board the Lady Juliana, that after the supplies necessary 
for the voyage are put on board there will still be room for any 
article of provisions or stores which may he wanting in New 
South Wales. His Majesty has, therefore, commanded me to 
signify to your Lordships his farther pleasure that you do order 
a proportion of clothing, tools, instruments, medicines, ifcc, equal Clothing-, 
to one-fourth of the quantity proposed to be sent out in the ship instmments, 
of war to be put on board the Lady Juliana, and, in addition medicines, 
thereto, as many provisions as she can conveniently stow. The 
Lady Juliana, in case she should touch at Rio de Janeiro or the 
Cape, ought also to take on board any live stock which can with- ^^.g g^^^.^^ 
out inconvenience he accommodated for the supply of the 
settlement. It will, tlierefore, be necessary that your Lordshijis 
should cause the superintendent or the master of that ship to be 
furnished with j) roper instructions in that respect previously to 
her sailing, which I hope and expect will shortly take place. 

I am, ttc, 


P.S. — I inclose to your Lordships an account of the several 
articles which Governor Phillip informs me he has authorized 
Ca2)tain Hunter to purchase at the Cape of Good Hope, wliicli of purchases ai 
course will occasion a reduction of the supplies (particularly of ^'^o Cape, 
the surgeon's necessaries) to be sent out from hence in the ship 
now under dispatch. 

Secretary Stephens to the Under Secretary of The 

Sir, _ Admiralty, 12th May, 1789. ^'^^'^y- 

Having communicated to my Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty 
your letter of the 27th ulto., signifying the desire of the Board of 


1789 Treasury that their Lordships would recommend a lieutenant of 

12 May. the Navy proper to proceed as a superintendant on board the Lady 

SupeTinten- Juliana, transport, going with convicts to New South Wales, 

dent. under such regulations as it may be thought expedient to adopt, 

I am commanded by their Lordships to recommend Lt. Saml. 

Edwd. Marshall as a proper person for such employment. 

I am. Arc, 

Opinion of Sir Joseph Banks. (Banks Papers.) 

14 May. May 14, 1789. 

As the scurvy with which the settlers in New South Wales were 
afflicted during the first winter of their residence there disappeared 
entirely on the first approach of the spring, as their supply of 
culinary vegetables must be on the increase, and they must by 
Remedy for degrees learn more and more the use of those which are found 
scurvy. -virild in the country, and as the later returns do not mention the 
scurvy as a disease with which they are at all afflicted, I am of 
opinion that it will be useless to send out essence of malt to them 
as a medicine.* 

Sir George Yonge to The Treasury. 
20May. gi^^ "^.0., 20th May, 1789. 

The King, intending that the detachment now serving in 
New South Wales should be relieved and brought to England, 
has thought it advisable, instead of replacing them with another 

New South ^ detachment from that corps, that a corps of infantry should be 
forthwith raised for that particular service, to consist of four 
comp's, each of 1 capt., 1 I't, 1 ensign, 3 serg'ts, 3 corp'ls, 2 drum- 
m'rs, and 67 private men, with the usual stafi' ofF'rs ; and to be 

A major commanded by a major having a comp'y. I am to acq't 3'ou 

mamiant. therewith for the information of the Lords Com'i-s of H.M.'s 
Treasury, and that it is H.M.'s P. [pleasure] that the said corps 
should be placed upon the establishment from the 24th inst. 

Charges. I enclose for their L'd'ps' information an estimate of the charge 

for the said corps for 365 days, as also a state of the subsistence 
p. d'm. 

Recruitinff- H.M. is also pleased to direct that the major and capt'ns shall 
each raise their own comp's, receiving for each approved recruit 
the sum of three guineas, by which arrangement the charge of 
raising 300 men (including the serg'ts, corp'ls, and drum'rs) will 
amount to £945. I am, tkc, 

Geo. Yonge. 

* In Sir Joseph Banks's handwriting, and endorsed by him :— " Opinion given Maj' 13, on 
the subject of sending essence of malt to Jackson's Cove." 









Estimate of the charge of a corps 

of foot 

consisting < 

Df four 

20 Slay. 

companies, for service in Ki 

e\v South Wales 

) .~~~ 


Estimate of 





1 major conimandant and captain 

. . • 

... 293 



3 captains — £171 7s. Id. 

... 514 



4 lieutenants— £79 19s. -td. ... 

... 319 



4 ensigns— £62 16s. 7id. 

... 251 



1 chaplain 

... 114 



1 adjutant 

... 68 



1 quartenuaster... 

... 79 



1 surgeon 

... 68 



1 surgeon's mate 

... 59 



12 Serjeants — £18 5s. 

... 219 

12 corporals— £12 3s. 4d. 

... 146 

8 drummers — £12 3s. 4d. 

... 97 



268 privates— £9 2s. 6d 







... 800 



... 87 



4 captains — each £47 7s. 6d. ... 



Allowances to paymaster 









"W. Raleigh"* to Under Secretary Nepean. 
Sir, Edinburgh, May 23rd, 1789. ^SMaj. 

It is much to the credit of those in office that an empire has a new 
been founded in the south, which time will render much superior ''"^p'''^- 
to that which their predecessors have lost in the west. It is the 
duty of every good citizen to give the new colony every assistance 
his pen or his purse can afford. The following suggestions have 
flowed from the best motives, and I hope they will be received Suggestions. 
■with candour. In looking back to the tottering foundation of the 
colonies of Virginia and New England, I find the first settlers 
were much more unfortunate than the founders of the present 
settlement in New Holland. Indeed, the latter have been in every 
respect successful, a few attempts in husbandry excepted. To give 
the colony immediate consistency, it is humbly recommended that 
the following mode of culture be adopted. 

That the land as soon as cleared be prepared for sowing ; that Directions 
oats or barley be sown in September or October ; that wheat be tlon. 
never attempted except in the very best land ; the second year 
the land be laid down in a green crop, consisting of field-pease 
or turnips ; l)oth these will ameliorate the soil, while the former 
will be found an excellent succedaneum for hay, and the latter 

* This letter, as the last paraffrapli shows, is anonymous. " W. Raleigh" |? Walter 
Raleigh] is a nom de plume. The writer (>ronii><cd to send further communications, but 
nothing more on the subject has been found in the Records. 


23 May. 




An inland 

and hemp. 


Cheap live 


afiord good pasture for sheep and black cattle. Sheep will never 
fail where the turnip is cultivated, and it cannot be cultivated 
with gi'eater success than in Xew Holland. The third year 
it is proposed that it should be sown again, with barley or 
bean, and laid down in clover, rye grass, lucerne, or any other 
European grass. The land in the vicinity of Port Jackson would 
in this manner afford sufficient pasture in a short time for any 
live stock it might be supplied with, while the turnips, the 
peas, and the other intermediate steps of the proposed mode of 
culture would afford present security. The grass in an uncleared 
country we cannot expect to give proper nourishment to sheep 
or cattle. When C*sar landed in Britain he would have found 
the country execrable for farming had he made the experament. 
It may be proper to observe, however, that 'till better grass can 
be procured, by frequent cuttings with the scythe, that the 
natural grass may be much improved and thickened where the 
ground will admit of it. To prepare the best land for wheat, it 
should be ploughed frequently (for the plough must not be excluded 
from New South Wales, if provisions for the colony be expected 
to grow there), manured with the algamarina or sea weed for a 
whole summer, and sown with wheat in March. 

Dampier mentions several heaths in New Holland ; if they can 
be discovered they'll afford good present feeding for sheep ; if 
they cannot, perhaps a detachment settled at the foot of the 
hills, about sixty miles inland from Port Jackson, might be 
benilicially employed in rearing and feeding sheep, while the 
situation might lead to discoveries of moi'e value than we are 
aware of. At that distant situation from the shore they would 
not be molested by the natives, who, living on fish, range chiefly 
along the coast. The cattle should be guarded from straying by 
fences of good strong paling, and the sheep on all occasions well 
herded. The seeds of all the kinds of European grass might be 
sent with the next sailing fleet, and no article can be of greater 
use. Flax seed and hemp seed might be also sent, and might in 
time clothe and employ the new settlers. 

Perhaps it might not be amiss to engage two or three young men 
for a few years, and send them, if found well versed in the secret of 
agi'iculture, to direct or superintend the rural labours of the colony, 
to husband the land, and improve their stock. Their stock might 
be much better increased from Lima and other ports on the western 
coast of South America than from the Cape of Good Hope. It 
might be had cheaper from the Spaniards, and if permission be 
obtained from them to pay in European goods for as much live stock 
as would supply the new colony the saving would be immense. 
The distance is not much greater, and it is much better sailing 
in the Pacific Ocean than in the tempestuous clunate of the Cape. 
Strict orders should be given, however, not to attempt carrying 




any women to Botany Bay from islands in the South Sea ; it would 1789 
be inevitiibly attended with the most pernicious consequences. 23 May. 

To guard the settlement eliectually against the ferocious in- ij^f^^ 
cui-sions of the natives, the following remedy is humbly recom- against 
mended : That a regiment consisting of six hundred men be 
immediately transported thither; that two hundred of them be 
stati(-)ned at Botany Bay, two hundred at Cape Banks or any 
other convenient station to the northward, and a third division 
of ecjual force be posted on some favourable spot at the distance 
of fifteen miles inland, dii-ectly westward of Port Jackson. This 
would leave a wide field for the enterprise and industry of the 
colonists, consisting of an area of almost twenty miles square, Adeai-fieW. 
where they might pursue their labours in perfect serenity, 
without being harrassed by their own fears or by the insidious 
attempts of their ferocious neighbours. To add to the civilized 
population of the country, as well as to the happiness and comfort 
of the troops, every soldier should be allowed and even encouraged soidieis' 
to take with him his wdfe and family. By the best disciplined f^^'^i^'es- 
forces the lines are never so well manned when they have nothing 
at stake which they hold dear to them. 

.Safe in their cares th' auxiliar forces sleep, 
\\'hose wives and infants, from tlie dangers far, 
Discharge their souls of half the care of war. 

The troops should not be relieved in less than seven years. In a seven 
that time a considerable saving might be made in clothing, &c., ^'' 
iiearly ecjual to the expence of transportation. A canvass frock 
and blackstock would form the best uniform for the climate, and 
a part of this by proper management they and their wives might 
manufacture. I need not eidarge on the benefit of stationing a 
large body of troops in New South Wales. Should any disturbance a strong 
(which God forbid) happen in the East Indies, they might be trans- S''i'"'"'*°"- 
ported thither before our enemies in Europe knew anything of the 
matter: but reinforcements fi-om Europe are of little avail, their 
immber becomes known to our rivals, and they despatch troo])s 
equal or superior in number to them. New Holland is a good blind, 
then, when we want to add to the military strength of India. 

These are the first effusions of a series of economical remarks a modest 
on the subject which you will receive in time. I have taken this ''"^^'''*'^''- 
method because I wish to be unknown. I have no motive but 
the public good. No person, not even yourself, shall ever know 
whence this proceeds, and I give my honor not a hint of it shall 
ever transpire. I am, &c., 

W. Raleigh. 

Six'KETARY Stephens to Uxdek Secretary of the Theasurv. 
Sir, Admiralty, 2Gth May, 1789. 23May. 

Lieut. Sanil. Edwd. Marshall having requested to decline Superin- 
the ajjpointment of superintendant to the Lady Juliana, trans- 1';"^*^^"*- 



5 June. 

The officers 
and the 

refuses to 

1789 port, going witli convicts to New South Wales, I am commanded 
26 May. ^J mj Lords Comm'rs of the Adm'ty to acquaint you therewitli, 
and that Lt. Thos. Edgar is a very proper person to be employed 
in his stead. I am, ifec, 


Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

My Lord, Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, 5th June, 1789. 

I am sorry to be under the disagreeable necessity of 
troubling your Lordship with the enclosed papers. 

The letters Nos. 1,* 2,t and 3| I received from the Judge- Advo- 
cate the 26th of April, and Major Ross the next morning brought 
on three letters, which he desired I would read. Two of those letters 
were copys of Nos. 2 and 3 ; the third letter was from Captain Camp- 
bell to Major Ross,§ as commandant of the detachment. It stated 
that as he had always understood there was no power in Major 
Ross to compel the officers to sit as members of the criminal court 
contrary to their own inclination, he desired that his name might 
not in future appear in the orderly-book as a member of that court. 

After having pointed out the authority by which the criminal 
court was established, how much it was the officers' duty to sit as 
members of that court when called on, and the obvious necessity 
of it, I informed Major Ross, as I had done the day I first heard 
of the busyness, that the Judge- Advocate had declared in the 
most solemn manner that he never had intended any oli'ence to 
Captain Campbell by his letter ; and as 1 saw no reason for that 
officer's refusing what was most undoubtedly a part of his duty, 
I desired that he would think seriously of the consequences. The 
precept for assembling a criminal court was ready to be issued 
as soon as the names of the officers were inserted who were 
next for that duty, imd if Captain Campbell should persevere in 
refusing that duty I desired to have his reasons in writing. 
Major Ross soon after brought me a letter, of which No. 4 is a 
copy, 1 1 and as he told me Captain Campbell was fixed in his 
opinion that the sitting as a member of the criminal court was 
no part of his duty, and which he therefore declined, I desired 
that the officer next on the roster for that service might be named 
Ross's view_ in his room ; but Major Ross said that he did not see how that 
could be done, as he believed that I should find the officers in 
general of opinion that the sitting as members of the criminal 
court was not a duty to which they were obliged to submit, but 
a service in which they had volunteered it, and added " that he 
knew of no articles of war to compel them." 

I had been given to understand, soon after the commission for 
establishing the crimmal court had been read, that the officers 
thought it a very disagreeable duty, and that it was looked on as 
a hardship by some ; but 1 never had supposed officers thought it 
a service which they were at liberty to decline at their pleasure, 

*Post, p. 240. t Post, p. 241. } Post, p. 241. § Post, p. 242. || Post, p. 242. 

A breach of 


and I observed to Mcajor Ross that I could hardly believe it ^''^^ 
possible that such an opinion was general, but which would be 5 June. 
known, as the precept for assembling the court shoukl be issued. ^ disajciee- 
At the same time, being desirous to restore tranquillity, if pos- '^^^^ «i"'y- 
sible, 1 consented to the demand then made by Major lloss that 
a court of inquiry might be ordered to give an opinion on the Judge- Court of 
Advocate's letter before the precept was issued, and after having pio"ounce 
pointed out the consequences that must follow the officers refusing °"*^® 
what was so necessary a part of their duty, and being declared Advocate's 
such by an Act of Parliament, required no articles of war or letter. 
particular instructions to the commandant of the detachment, I 
assured him that while there were ten men in ye detacliment 
officers should not be wanting to form a criminal court. 

A reference to the officers who had composed the court at 
which the woman in question had been a witness was afterwards 
proposed, but those officers desired to decline any interference ; 
and the court of inquuy, when assembled, declared, as appears in 
their report No. 5,* that they did not think themselves to be 
competent to give an opinion on a private dispute, which appeared ^.P°^'?* 
to them to involve in itself a point of law. 

It may be necessary to inform your Lordship of the manner of Constitution 
assembling the criminal courts. Those assembled on our first courts, 
landing were composed of the senior officers of the detachment 
and of the Navy, the first court being given out in general orders, 
after which a roster was kept for that service by the adjutant of 
the detachment ; and when it was necessary to assemble a court the 
Judge- Advocate sent to the adjutant for the names of the officers 
next for that duty, whose names being inserted, and the precept 
signed and sealed by me, is then shewn to the different officers who 
are to compose the court, Vjy the provost-martial, and which is always 
done one or two days before the court is to meet, the battalion 
orders of the day pointing out the officers of the detachment who 
are for that duty.f 

Since landing fifteen criminal courts have been assembled, and 
on any particular occasion, as when the six marines were tried for 
robbing the stores, the senior officers in the detachment composed ^^j!°j!'^ 
the court. 

The court of inquiry which was ordered to meet on the Judge- Findinsof 
Advocate's letter, having reported that they did not think them- fiKiuiry. 
selves competent to judge on the matter laid before them, that court 
was dissolved, and Major Ross came to inform me that Captain 
Campbell would protest against the report, which he said was a par- 
tial report, in stating that the matter before them was of a private 

* Post, p. 243. 

t Tn a despatch to the Admiralty of the same date, Phillip says: "The senior otlicers 
of the Navy have always been called on wlien in the harhour." As tlie despatch, with this 
exception, is identical with the one sent to Lord Sydney, it is nut published with the 



5 June 




quences of 
refasal to 

their duty 

A volunteer 
member of 
the court. 

accused of 

nature, and desired that the request made by the members of that 
court for copies of the letters hxid before them might not be granted. 

Captain Campbell afterwards declined making any protest 
against the proceedings of the court of inquiry, and copies of the 
letters wliich they thought necessary, in order to justify their 
proceedings to the Admiralty, were given them. 

The adjutant of the detachment had my orders to give the 
Judge- Advocate, as usual, the names of the officers who were next 
for the duty of the criminal court, as soon as the court of inquiry 
had made their report, but he then came to inform me that Major 
Ross did not choose to let him give the names of the officers at the 
Judge-Advocate's request, and desired that it might appear in 
general orders, or that a verbal message might be sent him from 
me. The message was sent, and in the names given to the Judge- 
Advocate, Capt. Campbell's appear'd, and he sat the next day as 
a member of the criminal court. I had sent for several of the 
officers before the court met, in order to point out to them the 
consequences which would follow their refusal of so essential a part 
of their duty, and the officers I saw on that occasion assured me 
that they had never doubted its being a part of their duty, after 
they heard the Act of Parliament and the commission read, which 
established that court, but Major Ross, afterwards, on the 6th of 
May, telling me that he was still of opinion that many of the 
officers did not think the sitting as members of the Criminal Court 
any part of their duty, I desired that Major Ross would assemble 
the officers, that their separate opinions might be taken on that 
head. By the report No. G,* which is inclosed, it appears that 
all the officers thought i1 a part of their duty, and Capt. -Lieut. 
Merridith and Lieut. Timmins, then absent from head-quarters, 
have since declared the same. 

As no legal inquiry into the conduct of any officers can be 
made here, and Capt. Campbell was the only officer that could be 
called on to sit as a member of the criminal court who did not 
think it a part of his duty, I judged it best, for the quiet of the 
settlement, to let him sit as a volunteer when his name was 
returned, and here I hoped that affair would have rested for the 
present, for tho' officers had, Avhen I sent for them to point out to 
them the necessity of obeying the precept, mentioned their com- 
mandant's having heard their opinions, I did not choose to ask 
any questions as to what might have passed between them and 
their commandant ; bvit being some time after informed that the 
officers had been assembled, and the Governor's conduct in 
calling on Captain Campbell to sit as a member of the criminal 
court had been stated to them by Major Ross as oppressive, and 
that endeavours had been used to induce them to join in Captain 
Camp])eirs opinion that the criminal court was not a part of 
their duty, 1 then thought it necessary to inquire what grounds 

Post, p. 244. 


there were fur such a report, and the first officer I spoke to on ^®^ 
that subject, doulitinif of the pi-opriety of saying what pass'd at a 5 J^'"*-'. 
meeting to wliioh the otticers had been call'd l)y their com- 
mandant, I dii'ected tlie Judge- Advocate to send for some of the 
senior officers then in quarters, and to ask them the necessary The officers 
questions ; and the adjutant, who liad assemljled the officers and ^^'^^ '°"^ 
attended the meeting, was afterwards sent for. By the answers 
given by those five officers it ai^jDcars that all the officers at head- 
(juartors were call'd together on tlie 27th of April, after Major 
I loss had brought me Cajit. Campljell's refusal to attend the duty 
of the cl. court, and that the tenor of Major Ross's discourse Ross's 
appear'd calculated to induce them to join Capt. Campbell in and"op?nion 
declining the duty of the criminal courts, saying that he had told 
the Governor that both he and the officers at large considered 
that service as what they had volunteer'd, not as a duty ; that 
the Governor's conduct in calling on Capt. Campbell or on officers 
for that service was oppressive, and that he thought it hard 
officers should be obliged to sit as members of the criminal court, 
and oppressive to the highest degree. 

The consequences which must have followed had the officers in unsettled *^^ 
general been of that opinion will be obvious to your Lordship ; 
but as no legal inquiry could be made respecting the conduct of 
the officer to whom, as the Lieutenant-Governor and commandant 
of the detachment, I was naturally to look for support, and from 
whom the situation of this colony at the time call'd for an address 
of a very difTerent nature, I did not think it proper to direct any 
more officers to be sent for on that subject, unless Major Ross 
should desire it, when the officers informed him they had been 
examined respecting that meeting, and which they did as soon as 
they left the Judge-Advocate ; and being asked what questions 
had been put to them, they desired to refer him to the Governor 
for the questions and their answers; but Major Ross has never 
mentioned that lousiness to me, and I have therefore thought it 
best to let it rest in its present state. 

The answers given by the officers, and to which they sign'd 
their names, are inclosed. No. 7*; and I have now, my Lord, only to 
rej)eat my regret at being obliged to lay a business of this kind 
l)efore your Lordship, but which the service and the situation of 
this colony renders unavoidable ; and as the discontents in the f^fficcrsdis 

111-11 1 !• c contented. 

<letaclnnent, whicli liave been represented in my former letters, 
still continue, and into which I have not authority to make a legal 
inquiry, I can only inform your Lorxlship that those discontents, 
whicli have existed from the time this detachment landed, still 
continue.! I have, (tc, A. Phillip. 

* Post, p. 245. 
t Lord Gronville, who had succeeded Lord Sydney at the Homo Office when this despatch 
reached EM},'laiid, referred to the law ollicors of the Crown the question as to wliether the 
marine officers could lawfully refuse to sit as niendiers of the criminal court. The opinion 
!,'iven was that the officers were hound to act if called upon. Post, pp. 402--JG3 




25 Api-n. 

Charge of 

An untruth- 
ful witness. 


ground for 




Collins and 

[Enclosure No. 1.] 
Judge-Advocate Collins to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, Sydney Cove, 25th April, 1789. 

Having this day received a message from Captain Campbell 
respecting Mary Turner, one of the evidences on the late trial of 
the soldiers for robbing the store-house, I beg leave to lay before 
your Excellency the following particulars of that affair. 

It appearing to the members of the court, as well as to myself, 
on the examination of the said Mary Turner, that she had not 
sworn the truth in giving her testimony, on her being told to with- 
draw, the provost-martial was ordered to detain and keep her 
apart from the other witnesses. The conviction and condemnation 
of the six prisoners very shortly followed, and the court was 

On maturely weighing and considering the whole of Mary 
Turner's deposition, and comparing it with those of the other wit- 
nesses, since the trial, I was of opinion there was not sufficient proof 
to affect [convict ?] her on an indictment for perjury • and as I have 
always wished to avoid lightly grounding a prosecution against the 
convicts, from the bad effect it might have, in pointing out to them 
how far they might offend, if they could but withhold sufficient 
proof, I had dropped for the present any thoughts of calling on 
Mary Turner for trial. Neither have I at any time, since then, 
heard it was the opinion or wish of any member of that court to 
bring her to trial, until this morning, when I was informed by 
the provost-martial that Captain Campbell, one of the members 
of the late court, had inquired of him if she was in his custody, 
and expressed some surprize and anger on being told she was 
not. As to this latter circumstance, I must observe to your 
Excellency, that, having no place of confinement or custody for 
female offenders, they have been always suffered to go at large 
until wanted for trial. 

In consequence of the above message, I wrote to Captain Camp- 
bell a letter, wherein I informed him that " I did not think 
myself there was proof sufficient to bring her to trial, either for 
perjury or as an accessary ; but, nevertheless, if he was of a 
different opinion, and would let me know what charge should be 
exhibited, it should be done " — for as I did not myself know of 
any proof sufficient to establish a charge against her, I was not 
certain but Captain Campbell might be informed of some that I 
was not acquainted with. I beg leave to trouble your Excellency 
with a copy of my letter, and of Captain Campbell's reply, which 
I received this afternoon ; and have now only to add, that though 
I think the conviction of her being guilty of perjury may be clear 
in the breast and opinion of every individual of the last court, 
yet still there is not sufficient proof of it to convict her in the eye 


of the law ; nevertheless, as Captain Campbell considers her as a 1789 
prisoner by order of the late court, and thinks she ought to be 25 Ainii. 
delivered by a due course of law, I propose to bring her before The wiuiess 
the court that is to assemble in the next week, and try her on a to i^e tried. 
charge of wilful and corrupt perjui'y at the late trial. 

I have, (fee, 

David Collins. 
[Enclosure No. 2.] 

Judge-Advocate Collins to Captain Campbell. 

Sir, Sydney Cove, 25th April, 1789. 

I understand l)y the provost-martial, who has just been 
with me, that you imagined Mary Turner was in custody ; I have Mary 
to acquaint you that Mary Turner is forthcoming at any time '^"''^'• 
she may be wanted, but that I myself have at present no thoughts 
of calling on her, as I do not think, on mature consideration, 
there would be sutHcient proof to affect [convict?] her either as an 
accessary in the late business or for perjury at the trial. How- 
ever, if you ai^e of a different opinion, and wish to have her tried, 
she may be brought before the criminal court that is to assemble 
on Tuesday or Wednesday next ; in such case I should wish to 
have timely notice of the charge to be exhibited against her, and Notice of 
what witnesses are to be called to support it, that the necessary charge, 
steps may be taken. I have, &c., 

David Collins. 
[Enclosure No. 3.] 

Captain Campbell to Judge-Advocate Collins.' 
Sir, Sydney Cove, 25th April, 1789. 

In answer to your letter of this day I have to say that 
I perfectly well remember, at the last criminal court held in this 
island, when Mary Turner was ordered to withdraw from the court 
she was by yourself ordered into the custody of the provost. I do Arrest 
not by this mean to say that it was entirely an act of your own, ordered, 
for myself among others desired it might be so, as we then apjjeared 
to be unanimously of opinion that she was a very proper object to 
make an example of. 

When the provost informed you this morning of my having 
desired him to speak to you about the woman he should have 
likewise informed y(ju that I had innnediately after the above was 
dissolved, and on my seeing the woman at liberty, desired him to 
make my compliments to you, and to know from you whether he „„ , 
had not misunderstood the orders you gave him in court — to take the order 
her into his custody, as I had myself been one of the members "*° '^^'^^ ' 
who desired it — nor could I till this morning possibly account for 
not having been acquainted with your opinion. 

Having this morning by accident heard that a criminal court 
Would be assembled the beginning of next week, I judged it a \ 





25 April, 

The Judge- 


discharge of a part of my duty to the publick to know what was 
to be done with Mary Turner, sensible that no power on this 
island could liberate her till she had undergone a trial. 

I therefore sent for the provost, who, to my great surprise, 
had the assurance to tell me that he never delivered my message 
to you, upon which I ordered him to go and do it without loss 
of time. 

Now, sir, you have the cause of your being troubled with any 
message from me this morning. How far such a message might 
authorize you to call upon me as a prosecutor I know not, nor 
shall I at present comment ujDon it. One point you have certainly 
gained by it, that you have effectually precluded Captain Campbell 
from sitting as a member of any criminal court that it may be 
necessary to assemble here, and of Avhich you are a part. 

As this business may undergo future investigation I beg leave 
to recommend it to you to keep copies of such letters as you 
may choose to write upon the occasion, as I assure you I shall of 
mine. I at the same time think it proper to inform you that 
this is the only letter you will receive vipon this subject from 

Sir, (fee, 

James Campbell. 
[Enclosvu'e Xo. 4.] 

Captain Campbell to Major Ross. 

Sir, Syclney Cove, 27th April, 1789. 

As I have always understood that you are not in possession 
of any power to compel the officers of the detachment under your 
command to sit as members of the criminal court established in 
this colony contrary to their own inclinations, I have to request 
that you will please to direct the adjutant so as that my name 
may not for the future appear in your orderly book as a member 
of that court, as I shall be extremely concerned to be recU^ced to 
the very disagreeable necessity of objecting to any order of yours, 
or any other my superior in command. 

I am sensible it may be said of me that I have hitherto 
volunteered or acquiesced in being in my turn a member of that 
court, from my being likewise sensible that in the present situation 
of this colony such power could not, with any degree of propriety, 
be vested in any othei- hands l)ut that of the Navy and Army. I 
have farther to say that I would still continue the same line of 
conduct did I think it consistent with either my character as a 
gentleman or my feelings as a man. 

You were yourself an ear-witness of the message sent by me 

by the provost to the Judge- Advocate on the 25th instant, to 

which message I very soon after received the inclosed (in my 

An insulting opinion) most insulting letter.* I had ever been taught to under- 

* Ante, p. 241. 

27 April. 



to sit 



stand that the person officiating in his character at such courts l''^^ 
was tlip j^erson to carry on the prosecution. How far, or even ^TAinil. 
how it was possible for hiiu to construe my message into a beHef 
that I was become the prosecutor, I know not, nor can I possibly Not a 
imagine why he should call upon me individuaUy for that purpose, prosecutor. 
as in his letter he certainly does, unless that he had some reason 
to suppose me of a more sanguinary and persecuting spirit than 
any other member of the court who wished the woman to be 
taken into custody for her having (evidently to all then 
perjured herself. The consequence of not using every possible 
means to prevent so dangerous a crime from getting to a head A dangerous 
among the present inhabitants of this colony is too obvious to '^'""*^' 
require any farther remarks upon it, and I am convinced that the 
wish of exerting every means in their power to prevent it Avas 
the motive of that court for desiring the woman to be taken into 

With the Judge- Advocate's letter I take the liberty of inclosing Appeal to 
for your perusal the copy of my answer to him, with the humble ^'^'i^'P- 
request that you will please to communicate the whole to the 
Governor, to the end that he may be convinced that I never had, 
nor ever will have, a wish or desire of impeding the publick 
service, and I have no doubt but that both him and you will do 
me the justice to say that I have used every means ever put in 
my power to promote it. 

As I have no copy of any of the papers now sent to you, I request 
that you will please not to part with any of them unknown to me 
or without my consent. 

I have, (tc, 

James Campbell. 

[Enclosure No. 5.] 

Marine Officers to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, Port Jackson, 28th April, 1789. Apni. 

Agreeable to the general and battalion orders of this 
morning, we the following officers, 1st Lieut. John Poulden, 1st The court of 
Lieut. John Johnstone, and 1st Lieut. James Maitld. 8hairp, >ni""T- 
met in Captain Campbell's hut at eleven o'clock, and after read- 
ing the letters produced in court, came to the following resolutions, 
viz. : — The officei's commanding [constituting] the court, uprtn hav- 
ing read and considered the letters which passed in the business 
now before them, are of opinion that as the business involves in 
itself a point of law and a pi-ivate disagreement, they feel them- 
selves incompetent to decide upon it — and they further l)eg of your No decision. 
Excellency that copies of all the letters which have passed may be 
given to them (in case of their being at any time hereafter called 
upo'i) for the purpose of being inclosed and sent to the Lords of the 




Ackaii'alty, which they thiiik necessary in order to con%'ince their 
Lordships of theii- incompetency to decide on an affaii" of such a 
nature. AVe have, &c., 

John Poulden. 

6 Mav. 

Officers as 
members of 

to Ross's 


G. Johnston. 




J. .Johnstone 

J. M. 




head-quai*tei-s : — 
inal court as a 
with an Act of 

[Enclosure Xo. 6.] 
Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

Marine Quarters, May 6th, 1789. 
In compliance with your Excellency's command of tliis 
day's date, signihed to me by the adjutant, I convened the 
oflicei'S of the detachment, and put the questions directed by 
your Excellency, and receiAed their answers, as follows, viz. : — 
" The Governor requests that Major Ross will assemble the officeis 
of the detachment now at head-quarters, and report to him 
their separate opinions, ' whether or not they think it their 
duty to sit as members of the cr imin al court estabhshed m this 
country.' This the Governor desires, as Major Ross, their com- 
mandant, is of opinion they do not thixLk it a part of their duty. 
Captain Campbell having already given his opinion, the GoA'ernor 
does not wish to press him further on that head. ' 

Major Ross's question to the officers of the detachment at 
-" "\i\'hether they look upon sitting at the crim- 
military duty, or an exti'a duty in compKance 
Parliament, and whether they had any know- 
ledge of it before theii' arrival in this country V 

Answer by Captain-Lieut. Tench : — I had no knowledge of the 
Act of Parliament pre\"ious to my arrival in this country ; from 
the moment I read it I look'd on it as Captain Tench's duty to sit 
on ci'iminal courts whenever ordered, and still look on it as such. 

Answer by Captain-Lieut. Johnston : — Smce I saw the Act of 
Parliament I have always thought it my duty to sit on criminal 
courts when ordered. 

Answer by Lieutenant Creswell : — I had never seen the Act 
of Pai'hament in England, but from the time I saw it I conceived 
it to be a paii; of my duty to sit on ciiminal courts when ordered, 
and not an extra duty, while I remain in this country. 

Answer by Lieutenant and Quarter-master Furzer : — I knew 
nothing of the Act of Parliament before I came to this country, 
but since I had a knowledge of it I always conceived it to be a 
part of my duty to sit on criminal courts when ordered. 

Answer by Lieutenant Poulden : — Since I saw the Act of Par- 
liament I have always thought it my duty to sit on criminal 
courts when ordered. 

Answer by Lieut. J. Johnstone : — I saw the Act of Parliament 
before I left England, and always conceived it to be a part of my 
dutv lij sit on criminal coui'ts when ordered. 


Answer by Lieut. J. M. Shaii-p : — I saw the Act of Parliament 1789 
before I left England, and always conceived it to be a part of my 6 May. 
duty to sit on criminal courts when ordered, during the time of shairp" 
my remaining in this country. 

Answer by Lieut. Da^•ey : — I had not any knowledge of the Davey. 
Act of Parliament until I came into this country, Ijut since that 
time I have ever conceived it to be a part of my duty to sit on 
criminal courts when ordered. 

Answer by Lieut. Clarke : — I had not any knowledge of the Clarke. 
Act of Parliament until I came into this country, but from the 
inoment I read it I considered it as a part of my duty to sit on 
ci'iminal courts when ordered, while I remain in this countrv. 

An.swer by Lieut. Dawes : — I knew nothing of the Act of Par- Dawes. 
1 lament till I heard it read in this countiy, and from that time I 
considered it my duty to sit on criminal courts when ordered. 

Answer by Lieut, and Adjutant Long : — I knew nothing of the Long. 
Act of Parliament when I left England, but since I heard it read 
in this country have considered it as a part of my duty to sit on 
criminal courts when ordered. 

Answer by Lieutenant Faddy : — I knew nothing of the Act of Faddy. 
Parliament till I heard it read in this countiy ; since that time I 
have always thought it my duty to sit on criminal courts when 
ordered. " R.R., Major. 

[Enclosure Xo. 7.] 
Ckimixal Court. — Questions to Officers. 

Sydney Cove, 28th May, 1789. 28 May. 

It having been reported that the major-commandant of the detach- 
ment did, in the presence of many of the officers, declare that the 
Governor's calling on Captain James Campbell to sit as a member 
of the criminal court, established by Act of Parliament for the 
trial of criminal causes in this country, was oppressive, and that An oppres- 
the said major-commandant did publiekly address the officers then Major*Ross^ 
present in order to induce them to concur with Captain Campbell aciion. 
in refusing to acknowledge the duty of the criminal court to be 
any part of the officers' duty, and to persuade them to refuse sit- 
ting as membei's of the said criminal court, I am, in consequence 
of the said report, desired by the Governor to call upon such 
officers of the detachment who were present at that meeting, and 
to put the following questions to them, in order that it may be 
known how far the said report is founded in truth. 

Question 1 : — Was there such a meeting, and what reason was Questions 
assigned by the major-commandant of the detachment for assemb- ^° oncers, 
ling the officers ? 

Question 2 : — Did the major-commandant at that meeting say 
that the Governor's conduct in calling on Capt. Campbell to sit in 
his turn as a member of the criminal court was oppressive ? 




23 May. 

Answers ; 



Question 3 : — Did he ask the officers to join Capt. Campbell in 
refusing to sit as a member of that court, or what was said on 
that subject 1 

Answer to question 1, by Captain-Lt. Tench : — The meeting 
was held on Monday, the 27th of April, by order of the major- 
commandant. The reason he assigned for such meeting was to 
repeat a conversation he had had with the Governor, to lay before 
them a letter he had received on service from Capt. Campbell in 
consequence of a correspondence he had had with the Judge- 
Advocate, and to read the letters Avhich had j^assed between them, 
all of which were read to the officers by the adjutant. 

Answer to question 2 : — To the best of my recollection the 
major-commandant said he had told the Governor that his con- 
duct respecting Capt. Campbell was oppressive, and that officei's 
were not to be driven in cases where they did not feel themselves 
at ease to act, they were not to be compelled. I recollect that 
the major made use twice of the word "oppressive" in speaking 
of the Governor's conduct. 

Answer to question 3 : — He did not ask the officers to join 
Capt. Campbell in refusing to sit as members of the criminal 
court, but it is my opinion that the whole tenor of Major Ross's 
conversation pointed that way. My reason for thinking so is 
that Major Ross more than once mentioned to the officers 
assembled that he had told the Governor that both he and the 
officers at large considered the sitting as members of the criminal 
courts as ■\^'hat they volunteered, not as a duty. 

AVatkin Tench, 

Captain-Lt. of Marines. 

Answer to question 1, by Lieut. Creswell : — There was such a 
meeting, and the reason assigned was to read the letters that had 
passed between the Judge- Advocate and Capt. Campbell, and to 
mention a conversation he had had with the Governor, and to 
say that the adjutant had a question to put to the officers who 
composed the last criminal court. 

Answer to question 2 : — I cannot say that the major-comman- 
dant said that the Governor's conduct was oppressive in calling 
on CsLTpt. Campbell, but I vinderstood him that he had told the 
Governor so, and that officers were not to be driven, or words to 
that effect. 

Answer to question 3 : — He did not ask such a question ; but 

as far as opinion goes, the tenor of his conversation seemed to 

lead towards getting officers to be of Captain Campbell's opinion. 

But this is merely opinion. x r^ 

•^ ^ John Creswell. 

Answer to question 1, by Capt.-Lt. Johnston : — There was such 
a meeting. The reason assigned was to lay before them the cor- 
I'espondence between the Judge-Advocate and Captain Campbell. 


Answer to question 2 : — The officers in speuking alxjut the duty 1739 
of the criminal court, one of them said it was, though an un- 23 May. 
pleasai\t duty, yet certainly a part of their duty ; Major Ross 
replied it was an oppressive duty. 

Answer to question 3 : — I do not recollect that the major asked 
the officers to join in refusing with Captain Campbell to sit as 
members of the criminal court, but recollect his saying that officers 
were not to be driven, and believe he wished them to concur with 
Capt. Campbell's refusal. ^^^^^^ Johnston. 

Answer to question 1, by Lieut. Poulden : — There was such a Poulden. 
jneeting, and the reason assigned was to lay before it the letters 
from the Judge- Advocate and Captain Campbell. 

Answer to question 2 : — I do not recollect that the word 
"oppressive" was applied particularly to Capt. Camjobell being 
ordered to sit at that court, but that it was meant, generally 
speaking, of that duty. 

Answer to question 3 : — I do not recollect that the major asked 
the officers to concur with Captain Campbell in refusing to sit at 

^^'""^ '^•^^^•^- John Poulden. 

QuestioiT to Lt. Long, adjutant of the detachment : — Did you Long-, 
assemble the officers of the detachment by direction of the major- 
commandant on Monday, the 27 th of April 1 

Answer : — I did. 

Question : — Was anything said at that meeting by the major- 
commandant that, in your opinion, tended to induce the officers 
present to decline sitting in future as members of the criminal 
court ? 

Answer : — Major Ross, when speaking of the duty, and on 
being reminded that there was an Act of Parliament for it, said 
that he not only thought it hard that officei's should be obliged to 
sit as members of the criminal court, but oppressive in the highest 
degree. John Long, 

Lieut, and Adjt. Marines. 

Taken and subscribed before me, — David Collins. 

Sir Joseph Banks to The Rt. Hon. "VV. W. Grenville.* 
Dear Sir, Soho Square, June 7, 1789. 7juuc. 

In consequence of conversations held with yourself and 
other gentlemen in various departments of Government, in which 
it seemed fully agreed that it would be proper to send to the colony 
in New South Wales such trees and plants as are usefull in food or 
physic, and cannot conveniently be propagated by seed in potts of pfants'^for 

the colony. 
* William Wyndhain Grenville (afterwards Lord Gren^ ille). He succeeded Lord Sydney 
at the Home Office, f^lh June, 17W). He was raiwed to the Peerage, 25th Noveiidter, ITiK). 
The letter from Sir Josejih Banks is not official, but it was laid before the King and the 
Lords of the Admiralty, and was acted upon. 



23 May. 

A crowded 

A plant- 
" coach.' 


may be 

earth, I visited the Guardian, now under order.s for New South 
Wales, on Friday last, in order to consider of the most commodious 
method of carrying that project into execution. 

I found that her cabbin had been divided into births for the 
various officers, and that the part left for the commander was not 
large enough, even if he were to submit to great inconvenience, to 
answer the pui'pose effectually, and that the rest of the ship was 
equaly crowded by the variety of stores, &c., destined for her freight. 

Finding myself in consequence of this reduced to the necessity 
of proposing the building of an apartment for the sole purpose of 
carrying the plants and the person allotted to take care of them, I 
proceeded to the quarter-deck abaft, and with the assistance of the 
builder of the yard and the master of the ship I caused the form 
of a small coach to be chalked out upon the deck in such a 
manner as they both agreed would not be at all in the way of 
working the ship. 

It is li^ feet long, 12| broad forward, and 11 1 aft, and i.s in- 
tended to be only 5 feet high, in which case it is concluded both 
by the builder and the master that it will not in any degree impede 
the sailing of the ship. 

The master builder informs me that in seven or eight days such a 
coach may be compleated. I explained to him the mode in which 
I proposed to have the pots and the superintendant who is to 
have the charge of them stowed in it, the practicability of which 
met with his full assent. 

If it is intended that such an erection should be made I will 
most willingly attend at Woolwich and finish the planning of it. 

Not having heard anything from the lieut. -commander on the 
subject, I wrote to him a full account of the plan, and left the 
letter for him at Woolwich. I conclude he has no objection, 
but if he has I shall willingly alter it as far as I possiby can, con- 
sistent with the main object, till it meets with his approbation. 

Yours, cfec, 
Jos. Banks. 


Trees and 

plants for 



The Right Hon. W. W. Grexville to The Lords of The 

My Lords, Whitehall, 8th June, 1789. 

Having laid before the King a letter from Sir Jos'h Banks, 
proposing that a small coach may be erected on the quarter-deck 
of the Guardian, for the purpose of conveying to Port Jackson, 
in pots of earth, such trees and plants as will be useful in food or 
2:)hysic, and cannot conveniently be propagated by seed, and foi" 
bringing from thence any useful productions, I have the honor 
of transmitting to your LordshijDS a copy of the said letter, and 
I am commanded to signify to your Lordships his Majesty's 
pleasure that in case any material objection should not be likely 


to arise from the placing of such an appartment as Sir Joseph has 1''89 
suggested, that you do give orders that it may be immediately s June, 
erected, and that the commanding officer may be instructed to 
deposit therein any such trees or plants as may be sent on board, 
either here or in New South Wales, for the purposes before 

Amongst the superintendents of convicts who are to be sent out Gardeners 
in the Guardian there will be one or two gardeners, to whom the ^^^,^^1 
charge of the trees and plants should be committed ; and as these 
people are not to i^eturn in the ship, it will be very desirable that 
the commander should be authorized to appoint one of the crew 
to assist them in that business, who will thereby be the better 
quaUfied for attending to the care of the trees and plants Avhich 
it is expected will be sent home from New South Wales in that ship. 

I am, itc, 
W. W. Grenville. 

Sir George Yonge to Major Grose. 
Sir, W.O., 8th June, 1789. 

I have the honor to acquaint you the King has been n.s.w. 
pleased to oi'der that a corps shall be forthwith raised iinder your Corps, 
command for H.M.'s sei-vice abroad, with the particular* view of 
beins stationed in the settlement of New South Wales. The 
corps is to consist of four companies, and each company of 1 
captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 3 Serjeants, 3 corporals, 2 drum- 
mers, mth 67 private men. It is to be under your command Grose to 
as major, with the command of a company, and to have 1 '^°"^'^^''" 
adjutant, 1 qr.-mr., 1 chaplain, 1 surgeon, and 1 surgeon's mate. 
The pay of the officers is to commence from the dates of their 
commissions, which will take date from the Beating Order, but 
are not to be Lssued until the corps shall have been reviewed and 
established, and the pay of the non-commissioned officers and 
private men from the dates of their respective attestations. It is 
to be clearly understood that none of the officers who shall 
obtain appointments in your corps are to expect leave to dispose 
of their present commissions, but they will be considered as Commis- 
purchasers in the new corps. In case the corps shall be reduced ^'°"^' 
after it has been once established the officers will be entitled to 
half-pay. Yourself and the three captains now to- be appointed Half-pay. 
by H. M. will each be required to raise a complete company 
(viz., 3 Serjeants, 3 corporals, 2 druiumers, and 67 private men), 
in aid of the expenses of which you will be allowed to name the 
lieutenant and ensign of your respective companies, and to receive 
from the pulilic three guineas for every recruit approved at the Recmiiing- 
head-quarters of the coi-jis by a general or field officer appointed "'""'^J- 
for that purpose. The lieutenants are to be selected from the 
rank of ensigns ; the ensigns not to he under sixteen years of 


1789 age ; no recruit to be enlisted under five feet four inches and 

8 June, a half in height, nor under sixteen nor above thirty years of age. 

staturT The names of the captains shall be communicated to you with 

and age. as little delay as possible. Iia the meantime, I am to acquaint 

you that H.M. is pleased to leave to you the nomination of the 

Officeraand adjutant and quar.-mar., as also of the chaplain, who must 

chaplain positively engage to embark with the corps, and to remain with it 

while abroad, and of whose character I shall expect to be furnished 

with proper certificates before I propose his appointment to his 

Majesty. Mr. Adair, Surgeon-general to the Army, will be 

directed to look out for pi-oper persons for the appointment of 

surgeon and surgeon's mate. I am to add that it being required 

Immediate that the corps shall be instantly raised and approved, after being 

ac ion. reviewed by the 1st of October next, every exertion on your 

part and of that of the ofticers of your corps will be necessary 

that H. M.'s expectations on this head may not be disappointed. 

I am, &c., 
■ Geo. Yoxge. 

Proposals to Government by Major Grose. 
Grose's offer. gnouLD I be promoted to the rank of It. -colonel, I will, without 
expence to Government, raise both tlie companies, reserving to 
myself the nomination of the captain and subaltemi officers, 
should it be thought expedient to add only a major to the corps 
without permitting me to succeed to any additional rank, I will 
raise the companies on conditions of receiving the levy money, 
nominating the captain and subaltern oflicers, and receiving from 
the captain appointed to a majority five hundred pounds. 

I shall have no objection to raise the recruits on Government's 
account, charging exactly whatever it costs to procure them, and 
I will exert my utmost to recruit them at as little expence as 
possible, and with as much expedition as is in my power. 

Frans. Grose, 

Annual Charge of an independent company of foot for three hundred and 

sixty-five days:— ^ .^ ^ 

1 captain 180 9 7 

2 lieutenants (each, £79 19s. 4d.) 159 18 8 

1 ensign 62 16 7i 

4 Serjeants (each, £18 OS.) 73 

4 corporals (each, £12 3s. 4cl.) 48 13 4 

2 drummers (each, £12 3s. 4cl.) 24 6 8 

86 private men (each, £9 2s. 6cl.) 784 15 



. 1,333 19 lOi 


. 275 13 lOJ 


23 19 7 

Allowance to the captain . 

56 10 


Total £1,690 3 4 


Sir George Yonge to The Paymaster-General. 1789 

Sir, W.O., June 10th, 1789. ^^^''^ 

Tlie Kinc: liavin<f thouulit fit to oi'dei- a corps of foot to be N- ^- ^^- 

■— ' c5 o J. ^ corps. 

fortliwitli raised for service in New South Wales, to consist of 

four companies, each of one captain, one lieutenant, one ensign, 

three sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, and sixty seven 

private men, witli the usual staff officers, and to be commanded 

by Major Francis Grose, having a company, I have the honor to 

acquaint you therewith, and to enclose a state of the subsistence 

of the said corps, and am to signify to you his Majesty's pleasure corps 

that the same shall commence and take place on the establish- established. 

ment from the 5th instant inclusive. I have, &c., 

Geo. Yonge. 

State of subsistence [per day] of a corps of foot for service in Subsistence. 

New South Wales : — 

1 major commandant and captain 

3 captains more, each 7s. Gd. 

4 lieutenants „ 3s. Gd. 
4 ensigns „ 3s. 
1 chaplain ... 
1 adjutant ... 
1 quartermaster ... 
1 surgeon ... 
1 surgeon's mate ... 

12 Serjeants, each Is. 

12 corporals „ 8d. 

8 drummers ,, 8d. 

2G8 privates ,, Gd. 


[A fresh list, dated .Tidv 4tla, orders 14 instead of 12 Serjeants — making 
the total charge £12 Os. icid.] 



























Sir George Yoxge to Major Grose. 
Sir, W.O., 20 June, 1789. 20^.e 

In answer to your letter of the 19th instant, I am to acquaint No allow 
you that during the late war no charge was allowed to be made rejected 
for the subsistence of recruits rejected at the final inspection of any recruits. 
new corps by a general officer, altho' such recruits might have been 
previously examined and approved at head-quarters ; nor has it 
been usual for an intermediate inspection to be made vmder the 
orders of this officer, where the levy has been undertaken at the 
risque of the officers who were to have commissions therein. 

I have, <fec., 

Geo. Yonge. 




10 June. 


The Lady 


act' on 

ment of 



more con- 
victs to be 

Port Jackson 
approved of. 

The Right Hon. W. W. Grenville to Governor Phillip.* 

Sir, Whitehall, 20th June, 1789. 

The ship Lady Juliana having been taken up for the pur 
pose of conveying to Port Jackson about 240 female convicts, 
sentenced to be transported, I avail myself of that opportunity 
of acknowledging the receipt of your dispatches numbered from 
1 to 7 inclusive, with numbers 9, 10, and 11, and of acquainting 
you at the same time that his Majesty is graciously pleased to 
approve of your conduct in the execution of the arduous and 
important service which has been committed to your care. 

The service of the unfortunate women on board the Lady 
Juliana will, upon their landing at Port Jackson, be transferred 
to you, and you will cause them to be employed in such manner 
as may be most conducive to the advantage of the settlement. The 
attention paid by you to the proceedings of those who accom- 
panied you thither, with the view to preventing an indiscriminate 
intercourse with the convicts of a different sex, is extremely com- 
mendable, and leads his Majesty to entertain a well-grounded 
hope that the same watchful care will be taken on your part on 
the present occasion, and that you will continue the exertions 
you have hitherto so successfully made for the promotion of 
matrimonial connexion between the unmarried people — a measure 
which must tend to the improvement of their morals, and is 
indispensibly necessary for securing the general peace and happi- 
ness of the settlement. 

You will see by the enclosed invoice and bill of lading the 
several tools and implements, articles of clothing, provisions, &c., 
which have been put on board the Lady Juliana. That ship will 
be followed in about a fortnight by his Majesty's ship the 
Guardian. By the last-mentioned ship you will receive a farther 
supply, equal to about three times the quantity embarked on 
board the former, which, excepting in the article of provisions, 
you will find nearly to correspond with the estimates accompanying 
your letters upon that subject, and as these stores and jiro visions 
have been procured at a very considerable expence, it is to be hoped 
that you will appropriate them to the best possible advantage. 

In the course of the autumn I expect that about 1,000 more 
convicts of both sexes will be embarked from the several gaols, 
and despatched to Port Jackson, together with a suitable propor- 
tion of clothing and provisions for their use. This measure will 
render it necessary that you should make arrangements for their 
accommodation, as well as for their employment, on their arrival. 

The soil of Port Jackson, which you have very properly chosen, 
from the very extensive harbour it possesses, is certainly a far 
preferable situation to Botany Bay, but, according to the infor- 
mation hitherto obtained from you, it does not appear to be as 
fertile as could have been wished, and exclusively of that con- 

* The first despatch sent from Eng Ian d to Port Jackson. 


sideration, the number of natives inhabiting its vicinity must ^''^^ 
render its cultivation both difficult and dangerous, particularly -ioJune. 
whilst they continue to avoid any t'ritndly intercourse with the 

From these circumstances, Norfolk Island, where the settlers Norfolk 
possess the advantage of a luxurious [luxuriant] soil, and carry on t,etter place, 
their operations unmolested by any other inhabitants, is, I con- 
ceive, the most favorable position, and were it not from the great 
labor and expence incurred already at Port Jackson, I should have 
been inclined to have reconnuended that island's being made 
the principal settlement,* but although, from the circumstance 
which I have mentioned, this appears now to be impracticable, I 
think you will do right to increase its present establishment, as 
far as you conveniently can ; and if any similar situation equally 
advantageous should be discovered, you will detach thither a con- 
siderable part of the convicts M'ho will be sent out in the next 
ships. The Guardian will have on board about twenty-five convicts 
who are either artificers or persons accustomed to agriculture, and Artificers, 
also eight or ten superintendents, who have been engaged in con- 
sequence of your recommendation of the measure ; to each of the 
latter an amaual salary of £40 will be given in addition to the 
ration of provisions, and I have no doubt they will be found to be 
extremely useful in the new settlements. 

. The obstacles which have occurred with respect to bringing to Difficulties 
trial the ofiicers of the corps of marines, by general court-martial, uiariuesi^ 
under the authority with which you have been fvirnished, would, 
had the detachment continued in the settlement, most likely have 
been removed by an interference of Parliament, but as that 
detachment is so shortly to be relieved, it is to be hoped that no 
furthei- inconvenience will be experienced during their continuance 

It is but reasonable that the persons you have employed for the 
purpose of taking charge of the issues of provisions and stores 
should i-eceive a suitable compensation for their services, I shall 
therefore have no objection to the recommending the payment of 
any moderate charge you may bring forward for that purpose in 
your contingent accounts.! 

Under Secretary Nepean to GtOvernor Phillip. 

Dear Sir, Whitehall, 20th June, 1789. 

I have been faxoured with your letters of the 5th, 9th, and 

10th of July, 28th of Sept'r, and IGth ISTov'r last, and have laid 

them, with their several inclosures, before the Secretary of State. 

Y(»u will find by letters to you from Mr. Secretary Grenville, 

wliich you will i-eceive by the present conveyance, that consider- 

* Phillip discusses this question in his despatch of 17th June, 1790. Post, p. 34S. 
t This despatch is not signed, but it is from tlie Right Hon. W. W. Grenville, 




20 Juno. 

Supplies for 




gi-ants, &e. 

The marines 
to be 

New South 
Wales Corps. 

Marines may 
return or 



able quantities of clothing, provisions, medicines, tools, implements, 
&c., have been put on board the Lady Juliana and Guardian, and 
care will be taken to forward from time to time eveiy proper 
necessary supply until the settlement shall be in a condition to 
provide for the support of its establishment. 

The families of and • will have a passage pi'ovided for 

them in the convoy expected to depart from hence early in the 
month of October next, if they are desirous of imbarking for that 

The Guardian will sail in about a fortnight,! by which ship you 
will receive instructions relative to the granting of lands, and such 
other information as may be judged necessary for your guidance, 
together with a remittance for the paying the artificers of the 
marine detachment for the services they have performed. 

I am, &c., 
Evan Nepean. 

The Right Hon. W. W. Grenville to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, Whitehall, 20th June, 1789. 

The discontents which have prevailed in the marine 
detachment, and the desire expressed by most of the officers and 
men to return home as soon as they .shall have performed the tour 
of duty they had undertaken, have led to the making arrange- 
ments for relieving them. With that view his Majesty has 
ordered a corps to be raised for that particular service, consisting 
of three hundred rank and file and a suitable number of officers, 
under a major-commandant. | This corps is ordered to be in 
readiness for embarkatiun on the 1st of October next, and will, 
it is expected, soon after that time proceed upon the voyage. 

According to the engagements made with the marine detach- 
ment, any of the non-commissioned officers and men who may 
have behaved well are, if they desire it, to be allowed to quit the 
service on their return to England, or to be discharged abroad, 
upon the relief (originally designed to take place at the expiration 
of three years after their landing), and to be permitted to settle 
in the countiy if they prefer it. It is probable that some of these 
people will be desirous of continuing there, and as settlers of 
that description will be of great utility, not only for the purposes 
of protection and defence, but for the cultivation of the land, it 
is thought advisable that every reasonable encouragement should 
be held out to them to remain there. 

If any part of this detachment can, however, be prevailed upon 
to enlist and add strength to the new corps it will be by far the 
most desirable plan, and in order to induce any of the non-com- 

* See Phillip's despatch to Lord Sydney. Ante, p. 184. 

t The Guardian did not sail till September, and was wrecked in December. 
Juliana sailed in Julv, and arrived at Sydney, 3rd June, 1790. 
t Ante, pp. 249-25i. 

The Lady 


missioned officers or men so to do you are at liberty to offer to 1789 
each a bounty of £S ; at the same time to assure them that in 20 June, 
case of a proper demeanour on their part they will, after a further 
service of five years, be allowed their discharge and a suitable 
(juantity of land, together with such a proportion of tools and im- 
plements for agriculture as may be necessary for their cultivating 
the same, and also a supply of seed grain and of provisions for 
their subsistence for one year. 

As the time for the relief of the marine detachment ap- 
proaches, it will be inconvenient to wait for any farther oi)inion 
fi-om you upon the mode and conditions of granting lands to Land grants, 
the persons above mentioned who may claim their immediate 
discharge, and may be willing to settle in the country, or to 
othei' persons who may resort to that part of the world with a 
view of becoming settlers. I shall therefore avail myself of an 
early opportunity of submitting to his Majesty's consideration 
the draft of an instruction to you for your guidance in that instruction 
respect, and you may expect to receive his Majesty's commands 
thereupon by the next vessel that sails from home for New South 
Wales.* I have, etc., 

W. "VV. Grenville. 

Sir George Yonge to The Paymaster General. 
Sir, W.O., 30 June, 1789. 30 June. 

I have the honor to signify to you the K.'s p. [the King's 
pleasure] that out of the monies advanced to you for the recruiting 
service you do issue to Messrs. Cox, Cox, & Greenwood, agents 
to the corps to be raised for service in New South Wales, the sum 
of five hundred pounds, and that you do charge the .same to the 
account of the corps for the current year. I have, &c., 

Geo. Yonge. 

Sir George Yonge to Colonel Johnson. 
Sir, W.O., 11 Augt., '89. nAug. 

I have rec'd y'r let. of 5th inst.,t inclosing the inspection 
return of Lt. Paterson's company in the New So. Wales Corps, as 
also a return of recruits inspected by you, to make up the p^.^^^ 
deficiencies in Major Grose's and Lt. Nepean's comp's, occasioned recruits. 
by rejection, desertion, (fee, and to acq't you that the same is 

With regard to the rank of Major Grose's corps, it being the Rank of 
youngest in the Army must, of course, when drawn up, either corps, 
with other entire corps or with detach'ts from them, take part 
on the left. But with regard to the officers in all corps, without 
distinction, tlie militia excepted, they naturally take part in all 
duties according to seniority in their respecti^•e ranks. 

I have, etc., 

Geo. Yonge. 

* Post, \\ 256. t This letter is not available. 


1789 The Right Hon. W, W. Grenville to Governor Phillip. 
24 Aug. Sir, Whitehall, 24th August, 1789. 

Instructions ^ transmit to you herewith an instruction under the royal 

for land sign manual with respect to the grants of land to be made to 
the several non-commissioned officers and private marines who 
may be desirous of remaining within your Government upon the 
relief of the detachment, as also to such other persons as may be 
disposed to become settlers, and I have no doubt of your exact 
compliance with his Majesty's commands, as signified to you by 
this instruction.* 
Further If any farther regulations should appear to you to be necessary 

regulations. £qj, ^j^g purpose of promoting the settlement and cultivation of 
the lands within your Government, you will take the earliest 
opportunity of apprising me of your opinion thereupon, that I 
may submit the same to his Majesty's consideration. 

I have, &c. 

W. W. Grenvilie. 

Phillip's Additional Instructions. 

20 Aug. Additional Instructions to Our Trusty and Well-beloved Arthur 
Phillip, Esq., Our Cajatain-General and Governor-in-Chief in 
and over Our Territory called New South Wales. Given at 
Our Court at St. James, the [twentieth] day of [August] 1789, 
in the twenty-ninth year of our reign, f 
Land grants Whereas it has been represented unto Us that assurances were 
given to the non-commission officers and men belonging to the 
detachment of Our Marine Forces serving on the continent of New 
South Wales that sxich of the said non-commission officers and men 
as shall have behaved well shall be allowed to quit Our Sei'Adce on 
their return to England, or be discharged abroad upon the relief 
(designed to take place at the expiration of three years after their 
landing) and be permitted to settle in that country : And 
whereas it is probable that in consequence of that engagement 
some of the said non-commission officers and men will be desirous 
of continuing in that settlement or upon the islands comprised 
within Your Govei'nment : And as persons of that description 
will be of great utility in the new settlements, not only for the 
purposes of protection and defence, but for the cultivation of 
the land : We have thought it advisable that every reasonable en- 
couragement should be held out to them to induce them to be 
aiding in such salutary purposes. It is therefore Our Royal Will 
and Pleasure that You do issue Your Warrant to the Surveyor- 
General to survey and allot to such of the non-commission officers 
and men as shall be disposed to become settlei^s within Your 

* Phillip acknowledges the receipt of these instructions in his despatch of 17th June, 
1790 (post, p. 346). 
t Phillip's original instructions were dated 25th April, 17S7. Ante, p. 85. 

Phillip's additional ixsTRrcTiONs. 257 

Government, on their desiring the same, tlie proportions of land 1789 
hereinafter mentioned, subject, however, to the following condi- 20 Aug. 
tions and regulations : — 

To every non-eonnnissiou officer one hundred acres, and to every conditions. 
private man fifty acres, over and above the quantity directed 
by Our General Instructions to You to be granted to such con- 
victs as may hereafter be emancipated or discharged fi'om their 
servitude, free of all fees, taxes, quit rents, and other acknow- 
ledgements for the space of ten years ; but after the expiration 
of that time to be liable to an annual quit rent of one shilling for 
every ten acres. 

And whereas it will be of advantage to Our Service that the Bounty, 
non-commission officers and men disposed to continue in New 
South Wales or the islands dependant thereon can be prevailed 
upon to enlist into the corps appointed for their relief : It is Our 
farther Will and Pleasure, and You are hereby authorised to offer 
to each of them a bounty of £3 per man, at the same time to 
assure them that in case of a proper demeanor on their part they 
shall, after a farther service of five years, be entitled to double Double 
the proportion of land that would be granted to them, provided "''''^"*- 
they should quit Our Service on the intended relief, free of all 
fees, fines, qviit rents, &c., for the space of fifteen years, subject, 
however, after that time to the same quit rent for every ten acres 
as is specified in the preceding article of these Our Instructions. 

And as a farther encouragement to the non-commission officers Clothes, 
and men composing the detachment of Our Mai-ine Forces- serving andsecxT-^' 
on the continent of New South Wales or the islands dependant =i'''^"i- 
thereon avIio may be disposed to continue therein : It is our 
farther Will and Pleasure that you do upon their discharge, either 
on the intended relief or after a farther service of five years, 
issue to tliem out of the publick stores a proportion of clothes and 
of provisions for their subsistance for one year, together witli a 
suitable quantity of seed grain for the tillage of the land, to be 
granted to them as before mentioned, and also a proportion of 
tools and implements proper for their use. 

And whereas from the disposition of many people to emigrate Encourage- 
from this country there is a great probability that some of them s"t"]e,!g° 
may be desirous of becoming settlers in New South Wales or the 
said islands dependent thereupon : It is also Our Will and 
Pleasure that in case persons of that description should arrive 
fi-om hence, or from any other part of Our Dominions, and apply 
to You for grants of land. You do aftbrd them every encourage- 
ment that can be given in tliat undertaking, without subjecting 
the public to expence ; and tliat grants of land to such amount Land grants. 
as you shall judge j^roper shall be made out for each person apply- 
ing, not exceeding, however, in quantity the number of acres 
which you are hereby instructed to grant to the non-commission 




•20 Aug. 

of convicts. 

Form of 


The fat and 
the lean. 


to be laid 

officers before mentioned, and subject to the same quit rents pay- 
able unto Us at the expiration of tive years after the passing of 
such grant. 

And whereas many of the non-commission officers and men 
of the marine detachment, or other persons who may become 
settlers upon Our said continent of New South Wales, or the said 
islands dependant thereupon, may be desirous of availing them- . 'M 
selves of the labour of part of the convicts now under your orders : 
It is Our Will and Pleasure, that in case there should be a 
prospect of their employing any of the said convicts to advantage, 
that you assign to each grantee the service of any number of 
them that you may judge sufficient to answer their purpose, on 
condition of their maintaining, feeding, and clothing such convicts 
in such manner as shall appear satisfactory to You, or to Our 
Governor of New South Wales for tlie time being. 

You are to take care that all grants to be given of lands in Our 
said continent or islands be made out in due form, and that the 
conditions required by these Our instructions be particularly and 
expressly mentioned in the respective grants. That the same be 
properly registered, and that regular returns thereof be trans- 
mitted by the proper officers to Our Commissioners of Our Treasury 
and to the Committee of Our Privy Council appointed for all 
matters of Trade and Foreign Plantations within the space of 
twelve months after the passing of such grant. 

It is also Our Will and Pleasure that in all grants of land to be 
made by You, as aforesaid, regard be had to the profitable and un- 
profitable acres, so that each grantee may have a proportionable 
number of one sort and of the other, as likewise that the breadth 
of each track to be hereafter granted ])e one-third of the length of 
such track, and that the length of such track do not extend along 
the banks of any bay or river, but into the mainland, that thereby 
the said grantees may have each a convenient share of what 
accommodation the said harbour or river may afford for naviga- 
tion or othei'wise. 

It is also Our Will and Pleasure that between every two such 
grants of one hundred acres or of fifty acres, and adjacent to one 
of them, you do reserve for the benefit of Us, Our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors, a space of ten acres in breadth and of thirty acres in 
length, which spaces so reserved You are not to grant without Our 
special direction and license ; but You are at liberty to lease the 
same for any term not exceeding fourteen years, and on such terms 
and conditions as You shall judge advantageous to Our service. 

And whereas it has been found by experience that the settling 
plantees in townships hath very much redounded to their advan- 
tage, not only with respect to the assistance they have been able 
to afford each otlier in their civil concerns, but likewise with 
regard to their security, You are therefore to lay out townships 


of a convenient size and extent, in sucli places as You, in Your 1789 
discretion, shall judge most proper ; having, as far as may be, 20 Au". 
natural boundaries extending up into tlie country and compre- 
hending a necessary part of the sea-coast, where it can be con- 
veniently had. 

You are also to cause a proper place in the most convenient Public 
part of each township to be marked out for the building a town '^^i^'^inss- 
suiiicient to contain such a number of families as You shall judge 
proper to settle there, with town and pasture lots convenient to 
each tenement, taking care that the said town be laid out upon 
or as near as conveniently may be to some na\-igable river or the 
sea-coast ; and You are also to reserve to Us proper quantities of 
land in each township, for the following purposes, viz., for erecting 
fortifications and barracks, or for other military or naval services, ' 
and more particularly for the building a town-hall, and such other 
public edifices as you shall deem necessary, and also for the growth 
and production of naval timber, if there are any woodlands fit 
for that purpose. 

And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that a particular spot churches. 
in or as near each town as possible be set apart for the building 
of a church, and four hundred acres adjacent thereto allotted for 
the maintenance of a minister, and two hundred for a school- 

And whereas it is necessary that a reasonable compensation surveyors* 
shall ])e made to the Surveyor-General of Our lands for surveying fees, 
and laying out of the said lands for the use of such persons who 
may be disposed to become settlers in the said continent or islands 
dependant thereupon. We have thought fit to establish the table 
of fees hereunto annexed, which You are to allow him to de- 
mand from all persons whatsoever, excepting the non-commission 
officers and men of the detachment of Our Marine Corps, or to 
convicts emancipated or discharged, who are not to be subjected 
to the payment of such fees. 

You are to cause the above-mentioned table of fees to be hung Table of fees 
up in one of the most public places, that all persons concerned exhibited 
may be apprised of the demands which''may be demanded of them 
on their taking up lands within the said continent or islands 
dependant thereon. 

Fees on Land Grants, 1789. Landgrint 

Oovernor^s Fees. 

£ s. d. 
For the Great Seal to every grant not exceeding 1,000 Govemar. 

acres 5 

For all grants exceeding 1,000 acres, for every 1,000 acres 

each grant contains ... ... ... ... ...026 

For a license of occupation ... ... ... 6 




20 Ausr 



24 Aug. 


Fees on Land Grants, 1789 — continued. 
Secretary's Fees : 
For every grant, and passing the seal of the provinces, if 

under 100 acres ... 
Between 100 and 500 acres 
All above 
For grants of land where the number of projirietors 

shall exceed twenty, each right 
For do. where the number shall not exceed twenty, the 

same as for grants in proportion to the quantity of 

For every license of occupation of land ... 
For every grant from 1,000 to 20,000— for the 1st 1,000 

acres 15 shillings, and for every 1,000 acres more 

2s. 6d. 

Fees to he talcen h\j the Chief Surveyor of Land. 
For evei'Y lot under 100 acres 

From 100 to 500 acres 

Above 500 acres 

Every township, if above 20 rights, each right ... 

A uditor's Fees. 
For the auditing of every grant 

Registrar's Fees. 
For recording a grant of land for or under 500 acres ... 
,, fi'om 500 to 1,000 acres ... 

For every 1,000 acres to the amount of 20,000 

For recording the grant of a township 

£ s. d. 


2 6 

2 6 
2 6 

2 6 


7 6 

2 6 

3 4 

1 3 

2 6 



The Right Hon. W. W. Grenville to Governor Phillip. 
Sir, ■Whitehall, 24th August, 1789. 

As from the increase in the number of convicts sent to 
New South "Wales, and from the distance of the settlements from 
each other, one person will not be able to attend in a proper 
manner to the performance of the religious duties of the colony, 
his Majesty has judged it expedient that an additional clergy- 
man should proceed thither, and has accordingly appointed the 
Revd. John Crowther, a gentleman of exemplary character, to be 
assistant chaplain, with a salaiy of eight shillings per diem, to be 
charged in the estimate ; he will take his passage in the Guardian, 
and receive your orders with respect to his place of residence.* 

I have, etc., 

W. \V. Grenville. 

Goods sent 
by the 

The Right Hon. W^. "W. Grenville to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, Wlaitehall, 24th August, 1789. 

I enclose to you herewith a general invoice and bill of lading 
of .sundry articles of clothing, tools, implements for agriculture, 

* The Guardian was wreclved in December. Mr. Crowther was one of the survivors. The 
boat in which he escaped was picked up bj' a French vessel, and those on board were taken 
to the Cape. Mr. Crowther returned to England by tlie first opportunity. The Rev. Samuel 
Marsden was afterwards appointed as second chaplain. 


medicines, &c., which have been provided by Government, and 1789 
shii^ped on board the Guardian, for the use of the convicts and 20 Aug. 
other persons residing within the limits of your Government. The 
heavy expence which attends the providing of these articles, and the 
sending them out to New South Wales, makes it extremely neces- 
sary that you should pay the utmost attention to appropriate them 
to the best advantage, and that you should from time to time trans- 
mit to me particular accounts of your proceedings in this respect. 

The provisions which that vessel and the Lady Juliana contain 
are calculated, as you wall see by the inclosed estimates, to afford 
an ample supply for a considerable tune. I have no doubt that Provisions 
you will carefully attend to the manner in which they are issued, ^pph-'"^'''^ 
and I must particularly recommend to you to use every practic- 
able exertion in order to put the colony in such a situation as not 
to depend on Great Bi-itain for its supply in the article of i^rovisions. 

A farther proportion of these articles will accompany the con- Further 
victs who are to be sent out in the autumn, but I cannot help shipments. 
flattering myself that after that period very little farther aids 
will be wanted from this country for the subsistence of the 
convicts. You will attend very particularly to this subject, and 
send me by the fii'st oppoi'tunity an account of what you conceive 
to be the situation of the colony in this respect. One thousand 
and five barrels of flour, part of the intended supply, which the 
Guardian could not conveniently store, will be forwarded to you 
by the next ships that proceed to New South Wales. 

I have acquainted you in a former letter that in consequence Superin- 
of your representation of the want of proper persons to instruct Pendents 
the convicts in the manner of tilling the land and to superintend ' 
their laljor, his jNIajesty was pleased to authorize me to nominate 
nine persons to be sent out for that service. These people proceed 
to New South Wales in the Guardian, and on their arrival will 
put themselves under your orders ; they have been engaged for the 
term of three years, and, in addition to the ration of provisions Three years' 
with which they are to be supplied out of his Majesty's stores, engage- 
they will each of them be allowed a salary of £40 a year, which "^^^ ' 
will be brought forward in the estimate to be annually laid before 
Parliament, and to be voted in like manner as the rest of the 
salaries charged on the civil establishment of your Government. 
I enclose a list of their names and qualifications. You will under- 
stand that during the period of their engagement they are not to 
be allowed to settle any land on their own account. 

Your proposal of sending out a few artificers you will find upon Artificers. 
the arrival of the Guardian has also been attended to, by the 
emljarkation of twenty-five convicts of that description. Their 
service will be transferred to you by her connnandei-, who has 
entered into the contracts required by law for that pui-pose. I 
liave, &c., W. W. Grenville. 




24 Aug. 


26 Aug. 

The Lieut. - 


An insult. 

The insult 

Superintendents on board the Guardian. 

Whitehall, August 24th, 1789. 
List of superintendents of convicts ordered to be received on 
board the Guardian for their passage to New South Wales : — 

James Smith, George Austin, gardeners, lately employed in the 
King's Botanical Garden at Kew ; Philip Schaffer, formerly a 
lieutenant in one of the Hessian corps which served in America, 
has been accustomed to farming ; Thomas Clarke, a farmer ; 
Philip Divine, Andw. Hume,^ understand farming, have lately 
been employed by Mr. Duncan Campbell as superintendants of 
convicts at Woolwich ; James Reid, formerly an American plantei", 
and has been commander of a merchant ship ; John Bai'low, John 
Thos. Dodge, have served as officers in the Army, the former a 
good surveyor, and has also been employed as an engineer at 


Major Ross to Governor Phillip. 

Sydney Cove, 26th August, 1789. 
Your Excellency's having so repeatedly told me that the 
working convicts, employed on the west side of the cove,* were to^ 
be under the command and authority of the Lieut-Governor, so 
far that none of them should be removed from it by your Excel- 
lency without his knowledge, that it cannot have escaped your 
memory, it would be presumption in the extreme in me to sup- 
pose your Excellency not to know that when either duty, business, 
or pleasure may at any time induce your Excellency to absent your- 
self from this cove there cannot then remain in it any authority 
superior to that of the Lieut. -Governor. 

Taking, therefore, your perfect recollection of the first and 
knowledge of the second for granted, I shall proceed to acquaint 
your Excellency with an account of what I cannot but deem an 
insult offered to me in my character of Lieutenant-Governor since 
your Excellency went last from this place. 

About twelve o'clock yesterday, Fuller the carpenter told me 
that the convict plasterer had been with him to tell him that he 
was informed of Bazely's having been looking for him the day 
before in order to direct him to join Bloodsworth's gang. Soon 
after, in my walks to visit the guard, I saw Bazely, and asked 
him how Thady came by him to be ordered to join Bloodsworth's 
gang. On his saying that it was the desire of Mr. Brewer, I 
desired him to let Mr. Brewer know that I wanted to see him, 
and that he would find me with the officer of the guard. Mr. 
Brewer came soon after. I asked him how Thady came to be 


* The main body of the convicts had been placed on the west side of the cove, under 
Ross's command. The opposite side of the cove was under Phillip's supervision. The 
detachment of marines, commanded by Ross, was camped at the head of the cove. 


ordered away from the Avorks that he was employed in on the west 1789 
side. His answer was, indeed he did not know, but that Captain 26 Auj?. 
Collins had directed him to order Thady to join and work with 
Bloodsworth's gang from that morning. I then desired Mr. Brewer 
to go to Captain Collins and tell him, from me, that I wished to 
know how Thady came to be ordered away from the officers' huts, 
where he was at work. Captain CoUins's answer by Mr. Brewer 
was that he knew notliing more of it than when the Governor 
was going away he left such orders with him. 

However much I felt myself hurt by this impropriety of the An improper 
manner in which the order came, I immediately determined with °^'^'^'^- 
myself to give way to it so far as to cause the man to be taken off 
from the officer's hut, at which he had been at work, and sent 
over to the other side, which was immediately done. But I, at 
the same time, determined the business of too serious a nature or 
tendency to pass over without making your Excellency acquainted 
with it ; for, however trivial it may at first view appear, yet the 
nature of it, the quarter from whence it came, your Excellency's 
name having been made use of upon the occasion, as well as the 
terms upon which I am too well known to stand with you, render it 
absolutely necessary for me, in justice to my own consequence 
and character, to request that your Excellency will please to 
cHrect me to be informed of the cause of such authority being Expi. nxtku 
assumed by those in whom no such power can at present be vested. '^*^'^"''^*^- 
But should your Excellency say — and I camiot possibly bring 
myself to think you will — that you, on going away from here, 
left your orders relative to the employing convicts with the Judge- 
Advocate, in place of leaving them with the Lieutenant-Governor, 
I have in such case to request that you will please to explain 
to me the line of conduct which, as L'eutenant-Governor of this 
settlement, you wish me either to preserve or follow, assuring 
yourself that I shall endeavour to pursue that line, at least till 
such time as a power superior to either of us shall determine 
the Ijounds of Ijoth, and redress our grievances. At present I 
acknowledge myself as much in the dark with respect to the line in tiio tiaric. 
of conduct you expect me to pursue as Lieutenant-Governor, or 
what you expect from me, or that I shall do, as I was the first 
day of our meeting in London. But as this may be a subject of 
futui-e discussion, I shall conclude this with my having the honor 
of being Your Excellency's, etc., 

R. Ross, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Judge-Advocate Collins to Governor Phillip. 

Sir, 'Sydney Cove, 26th August, 1789. 

Your Excellency having this evening done me the favour Ross's 
to acciuaint me that the Lieutenant-Governor had written to your i;oi"i'i;""t- 
Excellency a letter complaining of some part of my conduct 




20 Aug-. 


Its oricrin. 

Collins in 

No inten- 

27 Aug. 


towai'ds him while you were absent from the settlement, I beg 
leave to lay the following particulars before you ; but in so doing 
I must request you not to understand that T seek either to justify 
or excuse what I have done, except in the instance I shall mention ; 
for however seriously the Lieutenant-Governor may treat the 
circumstance, I can hardly deem it worth the discussion, and should 
not say a word on the subject were I not desirous of convincing 
your Excellency how little it was my wish to create a misunder- 
standing during your Excellency's temporary absence from the 
immediate seat of government. 

Having received your directions on the Saturday previous to 
your departure for Rose Hill to order Thady, a convict plasterer, 
to join Bloodsworth's gang, I have to beg your Excellency's pardon 
for not giving that direction until late on Monday evening last, 
at which time I directed Bazely to inform the man that he was to 
join Bloodsworth's gang, and Bloods worth that he was to receive 
him ; and, as I knew nothing where the man had been employed, 
I did not suppose anything more was requisite than to follow your 
Excellency's directions. 

In the foreiioon of yesterday Mr. Brewer came to me from the 
Lieutenant-Governor, desiring to know by whose authority Thady 
was ordered into Bloodsworth's gang. I returned my compliments, 
and [said] that he was ordered by the Governor, who left such 
directions with me. Mr. Brewer soon after came back to tell me 
that the man would be sent to receive his orders from me. On 
being informed by Bloodsworth that he was employed in plastering 
Lieutenant Kellow's hut, T told him — and aftemvards gave the man 
the same directions — to undoubtedly finish Lieutenant Kellow's 
hut, or any other work he had in hand, as I was certain your 
Excellency did not know he had any work to finish when you 
ordered him to join Bloodsworth's gang. 

As I conceive that if I have done wrong in this business it 
is in necflectino- to order the man to join the overseer from the 
Saturday I received your Excellency's directions until the Monday 
evening, so I trust you will have the goodness to be assured that 
such neglect was unintentional, for it has always been my wish to 
forward, not obstruct, the j^ublic service. I have, &c., 

David Collins. 

Governor Phillip to Major Ross. 
Sir, Government House, 27th August, 1789. 

A few days before I went to Rose Hill a list of all the 
convicts and their various employments was made out by my 
directions, by which it appeared to me that James Thady was 
unemployed. I therefore desired the Judge-Advocate to order 
him to join the bricklayers then at work for some of the officers, 
and last night upon my return received your letter stating that 


an insult had been offered you as Lieutenant-Governor during 1789 
my al)sence by the Judge- Advocate, in ordering a man employed 27 Aug-, 
under your directions to a different work. 

I will, sir, repeat to you what the Judge-Advocate says on 
that head in his own words, " That he forgot to give the order 
the day I desired he would, and when he did recollect it he 
gave t)rders for that purpose ; l^ut on being told that the man 
was employed by your directions at Lieutenant Kellow's hut, as 
he was certain I did not know he had any work in hand when 
I gave the order for his joining the bricklayers' party." This, sir, 
if admitted, will, I presume, satisfy you that no insult was No insult 
intended. I had myself informed you that I was going up the "''^s"'i<^'i 
harbour for two or three days ; and with respect to my orders 
)j(ung left with the Judge- Advocate that should have been left 
with the Lieutenant-Governor, there is not a shadow of -reason 
to suppose anything of the kind ever was intended, and of which 
you must be sensible. And in answer to your question as to 
Avhat line of conduct I wish you to pursue, I have, sir, only to 
wish that the peace of the settlement may not be disturbed, and 
that you will be so good as to be a little more guarded in your 
expressions, for I am certain you will think on reflection that Ross 
the answer you gave to the convict who came to tell you his 
time was expired — "Would to God my time was expired, too !" — 
was not calculated to make him satisfied with his situation, till 
the necessary information is received from Government re- 
specting those people, who draw their conclusions from what 
they hear, and perhaps veiy different from what the words are 
intended to convey. I did not, sir, take notice of the impropriety A fault 
I saw in such a declaration, when you told me that was the only ^' ^ ^ 
answer you gave to the convict, who was afterwards sentenced by 
the criminal court to a severe punishment, which he most 
undoubtedly deserved, as several officers were then present ; but 
I repeat it, sir, that I am certain you must see the impropriety 
of it. 

The time cannot be far distant when a legal inquiry can take 
place, and all complaints will then be attended to. Till when 
his Majesty's service requires some little forbearance on your Forbearance 
part as well as on mine. I am, &c., necessary. 

A. Phillip. 

Sir George Yonge to General Tonyn. 

Sir, W.O., 22 Sept., 1789. 22 Sept. 

I have the honour to signify to you H.M's. p. that you do inspection 
inspect Major Grose's corps of ft., and transmit to me for H.M.'s 
information an accurate I'eport of the age, size, and general iitness 
of the recruits for active and immediate service, as well as of the 
progress they appear to have made in learning their exercise. 




2-2 Sept. 

Ag-e and 


You are to specify the number of men under five feet four inches 
and a half in height and under sixteen years of age or upwards of 
thirty. At the same time acq't me whether in your opinion any 
of those who fall under this description are, nevertheless, fit for 

You are likewise to distinguish the respective numbers of High- 
landers, Lowlanders, Irish, and English recruits. 

You will also be pleased to inform me how far the recruiting 
instructions of the major, of which he is to furnish you with a 
copy, have been observed in completing the said corps. 

Enclosed I transmit a copy of the establishment of the corps, 

which is stationed at Chatham B'ks. ^ ^t- 

Geo. Yonge. 

29 Sept 


to be got 

New South 
Wales Coi-ps. 

The Right Hon. W. W. Geenville to the Lords of The 


My Lords, Wliitehall, 29th Sept'r, 1789. 

I am commanded to signify to your Lordships the King's 
pleasure that you do order one of the 44-gun ships which have 
lately been employed in relieving the regiments serving in North 
Ameiica to be got ready with all possible dispatch, in order to 
convey to New South Wales three companies of the corps intended 
to be employed in that country, and to bring home from thence the 
detachment of marines now serving there. 

The three companies consist of 241 men, oflicers included, in 
addition to which accommodation will be wanted for seven ser- 
vants, thirty women, and sixty tons of baggage. 

[No Signature.]* 

8 Oct. 



Ma.jor Grose to Uxder Secretary Nepean. 
Sir, London, October the 8th, 1789. 

Having heard that an augmentation of the corps I have 
the honour to command is likely to take place, I take the libei'ty 
of writing to you on the subject, for the purpose of requesting 
that, if such augmentation is to happen, you will be so good as to 
make it known to me — that I am ready to raise either one or any 
number of companies without a shilling expence to Government, 
if allowed to nominate the officers. The expedition with which 
I raised three of the four companies you are allready acquainted 
with, and if you would be pleased to mention it it may possibly 
plead in my favour for the indulgence required. 

I am, itc, 

F. Grose, Major Com'g. 

* Apparently from tlie Right Hon. W. W. Grcn\ ille. 


Lieutenant Bligu to Sir Joseph Banks. (Hanks Papers )* l''83 

Dear Sir, Batavia, October 13, 1789. i30oi. 

I am now so ill that it is with tlie utmost difficulty I can niness. 
write to you ; but as I hope to be iu England before you can 
receive it, the necessary information which perhaps may be omitted 
in this letter will be of no consequence, 

I have, however, for your satisfaction, enclosed to you a short 
account of my voyage, f It is nearly a copy of what I have given ^°'^°""4,"^ 
to the Governor of CoupangJ and the Governor-General here, 
because my weak habit ot body at present will not allow me to 
do more. 

You will now, sir, with all your generous endeavors for the 
])ublick good, see an unfortunate end to the undertaking ; and I 
feel very sensibly how you will i^eceive the news of the failure of unfortunate 
an expedition that promised so much. The anxious and miserable euteiprise. 
hours I have past is beyond my description ; but while I have 
health the strange vissicitude of human affaii's can never affect 
me. Unhappily, I have lost it at present, for on my arrival here 
I was seized with a fever, which, fixing in my head, it made me 
almost distracted ; but I am now better, and am to sail in the 
packet on Thursd. next, which will save my life. 

You will find that the ship was taken from me in the most ^"^^^^^^'^' 
extraordinary manner, and 1 presume to say it could not have crime. 
been done in any other way. I can, however, sir, promise to you 
that my honor and character is without a blemish, and I shall 
appear as soon as I possiljly can before the Admiralty that my i^]qu^i.y°"''' 
conduct may be enquii'ed into, and where I shall convince the world 
I stand as an officer despising mercy and foregiveness if my conduct 
is at all blameable. 

Had I been accidentally appointed to the command the loss of 
the ship would give me no material concern ; but when I reflect gj^„^.g 
that it was through you, sir, who undertook to assert I was fully recommund- 
capable, and the eyes of every one regarding the progress of '^*'*^"' 
the voyage, and perhaps more with envy than with delight, I 
cannot say but it aftects me considerably. To those, however, 
who may be disposed to blame, let them see I had in fact com- 
pleted my undertaking. What man's situation could be so 
jieculiarly flattering as mine 12 hours before the loss of the ship ? ^^ warnin" 
Everything was in the most perfect order, and we were w^ell 
stored with every necessary both for service and health. By 
early attention to those particulars I acted against the power of 
chance in case I could not get through Endeavour Straights, as 

* After the seizure of the Bountj- by mutineers, Hlitfh, with the master, sur^'eon, two 
quarter-masters, two niidsliipmen, tlie botanist, the clerk, and ten of tlie crew, were placed 
on board one of the ship's boats, which arrived at Koepan^f, a Dutch settlement on Timor 
Island, after a perilous voyage of 3,(!00 miles, on the 15th June, 17811. Kroni Koepang', Bli^'li 
found his way to Batavia, and afterwards to En^dand, via the Cape of Good Hope. 

t Post, pp. 268-278. { Now spelt Koepang or Kupanj;. 




13 Oct. 

The crew in 



The plants 



The motive 
for the 


The Bounty 


well as against auy accident that might befall me in them ; and 
to add to this, I had most successfully got my plants in a most 
flourishing and fine order, so that upon the whole the voyage was 
f over, and the remaining part no way doubtfull. Every person 
was in the most perfect health, to establish which I had taken 
the greatest pains, and bore a most anxious care through the 
whole course of the voyage. 

I even rejected carrying stock for my own use, and throwing 
away tlie hencoops and eveiy convenience, I roofed a place over 
the quarter-deck and filled it with plants, which I looked at with 
delight every day of my life. 

I can only conjecture that the pirates (among whom is poor 
Nelson's assistant) have ideally assured themselves of a more 
happy life among the Otaheiteans than they could possibly have 
in England, which, joined to some female connections, has most 
likely been the leading cause of the whole busyness. 

If I had been equipped with more officers and marines the 
piracy could never have happened. 

I arrived here on the 1st instant, and sollicited the Governor- 
General to be allowed a passage in the first ship that sailed for 
Eurojje, but he lias told me that he could not possibly send us all 
in one ship, and has consented, as granting me a favor, to be 
allowed to go in the packet, for the physician-general has repre- 
sented my life in danger if I remained here. I am, etc., 

Wm. Bligh. 

Lieutenant Bligh to Sir Joseph Banks. (Banks Papers.)* 

On the 16th August, 1787, 1 received my commission to command 
his Majesty's armed vessel Bounty (for that was her establish- 
ment), and to fit her out with the utmost despatch for remote parts. 

The burthen of this sliijj was nearly two hundred and fifteen 
tons, her extreme length on deck 90 ft. 10 in., and breadth from 
outside to outside of the bends 24 ft. 3 in., a flush deck, and a 
pretty figure-head of a woman in a riding-habit. 

The complement of men and officers ; — 

1 lieutenant and commander 1 qr. -master's mate 

1 master 1 boatswain's mate 

1 boatswain 1 gunner's mate 

1 gunner 1 carpenter's mate 

1 carpenter 1 sailmaker 



2 master's mates 

2 midshipmen 

1 clerk 

2 quarter-masters 

1 armourer 
1 corporal 
1 carpenter's crew 
24 able seamen 
45, total. 

* This letter was sent to Sir Joseph Banks on October 13, 1789. Ante, p. 267. 


Out of the number 45 is one borne not actually on board, his 1787-8 
pay going to the support of widows, so that the real number on 
board were 44 seamen and officers, likewise one botanist and an 
assistant, the whole being 46. 

On the 4th October I was fully victualled and stored for 18 Orders, 
months, and on the 20th Novemr., 1787, I received my final orders 
to proceed on my voyage, the purport of whicli was as follows : — • 

The King, upon a representation from his subjects in the West j^° !^'*f .*''f 
Indies that the introduction of the bread-fruit>tree among them tree to the 
would be of universal good to constitute an article of food, and ^^^^' indies. 
that such having been signified to be his Majesty's pleasure unto 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty by Lord Sydney, one 
of his Principal Secretaries of State, I was therefoi'e directed to 
sail forthwith round Cape Horn for the Society Islands, in lati- Route, 
tude about 18° S. and longitude 210° east of Greenwich, and there, 
with the necessary articles I Avas furnished with, to pi'ocure of the 
natives as many plants as I could stow on board the ship. 

Having completed this, I was to proceed through Endeavour 
Streights (which seperate New Guinea from New Holland), and 
from thence to Prince's Island, in the Streights of Sunda, leaving 
to my discretion to touch at Java or any other island for refresh- 
ment and water as I might think most proper. 

From Prince's Island I was to proceed discretionally to St. 
Vincent's, one of the Windward Islands, and depositing one-half 
of my plants there, I was to go immediat'ly to Jamaica, and Jamaica. 
]ia\'ing given the remainder there to persons appointed to receive 
them, I Avas then, with such plants as were directed by his 
Majesty to be put on board, to return to England. 

This was the sole design of my voyage, to complete which I 
sailed from Spithead on the 23rd December, 1787. 

On the 23rd March, 1788, I doubled Staten Land,* and at- Failure to 
tempted to make my passage round Cape Horn, between tlie Horn^ '^^^^^ 
latitude of 59° S. and 61° S., but I met with such dreadfull 
tempestuous weather and mountainous seas, with hail and snow 
storms, that altho' I tryed it for 30 days I could not accomplish it. 

I therefore (as my people were getting ill, and I had the honor 
to have the most discretionary orders to do as I thought best for 
the good of the voyage) determined to bear away for the Cape of Cape of 
Good Hope on tlie 22nd of April, and repassed " Staten Land the ^°o*iHopc. 
next day. 

On the 24tli INIay anchored at the Cape of Good Hope, and 
having refitted and completed my stores and provisions, I sailed "^'a" ., 
on the 1st July, 1788, arrived at Van Diemen's Land on the 20th L.and. 
August, and having completed wooding and watering, I sailed 
from thence the 4th SeptemV)er. 

On the 19th September, after having past the south part of New New 
Zealand, I discovered veiy dangerous I'ocky islets never known '*^*^" " 

• staten Island. 





Kindness of 
King and 

An island 






The mutiny 

Capt. BliK^h 
seized and 

before. They extend 3 J miles east and west, and 1^^ north and 
south. They lie from the Traps, ott' the south end of New Zealand, 
so. 89 east, distant 146 leagues. Their latitude is 47° 44' 30" so.; 
longitude, 179° 09' east. 

On the 26th October I anchored in Matavai Bay, Otaheite ; 
sailed the 25th December, and anchored in Toahroah Harbour, 3 
miles distance fi'om the bay. I remained here untill the 4th 
April, when I sailed with 1,015 bread-fruit plants and many 
fruit kind, in all 774 pots, 39 tubs, and 24 boxes. Latitude of 
this harbour, 17° 31' 26" S. ; longitude, p'r observ'n, sun and moon, 
and stars each side of the moon, 210° 31' 37" E. ; variation com- 
pass, 5° 31' E. 

I left these happy islanders in much distress, for the utmost 
affection, regard, and good-fellowship remained among us during 
my stay. The King and all the Royal family were allways my 
guests, and their good sense and observations, joined with the 
most engaging dispositions in the world, will ever make them 
beloved by all who become acquainted with them as friends. 

On the 12th April I discover'd an island, called by the natives 
Whytootackee, whose chief was named Comackaiah, as I was 
informed by people in a cannoe that came off to me. Their 
language seemed to prove them nearly the same people as at 
Otaheite. This island is about ten miles in circuit, in latitude 
18° 52' S. It has eight small keys, lying joined by a reef to 
the S.S.E. of it, and one to the W.S.W. The southermost key 
lies in latitude 18° 58' S. ; the longitude by observation is 200° 
19' east of Greenwich ; vai'iation compass, 8° 14' E. 

On the 18th of April I saw Savage Island, in 19° 02' S., and 
longitude, by my observation, 190° 18' E. of Greenwich. 

On the 21st of April I made the Friendly Islands, and on the 
23rd follo\ving I anchored in Annamoca Road (called by Tasman, 
Rotterdam). On the 26th, having completed my water and got 
on board some wood, I sailed. 

This island lies in latitude 20° 16' S., 185° 30' E. 

On the 28th of April, in the morning, the N.W.'most of the 
Friendly Islands, called Tofoa, bore N.E. ten leagues, and I had 
directed my course to the W.N.W., with a ship in most perfect 
.order, and all my plants in a most flourishing condition, all my 
men and officers in good health, and, in short, everything to 
flatter and insure my most sanguine expectations and success. 

But I am now to relate one of the most atrocious and consumate 
acts of piracy ever committed. 

At dawn of day Fletcher Christian, officer of the watch, Charles 
Churchill, ship's corporal, Thomas Burkitt, seaman, and several 
others came into my cabbin, and while I was asleep seized and tyed 
my hands behind my back with a strong cord, and with cutlasses 
and a bayonet fixed at my breast threatened instant death if 


I spoke or made the least noise. I, nevertheless, called out so 1789 
loud that eveiyone heard me, and were flying to my assistance ; 
but all my officers, except those concerned, were kept in their 
cabbins by armed centinels, and the arm-chest was in their The 
possession. I was now hauled upon deck in my shirt, and hands possession '" 
tyed behind me, held by Fletcher Christian and Chai'les Churchill, 
with a bayonet at my breast, and two men, Alex. Smith and 
Thomas Burkitt, l)ehind me with loaded musquets cocked aijd 
bayonets fixed. Under this guard 1 was kept abaft the mizen- 
mast. The different hatchways were all guarded by armed men 
in the same manner, and those who were to be sent out of the 
ship, and some of the mutineers who could be spared, hoisted the A boat 
boats out. Among these was the boatswain, who, with some '^"'®'®'^- 
others, got sails, twine, I'ope, grapnel, and a small cask of water 
into the boat, about which there were many altercations among 
the mutinous crew, and exerting myself in speaking loud to try 
if I could i-ally any with a sense of duty in them, I was saluted 
with, " Damn his eyes ! blow his brains out." 

Being confineil and kept apart from everyone, Mr. Samuel, my 
clerk, secured to me a quadrant and compass, some cloaths, my 
journals, and a few material ship's papers ; but all my valuable 
instruments, with a timepiece of three hundred and fifty guineas 
value, a valuable collection of books, maps, and drawings, with Books and 
all my remarks and observations for fifteen years past, "were kept retained. 
from me. He also secured about one hundred and fifty pounds 
of bread. 

The ofiicers and men being now drove into the boat one by one, officers and 
I was told by Christian, "Sir, your ofiicers are now in the boat, Intothe*^^ 
•^nd you must go with them." I was then taken hold of under a ^°^^- 
guard, and forced over the gangway into the boat, which waited 
only for me, and untying my hands, I was veer'd astern by a 
rope. A few pounds of pork were now thrown to us, being 
nineteen in number ; and each began to soUicit some of their . *" 

little valuables that were left behind them. I desired only some 
firearms, and even at last sollicited two, but we received insolence, 
and were told I should have none. Four cutlasses were, however, 
thrown into the boat, and we were cast adrift, and rowed with Cast adrift, 
all our strength for the land. 

The size of the boat was 23 feet from stem to stern, and 
I'owed six oars, and was so deeply lumbered that they believed 
we could never reach the shore, and some of them made their 
jokes of it. However, by 7 o'clock in the evening I got safe Shoitcrin? 
under Tofoa, but could find no landing, and therefore kejjt tlie \"n,x_^ ^ '^ 
boat under the land all night, paddling with tAvo oars to preserA'e 
our station. 

29th. — Endeavouring to find landing, to increase our stock of 
water and to get some cocoanuts and provisions. 




Looking for 

Food from 
the natives. 

The natives 

An attack. 

Stoned hy 
the natives. 


30th. — Found landing at the N.W. part of the island, in a cove, 
latitude 19° 41' S., as I observed it. Went in search of water, 
but found only a few quarts in holes of the rocks ; suffered much 
fatigue and distress. I should now have proceeded, as I intended, 
for some of the islands where I had a knowledge of the chiefs, for 1 
was well acquainted here, but the wind and sea was too stormy 
to venture out. Part of us slept in the boat, and others, with 
Hiyself, on shore, and as we saw no natives we felt our distress 
the more, because we wanted not to use any of our own stock. 

1st May. — Pai'ty out as yesterday, and found out the residence 
of the natives, who brought supplies of cocoanuts and bread-fruit, 
besides shells of water, all of which I bought for buttons which 
we cut off our cloaths. They all left us at sundown. W'r so windy 
could not proceed to sea. 

2nd. — In the morning two cheifs — Eegyeefow, and the othei 
Maccaacabou — came down ; also two cannoes came in, and another 
chief, called Vageetee, and having enquired our situation and my 
determination to proceed to Paulehow, their king (Eegyeefow) 
agreed as soon as it moderated to go with me. This readiness 
gave me pleasure, but in a few hours I had as much uneasyness. 
The natives began to be very troublesome, and shewed signs of 
hostilities towards us. We, however, thought they would go off 
at sundown, as they had done before, and that then I could leave 
the place without any risk, but it proved to the contrary, for 
three cannoes were now come in, and places were fixed on for their 
residence during the night and fires made. 

I therefore determined to do our best while it was light, and 
directed some provisions we had bought to be put in the boat. 
The cheifs desired I would stay, notwitlistanding they perceived 
that I saw all their people were arming with clubs and stones. 
We were now all on the go, and taking one of the cheifs by the 
hand, with a cutlass in the other, and my people with sticks, we 
proceeded down to the boat, when we were attacked by a multi- 
tude of Indians, in the course of which I lost a veiy worthy good 
man,* and the rest of us more or less bruized and wounded. 

As I hauled out to our grapnel I hoped they could no longer 
annoy us, but here I was mistaken, for they launched their cannoes 
and gave battle to us, or rather stoned us, untill I got a league 
from the land. I could not return their salute but with such 
stones as lodged in the boat. I therefore, as the only thing left 
for to save our lives, exhorted everyone to persevere in rowing, 
and throwing overljoard some cloaths, which beguiled them and 
they lost time in taking up, together with the night coming on, we 
very miraculously escaped. Taking this as a real sample of their 
natural disposition, there were little hopes to expect much where 
I was going, for I considered their good behaviour hitherto 
owmg to a dread of our firearms, which now knowing us to have 

* The Quarter-master, John Norton, 



none would not be the case, and that supposing our lives were 
safe, our boat, compass, and quadrant would all be taken from me, 
and thereby I should not be able to return to my King and 
country to give an account of the transaction. 

I was now soUicited by every person to take them towards 
home, and when I told them no hopes of releif remamed for us 
but what I might find at New Holland untill I came to Timor, a 
distance of 1,200 leagues, where there was a Governor, but that I 
had no idea at what part of the island the settlement was, they 
all agreed to live on one ounce of bread per day and one gill of 

I therefore, after reccommending this promise for ever to their 
_ memory, bore away for New Holland, and from thence to Timor, 
a distance of 1,200 leagues accross a sea where the navigation is 
dangerous and not known, and in a small boat dee^D loaded with 
eighteen souls, without a single map, and nothing but my own 
reccollection and general knowledge of the situation of places, 
assisted by a table in an old book of latitude and longitude, to 
guide me. 

Our stock of provisions at first consisted of 150 pounds of bread 
(part of which afterwards got damaged and lost), 28 gallons of water, 
20 pounds of pox-k, 3 bottles of wine, and 5 quarts of rum. 

It may be asked what could be the cause for such a revolution. 
In answer to which I have only to give a description of Otaheite, 
which has every allui-ement both to luxury and ease, and is the 
Paradise of the world. 

The women are handsome and mild in their manners and conver- 
sation, with sufficient delicacy to make them admired and beloved, 
and the cheifs have acquired such a liking to our people that they 
rather have encouraged their stay among them than otherwise, and 
even made promises of large possessions to them. 

Under these and many other attendant circumstances equally 
desireable, is it to be now wondered at that a set of sailors void of 
connections (or, if they have any, not possessed of natui'al feelings 
sufficient to wish themselves never to be seperated from them) 
should be led by such powerfid tyes. 

But equal to this, what a temptation is it to such wretches 
when they find it in their power (however illegally it can be got at) 
to fix themselves in the midst of plenty in the finest island in the 
world, where they need not laljour, and where the allurements of 
disipation are more than equal to anything that can be conceived. 

Desertions have happened more or less in every ship that has 
been at the Society Isles, but it has ever been in the connnander's 
power to make the cheifs return their people. They therefore knew 
such a plan could never succeed, and perhaps suggested that never 
so small a ship and so elligible an opportunity would offer to them 


One ounoe of 
bread per 

Bound for 


Cause of the 

at Otaheite. 





A good 



The loval. 

1789 Christian was the officei' on deck, and the whole watcli being con- 

cerned except two midshipmen, who knew not what their officer 
was about, it is not surprising that the business was speedily done, 
all the able men being concerned, and also the greatest number, 
as may be seen by the following list : — 

People who came in the Loaf. 
John Fryer, master -p j qr.-mr. 

Willm. Cole, boatswain ' ( Killed at Tofoa. 

Willm. Peckover, gunner Geo. Simpson, qr.-mrs. mate 

Willm. Purcell, carpenter Lawrce. Libogue, sailmaker 

Thos. Dr. Leward, act. surgeon Robt. Tinkler, a boy 
Wm. Elphinstone, master's mate Jno. Smith, capt's servt. 
Thos. Hayward, mid'n Thos. Hall, shij^'s cook 

Jno. Hallett, do Robt. Lamb, butcher 

Jno. Samuel, clerk David Nelson, botanist* 

Peter Linkletter, qi\-mr. 18, total. 

People who remained in the ship. 
The disloyal. Fletcher Christian, master's mate Mattw. Thompson, seaman 

Geo. Stewart, acting do 

Peter Heywood, mid'n. 
Edwd. Young, do. 
Clias. Churchill, corporal 
James Morrison, boatsw's mate 
John Mills, gunner's mate 
Chas. Norman, carp'r's mate 
Thos. M'Intosh, do crew 
Josh. Coleman, armourer 
Thos. Burkitt, seaman 
•Jno. Sumner, do 

Jno. AVilliams, do 

Thos. Ellison, do 

Wm. Mickoy, do 

Jno. Millward, do 
Richd. Skinner, do 
Mathw. Quintal, do 
Michl. Byrne, do 

Heny. Hilbrant, do 
Isaac Martin, do 

Alex. Smith, do 

Willm. Muspratt, do 
Willm. Brown, botanist's assist. 
25, total remaining in the ship. 



Chased by 

To return now to my proceedings in the boat. I steered to the 
W.N.W., as I formerly had heard from the Freindly Island people 
that land lay in that quarter. 

The weather very boisterous, and obliged to keep right before 
the sea, which at times run into us and nearly filled the boat, and 
were obliged to throw all spare cloaths overboard and every article 
we could possibly do without. 

On the 4th May, latitude 18" 58' S., long. 182° 16' E., I dis- 
cover'd land, an island, W.S.W. 4 or 5 leagues. 

On the Gth discovered ten other islands, and that day at noon 
was in lat. 17° 53' S., and long. 179° 43' east. Many shoals. 

On the 7tli discovered other islands ; at noon latitude 16° 33' S., 



34' E., were 




chased by two 
At night torrents 
caught 6 gallons water. 

cannoes, but 




lear of 
thunder and 


On the 9th fair Nv'r ; kept steering to the W.N.W. and west. 

* Died of fever at Koepang'. Post, p. 27S. 


On the lOtli very heavy rains, hard gales and a high sea unto 1789 
the 14th ; suffered much cold in the nights, being constantly wet. 13 Oct. 

On the 1-lrth discovered land — five islands — and were at noon islands, 
in latitude 13' 29' 8., 169' 31' E. ; steered to W.S.W. 

On the 1.5th discovered an island ; latitude at noon 13' 4' S., long. 
167' 35' E. Very fresh gale and high sea, with rain ; constantly wet 
and constantly bailing. DistressVl for want of light to see to steer 
l)y, the w"r Ijeing stormy, with thunder, lightning, rain, and a high 
sea, keeping the boat before it to the 21st, when we had most dread- stormy 
full weather, and the rain fell so heavy that we could scarce keep ^^°^ 
the boat from tilling. 

To the 24th the weather and sea continued very bad, and we Sufferings in 
now dreaded the nights, for we were all benumbed with cold, and ^ '°'^ ' 
what added to our distress in the weak situation we were in, one 
of us in turns was obliged to be constantly bailing the boat in all 
this dreadfull weather, being continually wet, and never having a 
dry rag about us. The i-esource I directed to be taken was, in the 
intervals when the vain ceased to strip naked and wash and wring 
all our cloaths in the sea, which was a great refreshment. 

To the 28th the weather better, when at midnight I fell in with The 
most dreadfull breakers, but I was able to stand away clear of coast. 
them. As I knew I was near the coast of New Holland, I con- 
sidered this to be the reef off that coast, and I therefore stood to 
the west again in the morning to search for a j^assage within it. 
At 9 in the morning I saw the I'eef again, and soon after standing 
along it to the northward I discovered an opening, which I safely 
entered and got into smooth water. 

At noon latitude 12° 46' S., 14-5' 02' E. The entrance I came 
in at S.E., about 2 leagues. 

At ^-past 5 in the afternoon I got into a bay on an island about a Landing' on 
^ mile from the main, and finding it uninhabited I determined on ^"''*'^" • 
searching for supplies. Night came on. We, however, got a few 
oysters from the rocks, which gave us a tolerable good meal. 

As our boat was only laroje enough to admitt one half of us to Division of 
rest at a time, I consented that one party should sleep on shore, ® ^'^^ ^' 
but, unfortunately, having no materials, we could not light a fire. 

29th May. — At dawn of day we went in search of watei and what 
else we could get, and happily by digging found fine fresh v/ater, and 
plenty of it. Oysters were the only supply besides, of which, with our Oysters, 
allowance of bread, we made very good stews. When the sun came 
out strong I was enabled to kindle afire by a small magnifying-glass, 
and we then made tinder and matches to supply our wants in future. 

All hands were very weak, which with dizziness in the head and illness. 
a dreadfull tenesmus were the only complaints. At night part of 
us slept on shore. 

30th May. — I now determined, as the people weic a little re- 
freshed, to proceed on. I therefore by noon got our small water- 




Fern roots 
as food. 



Poor living. 

A fresli 



and visited. 




casks filled, and having foiuid some fern root that I thought whole- 
some and very conducive to prevent thirst, I ordered a parcel into 
the boat. Birds could have easily have been got here if I had 
had arms. On that account every one we saw recalled to us our 
miserable situation, but Providence has been graciously kind to us, 
for we frequently caught by hand sea fowls, which made great 
additions to our dinners of bread. The frequent supply of water 
was also a great blessing, but I had not vessels to contain a suffi- 
cient allowance ; it therefore happen'd that nearly half a pint of 
water was what each person received in the course of the day, 
issued at 8 in the morning, at noon, and sunset, withg-f of a pound 
of bread at breakfast, and the same at dinner. 

I found the latitude of this place 12° 39' S., 144° 44' E. The 
main appeared with a variety of high and low land, interspersed 
with wood, aiid the more interior parts mountainous. 

31. — At 4 in the afternoon, having performed divine service, I 
sailed. Saw twenty natives, armed with spears, come down on the 
shore opposite to us. They were black, and waved to us to come 
to them. 

I steered along shore to the N.N. W. and N. W. by N., in the direc- 
tion of the coast. Saw several islands, and at 8 in the morning 
passed through a cluster, and saw more natives armed in the same 
manner, and made the same signs. I, however, did not land. 

The appearance of the country all changed, being very low, 
and mostly sandhills. Landed on an island, and gathered shell- 
fish, oysters, and clams ; also water, in the hollow of a rock, which 
enabled us to fill our sea store. 

From the heights of this island I saw a small key to the N. W. by 
N. As my pi'csent situation was, therefore, too near the main, 
having discovered at this place the natives to have cannoes, I again 
prepared to sail, so as to reach the key before night. At noon dined 
on stewed oystei^s and clams. Found the latitude of this isl'd 11° 
58' S., 144° 29' E. 

1st June. — With a continuance of fine w'r this evening I landed 
and spent the night at the key above mentioned ; could get no 
supplies of any kind. Some of my people were taken ill with 
vomitings and dizziness; besides, a most dreadful tenesmus afflicted 
many of them, who had not been at stool for three weeks, and some 

At noon I found the latitude of this key 11° 47' S., longitude 
144° 24' E. 

2nd June. — TJiis afternoon it came on strong gales, and my 
people being still ill I prefered giving them a good night's rest 
to going to sea. At dawn of day I sailed ; people much better. 
Passed several islands ; the coast sandy and barren. At noon, 
lat. 11° 18' S., 144° 20' E., I saw what I considered to be Cape 
York, bearing W. h N., 3 leagues. 


3rcl. — At night I again stopt on an island, whose hititude is 1789 
10" 52' S., 14:1' 05' E., by corrected longitude from Cape York, islands, 
■whose true situation is 141° 15' E. My account, therefore, 
yesterday was 3" 05' wrong. 

4th. — At dawn of day I again sailed, and followed the direc- 
tion of the coast to the N.W. ; saw many islands and breakers. 
At noon I was in 10' 31' S., and 140-' 40' E. I now found I had Torres 
doubled the north part of New Holland.* straits. 

At 5 o'clock this evening I left New Holland, and steered 
accordingly for Timor, the latitude of which I was not very 
certain of. However, I determined to make it in the latitude of 
about 9° 30' S. 

On the 1 2th June, at 3 in the morning, I saw the island of Timor 
Timor, bearing W.N.W. ''='^'"'- 

At daylight, finding I was on the S.E. end of it, I went to 
the south of the island, laying-to at night lest I might pass any Lying-to. 
settlement, for I was not certain where the Governor resided. 

On the 14th, in the afternoon, after having passed through a 
very heavy breaking sea and sho&l water, I discovered an opening, 
into which I entered and anchored at 3 o'clock, which I since At anchor. 
find to be a bay on Timor, opposite to Pulo Samow, in the south 
entrance, the island Rotty being in sight to the S.W. by S. 

Saw some Malays on the shore. Sent two men after them, 
and they brought several men to me. One of them agreed to be 
my pilot, and I agreed to give ten half-ducatoons to conduct me 
to the Governor. 

This being settled, we rowed along shore, conducted by him, 
and on the morning, at dawn of day, I anchored off Coupang, off 
and waited for leave to come on shore. At sunrise I was desired k°^p*'*§^' 
by a soldier to come on sliore, and I was conducted to a gentle- 
man's house (Captain Spykerman), who, upon my application, 
ordered breakfast and victuals for all hands ; the Governor, from 
severe indisposition, not being able to see me just at that time. 
Tlie surgeon, a ]Mr. Max, gave us every kind assistance in dress- Kind 
ing our sores, and all who saw us were ready to contribute to the *''^*'^'"*^»'- 
comfort of such poor distress'd creatures, one-half of whom could 
not have survived a week longer, and some, perhaps, not a few days. 

The Governor, with much goodness, became anxious about us, s.\Tnpathy 
and altho' his illness was very severe, I had it in my power to see i^^"^ '^*= 

i-v_ii)ii 1 •!• m • 1 Governor. 

nun by i i o clock, and was received in a most anectionate and pecu- 
liar manner of kindness, wliich will ever endear him to my memory. 

Orders were instantly given f(jr our accomodation and supplies, 
and I had full power to see my people taken care of. 

Thus liappily ended, through the blessing of Divine Pro\"idence, 
witliout accident, a voyage of the most extraordinary nature that An extra- 
ever happened in the world, let it be taken either in its extent, voya"4'^* 
duration, or so much want of the necessaries of life. 

* He had passed Cape York and was in Torres Straits. 




Death of 
Mr. Nelson 

U Oct. 


Orders to 

Two detach- 

I remained at Coupang iintill the 20th August, 1789,* during 
which time I had the misfortune to lose Mr. David Kelson (bot- 
anist), whose good conduct in the course of the whole voyage and 
manly fortitude in our late disastrous circumstances deserves this 
tribute to his memory. He died of a fever on the 20th of July. 

I have not given so full an account to the Admiralty. You will 
please, therefore, to attend to it in that particular.! 

Under Secretary Lewisj to Major Grose. 

Sir, W.O., 14 October, 1789. 

I have the S. of "VV.'s directions to apprize you that two of 
the ships destined to convey convicts to New South Wales will be 
ready to take on board the detachments of your corps which are 
to guai'd them on Monday next at Gravesend. 

You will accordingly take care that two detachments be in 
readiness to embark at that time, the one to consist of two com- 
missioned officers and forty men, including non-commissioned, and 
the other of two commissioned officers and thirty men, including 
non-com'd offi'rs. Another detachment of two officers and thirty 
men will be required in about ten days. 

The remainder of the corps will embark in a 44-gun ship, com- 
manded by a lieutenant of the Navy, in the covirse of a fort- 
night. -.,- T 

° M. Lewis. 

16 Oct. 

A detach- 
ment to go in 

The Right Hon. W. W. Grenville to The Secretary at War. 

Sir, Whitehall, 16th October, 1789. 

I am commanded to signify to you the King's pleasure 
that you do give orders that a detachment of the corps which 
has been raised to serve in New South Wales, consisting of the 
number of officers and men mentioned in the margin,^ may be 
held in constant readiness to embark at Woolwich, on board the 
Neptune, Scarborough, and Surprize, transports, now preparing 
for the receiition of con%'icts destined for New South Wales, in 
order to guaixl the said convicts, and preventing their effecting 
their escape or gaining possession of the ships during their passage 

* Bligh arrived at Batavia on the 1st of October, 1789, and sailed for the Cape of Good 
Hope on the 16th October, arriving,' on the Kith December. He left the Cape on the 2nd 
January, 1790, and arri\ed at Pfirtsmouth on the 14th March. 

t The last sentence is in Blis;h's handwriting. The account of the mutiny and boat 
voyagre was ajiivtarently cojiied from liis MS. Bligh's official report to the Admiralty, 
written from Koepang, was not received until this volume had been pre]iared for ]iress. 
It will be found, however, in Ai^pendiv A. It contains some information not given here. 
Although Bligh did not give "so full an account to the Adnuralty," he wrote and pub- 
lished, on his return to England in 1790, " A Narrative of the Mutiny on board His 
Majesty's Ship Bounty," which occupied 88 pages 4to. It was repeated in a fuller account 
of the Bounty's voyage, publishe 1 in 1792. 

} Mr. Matthew Lewis, Under Secretary at War. 

§ Neptune : Officers, 2 ; men, 40—42. Scarborough : Officers, 2 ; men, 30—32. Surprize : 
Officers, 2 ; men, 30—32. Total, 106. 


With regard to the remainder of that corps, I am to acquaint 1789 
you tliat the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, pursuant to leoct. 
his ^Majesty's commands, have ordered one of the 44-gun ships t,j,,^q{ 
which have been employed in relieving the regiments serving upon ihecorpsina 
foreign stations to be equipped with all possible expedition, in ' 
order to convey it to New South Wales, and to bring home from 
thence the detachment of marines now serving there, which ship, 
I am informed, is nearly ready to proceed upon that service. 

I am, itc, 
AV. W. Grenville. 

Under Secretary Nepean to Under Secretary Lewis, 
Sir, Whitehall, 17th October, 1789. "Oct. 

I am directed by Mr. Sec'y Grenville to acquaint you, in 
addition to his letter to the Secretary at War of yesterday's date, 
that the detachment of the New South Wales Corps intended to 
be put on board the Neptune and Scarborough, transports, to guard ^j^^"^^^** 
the convicts which these ships have been ordered to receive, are to 
be embarked at Gravesend, on Thursday morning at nine o'clock, 
at which hour boats will be ready to carry them on board. 

The Surprize will not be ready to receive the detachment intended 
for that ship for some days. I am, etc., 

___^_ Evan Nepean, 

Under Secretary Lewis to Major Grose. 

Sir, W.O., 17 October, 1789. 

In the abs'ceof the S. of W., I have the honour to send you 
enclosed H.M. orders and instructions for the conduct of your instructions, 
corps during their voyage to N.S.W., and also an order for making 
two detachments therefrom which are to embark on Thursday next. 

When the whole of the corps shall have embarked, you will Returns, 
transmit to Sir George Yonge for H.M.'s information a return 
agreeable to the return (sic) herewith enclosed, and a like return 
addressed to the adjutant-general at his office in London. 

It may not be improper to have it understood that one of the 

vessels intended to convey part of your corps is not an ordinaiy 

transport, but a king's ship,* commanded by a lieutenant of the Naval 

Royal Navy, who is entitled to the full exercise of the chief 'command. 

command on board, but will of course avoid interfering with the 

officers of your corps in any matters respecting the internal detail 

thereof. ,^ -r 

tt;, 1 ^ M. Lewis. 

[Enclosure. ] 

Orders for the New South Wales Corps. 

The commanding officer is to take care that every morning all the Discipline 

men be brought up on deck, the berths cleaned, and the bedding "•' ^'^^• 

bi'ought up to air, if the weather permits. 

Tliat no smoaking be suffered between decks. 

* H.M.S. Gorgon. Post, p. 285. 


1789 That no gaming be allowed ; nor shall any person be suffered 

17 Oct. to vend or distribute drams or spirituous liquors. 

That as many men as possible be kept upon deck in the day- 
Shore leave. jf j^j^^y Qf ^]^g vessels shoukl put into any port or harbour, no 
officer or soldier is to go on shore but by the consent of the offi'r 
com'g the troops on board such vessels. And when any soldiers 
are allowed to go on shore a non-com'd offi'r is to go with them, 
who is to be answei'able for their conduct while on shore. 
Deduction ij^j^g com'g offi'r will acq't the corps that in order to contribute 

foi- exjjenses. » „ '■ . . ^ -, 

towards the expence oi provisions on board, the paym r-gen 1 of 
the forces is directed to make a deduction of threepence per diem 
from every offi'r, non-com'd offi'r, and soldier borne on the full 
establishment of the corps during the time of their being on board 
ship ; and the major is ordered to take care that the agent or 
paym'r stops no more from any offi'r, non-com'd offir, or soldier 
on account of provisions than the said threepence per diem, the 
commanders of the said vessels certifying the number of days the 
troops shall have been on board their respective ships. 
Orders on Upoii the arrival of the corps at New South Wales they are to 

follow such orders as they shall receive from Governor Philip or 
offi'r com'g-in-chief H.M. forces in those parts for the time being. 

Geo. Yoxge. 

Captain Harvey to Sir Joseph Banks (Banks Papers). 
28 Oct. Sir, Portsmouth, 28 Oct., 1789. 

Upon receiving my present commission to command his 

m^and^the ^^^j^sty's ship Gorgoii, destined for ISTew South Wales, I waited 

Gorgon. Oil you, but iiot having the pleasure of seeing you by your not 

being in town, seeing the impossibility of getting to London again, I 

take this opportunity to return you my most unfeigned and sincere 

thanks for your friendship in getting me this command.* 

I have one more favor of you to beg, which is, that you will 
command and give me such instructions what curiositys, &c., itc, 
to get for you, and by so doing you will still more oblige. 

Yours, &c., 

Wm. Harvey. 

Warrant for Transportation. 
George R. 
30 Oct. W^HEREAS by an Act passed in the twenty-eighth year of our 
reign, intituled " An Act to continue several laws relating to the 
granting a bounty on the exportation of certain species of British 
and Irish linens exported, and taking off the duties on the impor- 
tation of foreign raw linen yarns made of flax ; and to the pre- 

* Captain Harvey was superseded by Captain John Parker. Post, p. 427. 


venting tlie committing of frauds by bankrupts ; and for continuing 1789 
and amending several laws relating to the imprisonment and trans- 28 Oct. 
portation of otfenders." It is amongst other things enacted that rr . 

"Nvhenever we shall be pleased to give orders for the transportation t,ion laws. 
of any offender or offenders, it shall and may be lawful for us 
under our royal sign manual, if we shall think fit to authorize and 
empower any person or persons to make contracts for the effectual Contracts, 
transportation of such offender and offenders, and to direct to 
what person or persons security shall be given for the effectual 
transportation of such offender or offenders ; and every such 
contract and security shall be equally valid and effectual, and 
every person contracting for the transportation of any offender 
or offenders with any person or persons so authorized by us as 
aforesaid shall have the like property in the serAice of such, 
offender or offenders, as if such contract had been made, and such 
security had been given in the manner required in the Act passed 
in the twenty -fourth year of our reign intituled " An Act for 
the effectual transportation of felons and other offenders." And 
wdiereas from the great number of persons remaining on board Accunmla- 
the hulks and in the several prisons within this kingdom under convicts, 
sentence of transportation, we have, pursuant to the powers 
vested in us by the said recited Acts, thought fit to give directions 
that a number of convicts who were severally convicted at the 
times and places hereinafter mentioned, and respectively received 
sentence to be transported, be immediately and eftectually trans- 
ported to our territory of New South Wales pursuant, to their xransporta- 
respective sentences. We do hereby authorize and empower our gouti^vvale^ 
trusty and well-beloved Thomas Shelton, Esq're, to make a con- 
tract or contracts with any fit person or persons for the effectual Contractors 
transportation of the several convicts whose names are inserted secmin-. 
in the list hereunto annexed, and to take security from the 
person or persons so contracting for the transportation of the said 
con\dcts, that he or they will transport, or cause to be effectually 
transported the said several convicts to our said territory of New 
South Wales, and procure such evidence as the nature of the case 
will admit of the landing of the said several convicts, at our 
territory aforesaid (death and casualty by sea excepted) and 
that they shall not respectively be suffered to return to Great Provision 
Britain or Ireland by the wilful default of the said person or Sffault. 
persons so contracting as aforesaid, or of his or their assigns 
according to the directions of the aforesaid Act passed in the 
twenty-fourth year of our reign : And for so doing this shall be 
your warrant. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the thirtieth day of October, 
1789, in the thirtieth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command. 



2 Nov. George R. 

George the Third, Ac, to our ti'usty and well-beloved Major Francis 

Grose, greeting : — 

We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, 

courage, and experience in military afitiirs, do, by these presents, 

Lieut.- constitute and appoint you to be Lieutenant-Governor of the 

settlement within our territory called New South AVales, in the 

room of Major Robert Ross, from and immediately after your 

arrival in our said settlement. You are, therefore, as Lieutenant- 

To take Governor to take the said settlement into your care and charge, 

that capa- and carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of Lieutenant- 

^^^y- Governor thereof, by doing and performing all and all manner 

of things thereunto belonging ; and we do hereby strictly charge 

and require all our officers and soldiers who shall hei-eafter be in 

our said territory, and all others whom it may concern, to obey 

you as our Lieutenant-Governor thereof; and you are to observe 

Orders and and follow such Orders and instructions from time to time as you 

mstructioEs. gj^^ll receive from us, our Governor of our said territory for the 

time being, or any other your superior officer, according to the 

rules and discipline of war, in pursuance of the trust we hereby 

repose in you. 

Given at our Court at St. James's, the second day of November, 
1789, in the thirtieth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 

W. W. Grenville. 


The Home Department to Under Secretary Lewis. 

Sir, Whitehall, 6th Nov'r, 1789. 

It having been represented by Major Grose and Captain 
Nepean, the latter of whom is to embark with a party of the New 
South Wales Corps on board the Neptune, transport, which is to 
convey to that country a considerable number of convicts, that 
there is only one surgeon under the contractor's appointment to 
embark in the said sliip, and that it will be necessary, in case of 
sickness on board, that the surgeon or surgeon's mate of Major 
Grose's corps should be ordered to take his passage in her, I am 
directed by Mr. Secretary Grenville to desire that you will move 
Surgeon? the Secretary at War to give direction that the surgeon or surgeon's 
mate of that corps, as may be thought proper, do take his passage 
on board that ship. I am, Arc, 

S. Bernard. 

The Home Department to Under Secretary Lewis. 
9 Nov. Sir, AVhitehall, 9th Nov'r, 1789. 

The Surprize, transport, intended to carry out some of the 
convicts to New South Wales, and now lying in the galleons 



in the river Thames, being ready for sea, I am directed by Mr. 1789 
Secretary Grenville to desire tliat orders may be given without 9 Xov. 
delay for putting on board tliat shij) two officers and thirty men 
of the New South Wales Corps, as ruentioned in his letter of the 
16th of last month to the Secretary at War. 

I am, etc., 
■ S. Bernard. 

To Mr. Nepean.* (Banks Papers). 
The Golden Grove brings 14 kangaroo skins; a bird, to be knoAvn Animals, 
by the smell it had when living, it buiTOws in the sand like a rabbit, port^jack- 
and comes out only in the night; a dog, called dingo; a small box son. 
of black lead, any quantity of which may be obtained. Emus are 
seen frequently, but no more have been killed. 

He has built a good house of brick and stone, 56 above high- 
water mark, and on sinking near it a well 15 feet in rock has 
found a spring of excellent water, f 

Lieutenant Riou to Secretary Stephens. 
H.^I. ship Guardian, Table Bay, 

Sir, Cape of Good Hope, 25th November, 1789. 25 Nov. 

I am to request you will be pleased to communicate to the 
Bight Honourable the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty 
the arrival of his jVLajesty's ship Guardian at this place. I entrust The 
this letter to the care of Mr. Hiram Lloyd, master of the ship tiiTcape! ^^ 
Roman Emperor, a south whaler, who sails for Saldanha Bay 
this instant, and thence to England. Having, unfortunately, on 
board the Guardian two seamen, who I find to be unfit for his 
Majesty's service, and rendered by their disorder totally unservice- 
able, I embrace the opportunity of sending them home, with their L'nservice- 
certificates, on board the above ship. I hope the hurry in which 
I write this will be excused, as the ship is preparing to depart 
instantly, and as it is very uncertain whether she may arrive in 
England befoi-e other ships which may sail hereafter, I thought it 
incumbent on me by no means to detain her. 

His Majesty's ship Vestal, as I am informed, sailed hence about Vestal. 
ten days ago. 

The last intelligence I had of the Lady Juliana, transport, was Lady 
from a soutli whaler, which I spoke with in the latitude of 2° 14' J"'''"'^- 
north, the master of which informed me that that ship had sailed 
from Porto Praya on the 21st day of September. I have, &c., 

E. Riou. 

* So endorsed in Sir .Josei>h Banks' handwriting, dated 17th November, 1789. On the back 
of the paper is this label attached by wafers: -" Essential oil drawn from the leaves of a 
large tree ; its smell and taste resembling the nutpejipermint. Of these trees we have great 
abundance." Below the label Sir Joseph Banks has written: — " This ticket was fi.xed to 
tlic iiottic of essential oil." 

t The house referred to is evidently the Governor's. See officer's letter, 18 November, 
1788. Ante, p. 22a. 



2 Dec. 





•24 Dec. 

The second 

1,008 con- 

Wives and 

The Right Hon. W. W. Grenville to Lieut. Shapcote. * 

Sir, Whitehall, 2nd Decem'r, 1789. 

The contractor for the transportation of convicts to New- 
South Wales has informed me that the apartment designed for 
the female convicts on board the Neptune is capable of contain- 
ing between thirty and forty more than the number now on boaixl, 
and that preparations have been made by him for the reception of 
such other females as may be ready to embark. 

As it is probable some of the male convicts put on board the 
ship now under dispatch may be desirous that their wives should 
accompany them, it has been thought adviseable that so many of 
them shall be allowed to eml^ark as can conveniently l^e accomo- 
dated, and I shall be glad if you will notify to the several convicts 
the intention of granting this indulgence to them, in order that 
they may give information thereof to their wives, and hasten their 
embarkation as much as possible. 

If the number of convicts who may apply to you in consequence 
should not be sufficient to complete the number for which accomo- 
dation is provided, you will in such case acquaint the rest of the 
convicts that women who may have cohabited with them will also 
be received on board. 

I shall take care that proper directions be given that such 
women as may embark in consequence of this proceeding may be 
victualled during their passage, and be provided with cloaths and 
necessaries in the same manner as the female convicts under order 
for transportation. I am, &g., 

W. W. Grexville. 

The Right Hon. W. W\ Grexville to Goverxor Phillip. 

Sir, Whitehall, 24th December, 1789. 

In my letters of the 20tli June and 24th August, I informed 
you that it was the intention of Government that a farther number 
of convicts should be sent out in the autumn, with a view to your 
making such arrangements as might be necessary for their recep-' 
tion. I am now to acquaint you that measures have been taken 
for that purpose, and that nine hundred and thirty males and 
seventy-eight females have been embarked on board the ships 
named in the margin, f now assembled at Spithead, and in readiness 
to depart the moment the wind proves favourable for their pi'o- 
eeeding down Channel. 

The number of female convicts bearing a great disproportion 
to that of the males, it was thought adviseable that such of tlie 
latter as were married should be allowed to take their wives with 
them on board the ships in which tliey have been embarked, or 
even women that cohabited with them ; but notwithstanding the 

* Naval agent. Died on board the Xeptune on the voyage to Port Jaclcson. 1 

•f- Surprize, Scarborough, and Xeptune. 


indulgence held out to them of supplies of provisions and clothing, 1789 
very few of the two latter descriptions of women have been pre- 24 Dec. 
vailed upon to accede to the proposal. Such of them, however, as 
shall arrive Avithin the limits of your Government are to be furnished 
with the same proportions of those articles as the female convicts. 

The three ships above mentioned, and the Justinian, which has 
been taken up as a store-ship, and now in the river under orders 
to follow, contain a large supply of clothing, provisions, tools, &c., suppiie?. 
the particulars of which are specified in the inclosed estimates. 
All these articles will be found to be of the first quality, and will, 
I hope, be applied to the best possible advantage. 

After the arrival of these ships it will be extremely desireable 
that you should, if no other more eligible situation shall have pre- 
sented itself to you since your last communications, take the 
earliest opportunity that circumstances will admit of detaching a 
considerable number of the convicts to Norfolk Island, with a N.u-foik 
suitable proportion of provisions, &c. But as the ships in which be'lettM. 
they are now embarked are chartered by the East India Company 
to bring home teas from China, it will be necessary that the con- 
victs, ^vith the stores, provisions, &c., on board them, should be 
landed at Sydney, and that the sliips should be discharged, and 
left at liberty to proceed upon their voyage as soon as possible, 
employing the services of the Supply, tender, in removing such 
convicts and stores to Norfolk Island or elsewhere whenever that 
arrangement can be carried into effect. The disembarking the 
convicts at Sydney, exclusive of the consideration before mentioned, coiwicts. 
seems indeed to be a measure highly necessary, as from the length 
of the passage from hence, and the nature of their food, there is 
every reason to expect that many of them will be reduced to so 
debilitated a state that immediate relief will be found to be 
expedient for the preservation of their lives. 

The ccjrps which I before informed you was to be raised to ^®"' ^p"^.'\ 
serve within your Government, instead of the marines now doing " * '^'^^'" 
duty there, has been complete for some time past. A detach- 
ment from it, consisting of about 100 officers and men, has been 
put on board the convict ships for their greater security against 
any attempts which the convicts might meditate, and the re- 
mainder, under the command of Major Grose, amounting, as you Jiajor Grose. 
will see by the enclosed establishment, to upwards of 200 more, 
will, I expect, embark at Portsmouth on board her Majesty's ship 
the Gorgon* in the course of a few days. 

Major Grose has been appointed to succeed to the Lieut.- Licut.- 
Government of N. S. Wales, and on his arrival you will direct 
Major Ross and the officers of the marine corps serving under 
his command, together with such of the non-commission officers 

* Major Grose did not leave England until July, 1791. He arrived at Sydney in the ship 
Pitt, 14 February, 1792. 





24 Dec. 


Phillip to 


home, to be 

A thousand 
more con- 
victs to be 





Governor of 



25 Dec. 

and wonder- 
ful conduct. 

and private men as may l)e desirous of 
embarked as soon as possible for that purpose. 

I am led to hope from the bounty and other indulgences which 
you have been authorized to offer to the non-commission officers 
and men that many of them will be induced to remain within 
your Government ; and if such a number of them as shall be 
sufficient to compose a company equal to those of the new corps 
can be prevailed upon to accede to your proposals, his Majesty 
in such case has signified his intention of allowing you to recom- 
mend any three officers from amongst the marines already holding 
the rank of captain, 1st lieutenant, and 2d lieutenant, whom you 
may judge to be most deserving of his Majesty's favor, to be 
appointed to that company, and to be incor^^orated in the new 
corps with the rank of captain, lieutenant, and ensign. This 
measure will, however, be notified to you through his Majesty's 
Secretary at War by the Gorgon. In the meantime yovi will make 
your arrangements accordingly.* 

From the present crowded state of the hulks, and the increase 
which must be expected of the number of felons under sentence of 
transportation, not only in this kingdom, but in Ireland, after the 
next Spring Assizes, it is intended that about one thousand men 
shall be .sent abroad, and preparations must be made for their 
reception. With these last-mentioned convicts it is proposed that 
an additional company of troops shall be embarked, which, uj^on 
their arrival within your Government, will be annexed to the new 
corps, and will compose a force, I hope, competent to every neces- 
sary service that may occur. 

The promoting Lieutenant King to the rank of master and 
commander cannot be done without much difficulty and incon- 
venience! ; but as his services at Norfolk Island merit some mark 
of favor, I have submitted to his Majesty's consideration the 
appointing Mr. King to be Lieutenant-Governor of that island ; 
and I have the pleasure of informing you that his Majesty has 
been pleased to order a commission to be prepared for that pur- 
pose, to which appointment will be annexed a salary of £250 per 
annum, payment of which will be provided for in the next esti- 
mate to be laid before Parliament, together with a salary for the 
Deputy-Commissary of Stores and Provisions. I am, &c., 

W. W. Grenville. 

Lieutenant Riou to The Admiralty.! 
Sir, H.M. Guardian, 25 Dec, 1789, Lat. 44° S., long. 40° E. 
If any part of the officers or crew of the Guardian should 
ever survive to get home, I have only to say their conduct after 

* The extra company was raised in 1792, and the command given to Captain Georgfe Johnston, 
t King received his promotion, 2nd March, 1791. 

j Written in the cabin of the Guardian the day after the vessel struck an iceberg. It 
was doubtful at the time whether the vessel would sink or swim. Post, p. 310. 


the fatal stroke against an island of ice was admirable and won- 1789 
derful in everything that related to their duties, considered either 24 Dec. 
as private men or on his Majesty's service. 

As there seems to be no possibility of my remaining many Riou and his 
hours in this world, I beg leave to recommend to the considera- ""^i^tives. 
tion of the Admiralty a sister, who, if my conduct or services 
should be found deserving any memory, their favors might he 
shown to her, together with a widowed mother. I am, itc, 

E. Riou. 

A Young Settler.* 17£0 

Edward Foulkes, a young gentleman of the age of nineteen, is ^ J^"- 
desirous of going to Botany Bay in any capacity he may be thought 
fit for. He has had a good classical education, writes a good hand, 
and i.? a good accountant. 

He is recommended by the means of Mrs. Morris's, of Croome's 
Hill, Greenwicli, and is a relation of Mr. and Mrs. Foulkes, 
Cursitor-street, Cliancery Lane. 

5 January, 1790. 

20 Jan. 

The Right Hoy. "\T. W. Grexville to The Secretary at War. 
Sir, Whitehall, 20th Jan'y, 1790. 

I am commanded to signify to you the King's pleasure 
hat dii'ections be immediately given for the embarkation of the n.s.vv. 
coi'i^s raised for service in New South Wales, and commanded by Con^s. 
Major Grose, on board his Majesty's ship Gorgon, now lying at the 
Nore, and ready to receive them. I am, &c., 

W. W. Grenville. 

Norfolk Island. — Lieutexant-Goverxou King's CoiiMrssiON.f 28 Jan. 

George R. 
George the Third, etc., to our trusty and well-beloved Lieutenant 

Pliilip Gidley King, greeting : — 
We, rei:)osing special trust and confidence in your loyalty, courage, 
and experience, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you 
to be Lieutenant-Governor of Norfolk Island, in the Pacific Ocean. Lieut.- 
You are, therefore, as Lieutenant-Governor, to take the said IJorST'""' 
island into your care and charge, and carefully and diligently to island. 
discharge the duty of Lieutenant-Governor thereof by doing and 
performing all and all manner of things thereunto belonging, and 
we do hereby strictly charge and require all our oflicers and soldiers 

*This is one of the few proposals received by the Government of the day from persons 
desirous of settliii;,'' in the colony. Another was sent 8th April, 1791. Post, p". 486. 

t Kins' was ajijointed, in the first instance, Supcrintenilent and Connnandant of Norfolk 
Island, 12th FeV)ruary, 1788. Ante, p. V.K. He was recalled in March, 1790, and sent with 
despatches to Kri},'land, where he learned that a connnission as Lieutenant-Governor had 
been forwarded to him. He left En^dand by the G()rj,'on, 1.0th March, 1791, and took charge 
at Norfolk Island, from November, 1791, to September, 1790. 



1790 -yvho shall hereafter be in our said island, and all others whom it 
28 Jan. may concern, to obey you as our Lieutenant-Governor thereof, and 
Ordersand jo^ ^^'^ ^^ observe and follow such orders and instructions from 
instructions, time to time as you shall receive from us, our Governor of our terri- 
tory of New South Wales and the islands adjacent for the time 
being, or any other your superior oificer, according to the rules and 
discipline of war, in pursuance of the trust we hereby repose in you. 
Given at our Court at St. James's, the 28th day of January, 
1790, in the thirtieth year of our reign. 

By his Majesty's command, 

W. W. Grenville. 


ment to 

The Right Hex. W. W. Grenville to Lieut. -Governor King. 

Sir, Whitehall, 1st Feb., 1790. 

I have laid before the King the representations made by 
Gov. Phillip of your services since you have been employed under 
his command, and I have the satisfaction to acquaint you that 
his Majesty has, as a reward of those services, been pleased to 
sign a commission appointing, you Lieut. -Governor of Norfolk 
Island, to which appointment it is intended to propose, in the 
next estimate to be laid before the House of Commons, an annual 
allowance of two hundred and fifty pounds. I am, etc., 

W. W. Grenville. 

Obstacles to 

The night- 

Its duties. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney.* 

Government House, Sydney Cove, 

My Lord, Feb. 1st, 1790. 

As every obstacle thrown in the way of the civil govern- 
ment is rendei'ed doubly embarrassing from our situation, and 
which does not permit those steps which would be taken on 
similar occasions in any other of his Majesty's settlements, I am 
under the disagreeable necessity of laying the following particulars 
before your Lordship. 

Few nights having past for several months in which individuals 
had not suffered by having their gardens robbed, or by losing of 
poultry, I found it necessary to establish a watch, and the regu- 
lations (No. l)t when drawn up were sent to Major Ross for his 
opinion respecting the detachment, and which he approved of, 
some little change being made at his request. The watch was 
then established, and which so fully answered the purpose that 
for three months not a single robbery was committed in the night. 

The watch consisted of twelve convicts. They assembled im- 
mediately after the tap-too had beat, and patroll'd during the 
No complaint was ever made of them. They were par- 


*The Right Hon. W. W. Grenville succeeded Lord Sydney at the Home Office, Sfi June^ 
1789, but Governor Phillip was not yet aware of the fact. 
t Post, p. 292. 


ticularly cautioned against having any dispute with a soldier or 1790 
sailor, and wei-e promised to be rewarded in future if they were j pcb. 
honest and vigilant, which they were, for they acted very properly 
on several occasions when they met with soldiers or sailoi's in the 
night, and they prevented many robberies. 

Soldiers and sailors, when stopped by the watch, were left at 
the guaixl-house till the next morning, when, if nothing criminal 
was laid to their charge, they were delivered to their jDrojier 
officers. But a soldier being one night stopped by the watch in -^ soldier 
the convicts' camp, and delivered, as usual, to the guard. Major 
Ross, the next morning, sent the adjutant to tell the Judge- 
Advocate (under whose direction I had placed the night-watch), 
" that he considered a soldier being stopped, when not committing 
any unlawful act, as an insult offered to the corps, and that they 
would not suffer themselves to be treated in that manner, or be Threats. 
controuled by the convicts, while they had bayonets in their 
hands." (Here I must beg leave to observe to your Lordship 
that the last sentence, respecting the bayonets, was never men- 
tioned to me till after this business was settled, for if it had I 
should not have been induced to have withdrawn the order, which 
dix-ected the night-watch to stop a soldier, by so pointed a menace, 
for I should not have thought it could tend to the good of his 
Majesty's service.) As soon as I was informed that Major Ross 
deemed tlie stopping that soldier by the nic;ht-watch an insult An insult to 

he con>s 

offered to the corps, I desired to see him. Soldiers had been 
frequently stopped in the night Ijy the watch, and I wislied to 
convince him of the necessity of stopping the soldier, as well as 
the sailor, when found in the convicts' camp or in suspicious 
places during the night, and the dcnng which had been the means 
of preventing many robberies ; but I could obtain no other answer 
than "that it was an insult to the corps; if I wished to say 
anything further on that subject, he would wait on me the next Articled. 
day with two of his officers, giving me at the same time to under- 
stand that by the 5th Ai-ticle in the Regulations* given to the 
watch I had put the soldiers under the command of the convicts, 
and which Article, he hojoed, would be withdrawn. ' 

Major Ross did not deny but that the robberies which had been 
so very frequent before the watch was established had Ijeen very 
effectually put a stop to. I had pointed out that I'obberies had 
been committed by the soldiers, and by whom the stores had been 
robljed the year round, which could not have been the case if the 
watch had been then established, and the little proljability there 
was of detecting a sijldier if he was never to be questioned, unless 
caught in the very act of stealing ; but as he persisted in the ThesoWiei-s 
opinion that it was an insult offered the corps, and that they ^^'^ciil]'^ 

•The 5th Article of the Re;,'uIations is as follows : " Any soldier or seaman found straj;- 
{flin*,' after the taptoo has heat, or who may he found in the convicts' huts, is to be detained, 
and information to be inmiediately given to the nearest guard-house." 





1 Feb. 

Article 5 


Only con- 
victs avail- 
able as 


No help 



were put under the command of convicts, no other alternative 
was left me but to withdraw the order respecting the soldier.s, 
and consequently leave them at liberty to be about the gardens 
and the stores at all hours of the night, or run the risk of disputes 
between the soldiers and the watch ; and it was not to be supposed 
that soldiers would quietly suffer themselves to be stopped by a 
convict watchman, after such declarations from their commandant, 
and which were known. 

I therefore withdrew the 5th Article of the insti'uctions, so far 
as it respected the detaining any soldier found straggling after the 
taptoo had Ijeat, and having examined the report made by the 
captain of the day to his commandant, the information given me by 
the Judge- Advocate, and the examination of the watch, though I 
saw nothing which in my opinion could be deemed an insult to the 
corps, still, being desirous of doing away that idea, I sent the adju- 
tant to inform his commandant that, though there did not appear 
to me to have been any insult offered, I was still ready to direct 
such enquiry to be made as Major Ross might judge necessary, and 
as he had proposed bringing two officers with him, I desired, if he 
thought it necessary to see me with two officers, that all the officers 
at head-quarters might come with him. The answer I received was 
" that he still thought an insult had been offered the corps, but 
as he had taken the necessary step, he did not wish any further 
inquiry." What those necessary steps are I know not, nor do I 
know if all or any of the officers are of this commandant's opinion ; 
but as I have now laid before your Lordship every information I 
have received on this business, and the regulations for the watch, 
with the officer of the guard's report, are enclosed, if I have by 
giving an improper authority to the convicts employed as a night, 
watch (and I have none but convicts to employ on such a service) 
put the soldiers under the command of convicts and insulted the 
detachment, it will be seen ; but if, on the contrary, it appears that, 
as the only means of preventing those consequences which might 
naturally have been expected to follow such declarations from the 
commandant of the detachment, I have been driven to the neces- 
sity of withdrawing an order calculated for the public good, and 
which so fully answered the end proposed, and that I have been 
without reason accused of insulting those who are under my com- 
mand, as I have been on a former occasion accused of oppression* 
for calling upon officers in their turn to sit as members of the 
criminal courts, then I trust and hope that such an inquiry will 
be ordered as may the most effectually do away such groundless 

As I have said that I am a stranger to the officers' opinions on 
this matter, it may be necessary to inform your Lordship of the 
state of the detachment, and which will point out my reason for 
never making any I'eference to or taking the opinion of officers 

* Ante, p 238. 


in any shape. I have always used my endeavours to reconcile l^OO 
them to their commandant, and have cautiously avoided anything i Feb. 
■which might tend to have a contrary effect. 

Officers haA'e been put under arrest by their commandant, and 
courts-martial have been demanded, and which have likewise been 
requested by the officers in defence of their conduct, but no inquiry 
into the conduct of any individual above the rank of a non- 
commissioned officer can take place, and the consequences will be 
obvious to your Lordship, whei'e so little harmony prevails between 
the commandant and his officers. The strength of the detach- 
ment consists of only eighteen officers, one of whom is on duty 
at Norfolk Island, and a second has never done any duty since he 
was ajipointed by Major Ross ; of the sixteen remaining for the \Miolesaie 
duty of this settlement, five have been put under arrest by the suspensions. 
commandant, and are only doing duty till a general court-martial 
can be assembled, in consequence of a sentence passed by them at 
a battalion court-martial ; a sixth officer is suspended in conse- 
quence of a representation made by the corps of his unofficerlike 
behaviour* ; a seventh is suspended by his commandant for 
unofficerlike behaviour in taking a soldier who had been abused 
by a convict to make his complaint to the magistrates, without 
having first given information to his commandant ; and both 
adjutant and quarter-master of the detachment have been equally 
under his displeasure, whilst the Judge- Advocate's conduct has 
been complained of by Major Ross, as commandant of the detach- 
ment, and as the Lieutenant-Govei'nor, and the Judge- Advocate, in 
his turn, has represented his having been treated in such a manner 
by the Lieut.-Governor and Captain Campbell, before convicts and ^'■''^'^;*'" 
others, that he wished to resign his office of Judge- Advocate ; and 
Captain Hunter, who one day in the week, while the Sirius is in 
the harboui-, assists the Judge- Advocate as a Justice of the Peace, 
thought himself treated on the same occasion so very improperly by 
the Lieutenant-Governor that he represented it to me, and desired 
to be excused from that weekly attendance as a magistrate ; and 
had those two officers declined that duty I could not have replaced 
them, for though other officers have been appointed to act as civil 
magistrates I have found it necessary to avoid calling on them t< 
net in that capacity. 

Your Lordship will excuse my having entered on this detail ; it Change 
will point out the necessity of some change being made, or an "®*^®®®*'j* 
arlditional force being sent out ; and it will prevent my troubling 
your Lordship further on this subject, as I shall now enclose the 
letters I have received from the Lieut.-Governor and Judge- Advo- 
cate to Mr. Nepeanf; but I feel myself bound, in justice to the 

* Xote by Governor Phillip :—" This officer has since returned to his duty, at the desire of 
M;ijor Ross and all the officers of tlie detachment." 
t Ante, 202-264. 



Duties of 


1790 Judge- Advocate, to say that I have seen no cause ever to be dis- 
1 Feb. satisfied with his conduct ; on the contrary, I have always found 
him ready to exert himself for the publick good. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 
Regulations. The following regulations to be observed by the night-watch 
appointed for the more effectual preservation of public and 
private property, and for preventing or detecting the com- 
mission of niglitly depredations. 
A NIGHT-WATCH, consisting of twelve persons, divided into four 
parties, is appointed, and fully authorised to patrol at all hours 
in the night, and to visit such places as may be deemed necessary 
for the discovery of any felony, trespass, or misdemeanor, and for 
the apprehending and securing for examination any person or 
persons tliat may appear to them conceited therein, either by 
entrance into any suspected hut or dwelling, or by such other 
manner as may appear expedient. 

2. — Tliose parts in which the convicts reside are to be divided, 
and numbered in the following manner : — The convicts' huts and 
the public farm on the east side of the cove to be the first 
division. Those at the brick-kilns and the detached parties at 
the different farms in that district the second division. Those on 
the western side, as far as the line that separates the district of the 
women from the men, the third division. The huts occupied from 
that line to the hospital, and from thence to the observatory, to 
be the fourth division. 

'S. — These districts or divisions to be each of them under the 
particular inspection of one person, who shall be judged qualified 
to inform himself of the actual residence of each individual in his 
district, as well as of his business, connections, and acquaintance. 
4. — Cognisance is to be taken of such convicts as may sell or 
barter their slops or provisions, as also of .such as game for either 
of the aforesaid articles, and report is to be made of them to the 

5.— Any soldier or seaman found sti'agling after the taptoo has 
beat, or who may be found in the convicts' huts, is to be detained, 
and information to be immdiately given to the neearest guard-house. 
6. — On any person's being robbed during the night, he is to give 
immediate information thereof to the watch of his district, who on 
the instant of application being made shall use the most effectual 
means to trace out the offender or offenders, so that he or they may 
be brought to justice 

7. — The watch of each district to be under the direction of one 

person, who will be named for that purpose, and all the patrols 

to be immediately under the inspection of Hex'bert Keeling. They 

Nogratui- are never to receive any fee, gratuity, or reward from any in- 

ties. dividual to engage their exertions in the execution of the above 




10 tl7 0\vatcli 


trust ; nor are they to receive any stipulated encouragement for ^"^^^ 
the conviction of any oftender ; but their diligence and good 
behaviour will be rewarded by the Governor, and for which pur- 
pose their conduct will be strictly attended to by those who are 
in authority over them. 

8. — The night-watch to go out as soon as the taptoo has done 
beating, to return to their huts when the working-drum beats in 
the morning, and rejDorts to be made at twelve o'clock to the 
Judge-Advocate of all robberies and misdemeanors, by Herbert Report to 
Keeling. Any assistance the patrols may require Avill be given Advocate^" 
them on applying to the officer of the nearest guard, and by the 
civil power if necessary; for which application is to be made to 

9. — Any negligence on the part of those who may be employed Breach of 
on this duty will be punished with the utmost rigour of the law. ^^^' 
The night-watch to consist of the following persons : — 

Charles Peat. ^Ym. Bradbury. 

William Hubbard. Thos. Oldfield. 

John Coen Walsh. Stephen Le Grove. 

John Neal. John Archer. 

A. Phillip. 
7th August, 1789. David Collins, Judge-Advocate. 

9th November, 1789. 
NoTWiTHSTAXDiXG the 5 th Article of the regulations established 
for the night-watch directs that any soldier found stragling after 
the taptoo has beat, or in the convicts' huts, is to be detained, 
and information immediately given to the neai'est guard, the Article 5 
night-watch are not in future to stop any soldier, unless he is withdrawn, 
found in a riot, or committing any unlawful act, in which case 
such soldier is immediately to be taken to the nearest guard. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

Government House, Sydney Cove, 
My Lord, February 12th, 1790. 12 Feb. 

I had the honor of informing your Lordship of the state 
of this colony by the last ships which sailed from hence, and I 
shall now proceed to lay before .your Lordship such circumstances 
as have occurred since their departure. 

In February [1789] the Supply, armed tender, went to Norfolk Norfolk 
Island with provisions and twenty-seven convicts, for although " ^" ' 
the officer who conmianded there had but a very small number of 
free people, and in whom alone he could jilace any confidence, yet 
from the apparent impossibility of the convicts succeeding I never 
supposed they would attempt an escape, and which was the less 
to Ije apprehended from thegreat lenity they had l^een treated with. 




9 Nov. 

A convict 



Seize the 
Suppl.v and 
go to 

A wouian 

The mutiny 


escapes the 


A hunicane, 

But when the Supply returned I was informed that the convicts 
had laid a plan for confining the officers and free people on the 
island, which was to be carried into execution the first Saturday 
after the Supply or any store-ship arrived. 

It was usual for the commandant to go every Saturday to a 
farm at a small distance from the settlement. There he was to be 
seized, and they were then to send, in his name, for the surgeon 
and several others, who, as they came out, were to be confined 
with him, and the marines, going on Saturdays into the woods to 
get cabbage-tree, were to be met on their return and confined 
with the rest, as well as those who came on shore from the ship, 
after which two convicts were to go off in a small boat belonging 
to the island and inform those on board that their boat had been 
staved in landing. This intelligence they supposed would bring 
more people and boats on shore. The people were to be secured 
with the others, and the convicts were then to go and take pos- 
session of the ship, with which they intended to go to Otaheite, 
and there form a settlement. 

A woman discovered this scheme to a man belonging to the 
Sirius, with whom she lived, in hopes of persuading him to leave 
the island, and some of the convicts, being examined, confessed 
their intentions. 

The commandant, finding there wei'e only three convicts who 
had not engaged in this affair, and that it would not be possible 
to send them all away when a ship should arrive, after taking- 
such steps as he judged would prevent their attempting to carry 
their scheme into execution, returned them all to their different 
labours, and when the Supply arrived he received the convicts 
sent in her. 

The convict who had first proposed the scheme was sent here to 
be tried ; but no capital punishment could be inflicted upon him, 
as no attempt had been made to carry the scheme into execution. 

My former letters mentioned that the officer sent to ,make the 
settlement on Norfolk Island, and who I had appointed to remain 
there as superintendant and commandant, was the second lieuten- 
ant of the Sirius. He speaks well of the few he had to depend 
on, and I beg leave to assure your Lordship that he acted in that 
affair with great prudence. 

It had been thought necessary, after the discovery was made, 
to cut down all the trees which were within a certain distance of 
the huts, and which probably saved many lives, for in the fol- 
lowing month they had a violent hurricane. It came from the 
south-east, and ci'ossed the island, confining itself to a very narrow 
space, so that while all the trees on one side of the valley were 
broken down or torn up by the roots, the trees on the opposite 
side did not suffer the smallest injury. One tree, which from 
its situation had been left standing, fell on a granary, which it 


destroyed. This hurricane was accompanied by very heavy rain, 1790 
and a torrent of water, which came down from the hills, destroyed 12 Feb. 
all their gardens of Indian corn, as well as doing considerable 
damage to the provisions. 

I do not think the island is subject to hurricanes ; if it was, 
some vestiges would appear, which I am told is not the case. 
Several of the pines which were blown down measured an hundred Gii:antic 
and eighty feet in length. 

When the Sirius sailed from hence the 2nd of October, 1788, voyage of 
Captain Hunter was to have made the passage round the South 
Cape, which I am confident will be found the best passage from 
hence to the Cape of Good Hope ; but having the wind southerly 
when he sailed, he did not attempt that passage, but went round 
Cape Horn. Arrived at the Cape of Good Hope the 2nd of 
January. Left it the 20th of February, and anchored here the 
8th of May, 1789, having met with a very heavy gale of wind 
when so close in with the South Cape that it was for some time 
doubtful if it would be possible to clear it. 

By the Sirius we received some seed wheat and barley and Corn for 
four months' flour for the settlement, which was all that ship jackson. 
could bring, with a year's provisions for the ship's company. 

After the arrival of the Sirius the Supply was sent to Norfolk 
Island with provisions, and carried a lieutenant, one non-commis- 
sioned oflicer, and fourteen pi'ivates. 

T\\-o guns had been landed from the Supply, and a small re- Fortifica- 
doubt was to be erected, which, with this little additional force, 
will, I presume, prevent the convicts from making any future 
attempts. The Supply, after landing the people and provisions, 
had orders to go in search of the reef seen by the Golden Grove, 
store-ship, and a shoal or island which Lieutenant Shortland 
informed me (by the Sirius) he had seen in his passage to the 
northward. The Supply cruized for several days in the latitude 
and longitude in which Lieutenant Shortland places the island, 
but returned without seeing it. There is some reason to think 
that a mistake has been made as to the latitudes in which the island and 
island and shoal are placed by Lieutenant Shortland* ; and I ^ ° ■ 
trouble your Lordship with this information in case any ship sent 
into those seas should go to the northward without calling at this 
port, and which, from the accounts received from the Cape of 

* Sir Charles Middleton's Island and Middleton Shoals, so named by Lieut. Shortland 
after Sir Charles Middleton, Comptroller of the Xavv. Shortland gave the latitude and 
lonjfitiide as follows :— " Sir Charles Middleton's Island, lat. 28' 10' S., Ion?. 159° 50' E. Middle- 
ton Shoals, lat. 29' 20' S , lony:. 158° 48' E." Search was afterwards made for the island and 
shoals by Lieut. Shortland, in the schoonei F'rancis, and by Lieut. Ball, in the Sui>]ily, but 
without success. They failed to discover the shoals, because the latitude and lonj^itudo had 
been in the first instance incorrectly observed. The island, accordin;^ to modern avithori- 
ties, has no existence. The " Direotoi-j- of the South Pacific Ocean," p. SiJO, jrives the 
followinf,' information :—" Middleton Keef, an extensive reef, covered at hiafh water. Its 
west elttow, accordint; to Captain Denham, is in lat. 29° 27' 40" S., lorn;-. 1.59° 3' 3S" E. The 
followin",' reported dangers nuay be said not to exist :— .Middleton Island, or Sir Charles 
Middleton's Island, said to be very hiyh, in lat. 27' 5S' S., long. 159" 30' E. 




12 Feb. 

and fish. 

Cotton and 

canoes and 

Lord Howe 

Rose HUl. 



Good Hoj^e, there is rea.son to suppose the Bounty, store-ship, 
has done. The Aveather did not admit of the Supply's going in 
search of the shoal seen by the Golden Grove. The Sirius is now 
under repair ; and, when ready for sea, I shall send that ship and 
the Supply to determine the situation and extent of the shoals 
and the island. 

When the Supply left Norfolk Island the public were all very 
healthy, the damages sustained by the hurricane had been repaired, 
and they had vegetables in the greatest abundance. They get 
fish when the weather permits the boats to go without the reef, 
and at times in such quantities that fish is served to the people in 
lieu of salt provisions. They make their lines from the flax-plant ; 
but unfortunately we have not any j)erson who understands how 
to dress it. 

Half a pod of cotton being found on this island, supposed to be 
brought there by a bird, and a cocoanut which was perfectly sound, 
and appeared to have been but a short time in the water, being 
thrown upon the beach, have given some reason to suppose that both 
those articles will be found on some island at no great distance. 

Parts of two canoes, which answer the description given of 
the canoes of New Zealand, have been found on the rocks, and a 
wooden figure (very rudely carved), and which in every respect 
answers the description given of the idols seen in the Friendly 
Islands, has likewise been found, and probably was carried thither 
in one of the canoes. 

Lord Howe Island has been examined, but no fresh water or 
good anchorage being found it can be of no other advantage to 
this settlement than occasionally supplying a few turtle. 

I had the honor of informing your Lordship that a settlement 
was intended to be made at a place I named Rose Hill. At the 
head of this harbour there is a creek which at half flood has 
water for large boats to go three miles up, and one mile higher 
the water is fresh and the soil good. A very industrious man 
who I brought from England is employed there at present,"^ and 
has under his direction one hundred convicts, who are employed 
in clearing and cultivating the ground. A barn, granary, and 
other necessary buildings are erected, and seventy-seven acres in 
corn promise a good crop. The soil is good, and the country for 
seventy miles to the westward, which is as far as I have exam- 
ined, lays well for cultivation, but even there the labour of clear- 
ing the ground is very great, and I have seen none that can be 
cultivated without cutting down the timber, except some few 
particular spots, which, from their situation (lying at a distance 
from either of the harbours) can be of no advantage to us at 
present ; and I presume the meadows mentioned in " Captain 
Cook's Voyage " were seen from the high grounds about Botany 
Bay, and from whence they appear well to the eye, but when 

Dodd, Phillip's ser\ant. He died January, 1791. 


examined are found to be marshes, the draining of which would 1790 
be a work of time, and not to be attempted by the first settlers, 12 leK 
But I shall have the honor of giving your Lordship a more par- 
ticular account of the country hereafter. 

The captain's guard which untill lately did duty at Rose Hill Rose iiiu 
is now reduced to a lieutenant and twelve privates, and intended ^''^" ' 
merely as a guard to the store which contains the provisions, 
and which is in the redoubt ; for I am sensiljle there is nothing 
to be apprehended from the natives, and the little attention which 
had been desired of the officers more than what was immediately 
garrison duty, when at Rose Hill, is now no longer required. 

At Sydney Cove all the officers are in good huts and the men Comfort at 
in barracks ; and, although many unforeseen difficulties have been cove.^^ 
met with, I believe there is not an individual, from the Governor 
to the private soldier, whose situation is not more eligible at this 
time than he had any reason to expect it could be in the course 
of the three years station ; and it is the same wdth the convicts, 
and those who have been in any ways industrious have vegetables 
in plenty. The buildings now carrying on are of brick and stone. 
The house intended for myself was to consist of only three rooms ; 
but, haA'ing a good foundation, has been enlarged, contains six 
rooms, and is so well liuilt that I presume it will stand for a great 
number of years. 

The stores have been lately overrun with rats, and they are Ravages of 
equally numerous in the gardens, where they do considerable '^^^^' 
damage ; and as the loss in the stores could only be known by 
removing all the provisions, that was done, and many casks of 
flour and rice were found to be damaged or totally destroyed. 
The loss in those two articles by the rats since landing has been 
more than twelve thousand [pounds] weight. 

While the stores were under examination the Commissary one 
morning found that a key had been broken in a lock. This had 
been done in the night, and a convict, Smith, knew the wards of 
the key left in the lock to belong to a marine, who, being confined 
with several others on suspicion, one of them offered himself as 
an evidence for the Crown, and accused six of his comrades, who 
were tried, and the charge being fully proved the six were exe- Six marines 
cuted. One of those who suffered accused two others, but no proof thefl"^ ^"' 
could be l^rought against them. 

These men had for many months robbed the stores of provisions 
and spii-its, and in a manner that did not expose them to any 
great risk ; for having procured keys for all the locks, they never now the 
attempted to rob the store but when one of the party was centi- fo^^'j^cji"*^'*^ 
nel at the door. The key was in the lock when they unexpectedly 
heard the patrole, and, in the hui-ry, they turned the key the 
wiong way, and not being able to get it out broke it, knowing 
that the locks were always examined by the patrole. 




12 Ftb. 

The nig-ht- 


A marine 

A fine 

Lost in tlie 

A native 

Carried off 
by small- 

Vegetables and provisions having been frequently stolen in 
the night from convicts and others, twelve convicts were chosen 
as a night-watch,* and they have effectually answered the end 
proposed, no robbery having been committed for several months, 
and the convicts in general have lately behaved better than I 
ever expected. 

Only two convicts have suffered death in the last year ; four 
were executed the first year. A marine tried for committing a 
rape on an infant was found guilty ; but being particularly recom- 
mended for mei'cy by the criminal court, his sentence was changed 
to transportation to Norfolk Island for life. 

As near two years have now passed since we first landed in this 
country, some judgment may be formed of the climate, and 1 be- 
lieve a finer or more healthy climate is not to be found in any 
part of the world. Of 1,030 people who were landed, many of whom 
were worn out by old age, the scurvy, and various disorders, only 
seventy -two have died in one-and-twenty months ; and by the 
surgeon's returns it appears that twenty-six of those died from 
disorders of long standing, and which it is more than probable 
would have carried them off much sooner in England. Fifty -nine 
children have been born in the above time. 

Since the last ship sailed (November, 1788) two marines and 
two convicts have been lost in the woods. One convict has been 
killed by the natives, and ten wounded — for it is impossible to 
prevent the convicts from straggling, and the natives having been 
robbed and ill-treated, now attack those they meet unarmed. 

Not succeeding in my endeavours to persuade some of the 
natives to come and live with us, I ordered one to be taken by 
force, v^^hich was what I would gladly have avoided, as I knew it 
must alarm them ; but not a native had come near the settlement 
for many months, and it was absolutely necessary that we should 
attain their language, or teach them ours, that the means of re- 
dress might be pointed out to them if they are injured; and to 
reconcile them by showing the many advantages they would enjoy 
by mixing with us. A young man, who appeared to be about 
twenty-four years of age, was taken the latter end of December 
[1788], and unfortunately died of the small-pox in May [1789], 
when he was perfectly reconciled to his situation, and appeared 
so sensible of the advantages he enjoyed that, fully persuaded 
he would not leave us, I had for some time freed him from all 
restraint.! He had lived with me for the last two months, and his 
behaviour gave good reason for showing a more favourable opinion 
of the people of this country than what has been drawn from the 
report made by those who formerly touched on this coast. 

* Ante, pp. 288-293. 

t Aranbanoo. According to Hunter, Phillip called him Manly, because he was captured 
at Manly Cove. 


"Whether the small-pox, which has proved fatal to great numbers 1790 
of the natives, is a disorder to which they were subject before any 12 Feb. 
Europea"iis Adsited this country, or whether it was brought by the ' 
Frencli ships, we have not yet attained sutJicient knowledge of Origin of the 
the language to determine. It never appeared on board any of unknown. 
the ships in our passage, nor in the settlement, until some time 
after numbers of the natives had been seen dead with the dis- 
order in different parts of the harbour, and two men, with a boy 
of about eight years of age and a girl of eleven, had been brought 
to the hospital, in the small-pox. 

Both the men died, but the boy and girl recovered. These Curious 
people were brought up the middle and the latter end of April, ^'^'^^^' 
and the small-pox never appeared in the settlement until the 2nd 
of May, when a man belonging to the Supply was seized with the 
disorder and died a few days afterwards ; nor has it ever appeared- 
in the settlement except on that man and the native who caught 
the disorder from the children. 

In addition to the loss of provisions which we had sustained by 
the rats, a very considerable quantity of flour, rice, &c., had been 
lost and damaged in the passage by the badness of the casks and by Provisions 
a quantity of oil and tar having been put on board of the store-ships. '^'*'"''^§®^- 

Although there could be little doubt but that supplies would 
arrive before the provisions we had in "store were expended, it 
was necessary to guard against accident. I therefore directed 
only two-thirds of a ration to be issued to those who have hitherto Reduced 
received a full ration, by which our provisions would last until '''^'^'°"- 
June, some few articles excepted. This order, which took place 
the 1st of November, 1789, included every person in the settle- 
ment, and at the same time the Sirius and Supply's ship's com- 
panies went to three-fourths allowance. 

In December the corn at Rose Hill was got in ; the corn was Harvest, 
exceeding good. About two hundred bushels of wheat and' sixty 
of barley, with a small quantity of flax, Indian corn, and oats, all 
which is preserved for seed. Here I beg leave to observe to your 
Loi'dship that if settlers are sent out, and the convicts divided Settlers 
amongst them, this settlement will very shortly maintain itself, 
but without which this country cannot be cultivated to any 
advantage. At present I have only one person (who has about an 
hundred convicts under his direction) who is employed in culti- 
vating the ground for the publick benefit, and he has returned the 
quantity of corn ahtove mentioned into the publick store. The 
officers have not raised sufficient to support the little stock thoy Poor results. 
have. Some ground I have had in cultivation will return about 
forty bushels of wheat into store, so that the produce of the labour 
of the convicts employed in cultivation has been very short of what 
might have been expected, and which I take the liberty of pointing 
out to your Lordship in this place, to show as fully as possible the 


1790 state of tliis colony, and the necessity of the convicts being employed 

12 Feb. by those who have an interest in their labour. The giving con- 

Officcrs and victs to the officers has been hitherto necessary, but it is attended 

convict with many inconveniences, for which the advantages arisins; to the 

labour . o o 

officers do not make amends. It will not therefore be continued 
after the detachment is relieved, unless particularly directed. The 
plan I should propose for giving the convicts to settlers will be 
submitted to your Lordship's consideration in another letter. The 
numbers employed in cultivation will of course he increased, as 
the necessarv buildinsjs are finished, but wliich will be a work of 
time ; for the numbers in this settlement who do nothing towards 
their own support exceed those employed for the public. 
The fire- My intentions of turninij swine into the woods to breed have 


been prevented by the natives so frequently setting fire to the 

The Sirius, for the conveniency of refitting, had gone into a small 
cove on the north side of this hai-bour ; and it was cvistomary for 
the people to walk from the opposite shore to the ship, which one 

Lost in bush, of the mates attempting lost himself in the woods, and every 
seai-ch that could be made to find him proved ineftectual. 

From the time our native died, ordei's had been given to take 
another whenever an opportunity offered ; but they were always 
on their guard, and I was desirous of it l^eing done without being 
under the necessity of firing upon them. Towards the end of 

Two natives November two natives were taken,* and one of them proved to 
be a chief, who had been frequently mentioned to us as a great 
warrior. The necessary precautions were taken to prevent their 

One escapes, escape, but which ^\ as effected by the chief, a fortnight after he 
was taken, from the neglect of those who had the care of him ; 
the other remainsf ; he lives with me, and every possible means 
are used to reconcile him to us, and in which I make no doubt 
but that we shall succeed. The little information I am able to 
give your Lordship of these people and tlie country will be the 
subject of another letter.! 

In November the Supply sailed for Norfolk Island wdth some 

Return of convicts, and returned after being absent about six weeks. All the 

the Supply, people On that island were well, and their crops, after all they had 
sufi'ered from rats, bird.s, and a worm which had done them con- 
sidei'able damage, so good that they had grain sufficient for six 
months' bread for everyone upon the island, reserving sufficient for 
their next year's crops. 

The third lieutenant of the Sirius§ had for a considerable time 
laboured under a disorder, which terminated in the loss of his senses, 
I therefore appointed another officer in his room. And as the 

The Sirius. Sirius was now nearly ready for sea, liaving repaired the damages 

* Coleby and Bennilong. f Bennilonff. } Post, pp. 30S-310. 

§ Lieutenant Maxwell. 


sustained in the gale of wind, and being strengthened in the best ^'^^ 
manner our situation permitted, all the othcers belonging to her 12 Feb. 
■would be necessary when she went to sea, and as Norfolk Island 
was now settled, and likely to answer the views of Government, I 
discharged the second lieutenant from the Sirius,* and appointed 
another officer in his room ; consequently, that officer, who continues 
superintendaut and commandant of Norfolk Island, will no longer 
receive any pay from the Admiralty, and I beg leave to recommend Commenda- 
him to your Lordship's attention as an officer who has fully merited "' 

everything I can say in his favour. 

Early in January, 1790, the Supply again sailed for Norfolk Convicts 
Island with more convicts ; and in her passage left a small party Norfolk 
on Lord Howe Island to turn turtle; but in fifteen days only three ^^^^'^'i- 
were taken, so that no great advantages will at present accrue from 
thence. The island has fresh water, but no good anchoring-ground. 

Since the deaths mentioned in a former pai^t of this letter, one Births and 
woman has suffered for a robbery, five children have died, and 'i^^'^'^s. 
twenty-eight children have been born, making in all twenty-seven 
deaths and eighty-seven births. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

Governor Phillip to Under Secretary Nepean. 

Sir, Sydney Cove, February 12, 1790. 

As the Lieutenant-Governorf has thought I did not pay a official 
joroper attention to his complaints of the Judge-Advocate's con- '^'^P^t^^. 
duct, I trouble you with the enclosed papers, which contain all 
that passed on the subject, except my being given to understand, 
five months afterwards, that a proper attention had not been paid 
to that complaint. 

No. 1 1 is a copy of a letter I received from the Lieutenant- 
Governor, No. 2§ the Judge- Advocate's letter on that occasion, 
and No. 3|| my answer to the Lieut. -Governor's letter. 

As to the preamble in the Lieut.-Governor's letter, it would not 
merit my notice but to say that he was sensible that no orders 
ever had been left wdth anyone but himself ; and as to parties Phillip 
of pleasure, he knew likewise that I had never been a day, and '^'^i'^'^'"^- 
very seldom an hour, on that account ; and he might have known 
that my absence which gave room for his complaint against 
the Judge- Advocate was at a time Avhen my state of health was 
such that I should have been [better] pleased to remain in my 
bed than to have gone to Rose Hill to sleep on the boards in a hut 
belonging to the man who has the direction of the convicts. A 
journey I made soon after we landed fixed a complaint in my side m-health. 
which has rendered the fatigues of examining the country round 
us not parties of pleasure, but parties in which nothing but a sense 

* Lieutenant Kintr. f Major Ross. ♦ Ante, p. 262. § Ante, \\ 203. 

II Ante, p. 204. 


1790 of duty and necessity would make me engage ; and, in fact, they 
12 Feb are such parties that they have lately been declined by most of 
those who were at first induced to engage in them from motives 
of curiosity. 

Major r.oss. As to the Lieut.-Governor's saying that he is in the dark with 
respect to the line of conduct I wish him to pursue, I can only 
say that before we landed he knew the intentions of Goveniment 
respecting this settlement as fully as I could explain them ; and 
after we had been landed some months, when he intimated that 
he had understood from Lord Howe that it had not been detei'- 

The place of mined in what part of the coast the settlement would be made, 
that therefore he supposed I was at liberty to remove if I found 
a better situation, and to detain the ships for that purpose, and 
giving me to understand that he thought himself entitled to more 
confidence than had been placed in him, I desired him to come 
to me the next day, which he did, and I then endeavoured to 

Misconcep- remove so groundless a cause of discontent by every means in 
my power. I read to him every part of my insti'uctions relating 
to the settlement, and he left me, I thought, fully satisfied and 
contented ; and prior to the above time, when the officers had 
been assembled, and refused the little interference respecting 
the convicts which I had asked of them, though their comman- 
dant at that time had said nothing which could give reason 
to suppose he disapproved of their conduct in that respect, and 
which I thought I had a right to expect from him ; yet, when " 

Ross's offer he told me some days after the meeting that he himself was 

of assistance j a. • • j. •!_• t j-I^v, 

ready to give me every assistance m his power, 1 accepted the 
offer with thanks, and in a long conversation pointed out to 
him that the great object we had to attain was the rendering the 
settlement independent with respect to the necessaries of life, and 
that as the outlines of the little plan I had formed on the passage 
were done away by the resolution the officers had taken, we would, 
as we proceeded in 'clearing the ground round us, get into some 
regular plan ; and I desired that he would look on the convicts on 
one side of the cove as immediately under his directions, those on 
the opposite side to remain under mine. The Lieut.-Governor 
then very well understood what I expected and wished, and on 
every occasion I readily acknowledged the assistance I received ; 
His hot but a warmth of temper, which has been the source of many dis- 
contents, has obliged me for some time past to avoid, as far as 
the service permits, calling on the Lieutenant-Governor otherwise 
than as the commandant of the detachment. At the same time, 
no order has ever been given which might in any shape tend to 
Treated restrict his authority. So far from it that from the time we 
sideration. landed to the present time it has been understood by evei-y one in 
this settlement that all orders given by the Lieut.-Governor are 
to have the same effect as if given by me ; and whatever has been 


demanded from the stores by him has always been delivered 1790 
without any reference to me, in consequence of an order to the 12 Feb. 
Commissary for that purpose. 

The Lieut.-Governor has complained of that part of my letter Ross's 
in which I request that the peace of the settlement may not be <=o"<i"ct. 
disturbed ; but have I not had sufficient cause to make that 
request 1 Has not representation or complaint been too frequent ? 
Was not the answer given by him to a convict followed by a 
behaviour on the part of that wretch which drew on him a severe 
sentence from the criminal court ? Did not the Lieut.-Governor, 
when that convict was under examination, behave in such a 
manner to Captn. Hunter and the Judge-Advocate that the 
former wished to l)e excused attending one day in the week as a 
Justice of the Peace, that he might not subject himself in future 
to such treatment when acting as a magistrate, and the latter 
wished to resign his office of Judge- Advocate in consequence of 
the treatment he had received from the Lieut.-Governor and 
Captn. Campbell in the presence of conAacts and others ? I quote 
the words those officers made use of when they represented that 
matter to me. And did not the Lieut. -Governor's conduct, as it 
appears from the evidence of several of his officers, when Captain 
Campbell refused the duty of the criminal court, bring this settle- ^^J®J^J^gfQ^ 
ment to touch on the moment of a genei'al confusion 1 

Surely I have had sufficient reason for desiring that the peace Phuiip's 
of the settlement might not be disturl^ed, and if my forbearance 
(which the peculiar situation I am in, and characters which 
cannot be drawn in a letter have made me think necessary) does 
not lay me open to censure, I cannot think that I have reason to 
apprehend it on any other account. 

It has been said by the Lieut.-Governor "that the detachment Ross's 
had not justice done them, in not having received the necessaries statement. 
ordered out for them," and he has been repeatedly called on to 
say what those necessaries are, and to explain himself, that an 
enquiry might be made, but from his answers nothing more 
can be drawn than that the Admiralty had informed him the 
detachment would, on their landing, be supplied with what might 
be necessary to render their situation comfoi-table. I think they 
are very comfortable, and much more so than they had reason 
to expect from the service on which they are employed, and the 
nature of the country ; nor have I any reason to think that the 
officers in general are dissatisfied on that head. As to the His 
necessaries sent out for the detachment, they have never been in groundless. 
the charge of any person but the quarter-master of the detach- 
ment, with the exception of their canteens, for which they had 
not I'oom in their own stox-e. And as to those necessaries which 
were sent for the use of the settlement, they have not only had a 
full proportion, but likewise a considerable part of those articles 




12 Feb. 

■Refer to 



An afier- 

which were intended for the convicts only, such as shirts, frocks, 
and shoes, and I beheve of the necessary articles sent out for the 
use of the settlement now remaining the greatest part are in 
possession of the detachment. I do not think it necessary to 
trouble you with letters which have passed on the above occasion; 
they will be forwarded hereafter. The charge has not a shadow 
of truth to sui^port it. 

I will now, sir, conclude this letter, which, writ to explain myself 
so fully as not to be under the necessity of writing a second on 
the subject, has made a very long one, with requesting that such 
part, or the whole, as you judge proper, may be communicated 
to Lord Sydney. I have, &c., 

A. Phillip. 

After reading this letter, which I have written in haste, and 
with a desire of explaining how little reason there has been for 
complaint, I thmk it appears so like a letter to justify my own 
conduct that I wish you only to lay the enclosed letters before 
Ld. Sydney, and explain to his L'ship that the preamble in the 
Lieut.-Gov.'s letters was not noticed in my answei's, as I did not 
think it merited any attention. 

Governor Phillip to Lord Sydney. 

Government House, Sydney Cove, 
13 Feb. My Lord, February 13th, 1790. 

ChartsT I^^ ^^1^ charts of Botany Bay, Port Jackson, and Broken Bay, 

with the entrance of the liarbour on a larger scale, which I have 
the honour of sending your Lordship, such parts of these harbours 
which have not been sui'veyed are from eye-draughts made in the 
different excursions, and sufficiently correct to give a pretty just 
idea of their different branches. 

In order to get a knowledge of the country round this settlement, 
frequent excursions have been made since the ships sailed in ISTovem- 

Botany Bay ber, 1 788 ; soon after which I went to Botany Bay, and the five days 
spent in that harbour confirmed me in the opinion I had first 
formed of it — that it afforded no eligible situation for fixing the 
settlement, and was a bad harbour, not affording good security for 
ships against the easterly winds, wliicli frequently blow very hard 
in the winter ; and which has been further proved by Captain 
Hunter and the first lieutenant of the Siiius, when there to survey 
the bay. 

Broken Bay After having been several times with the boats to Broken Bay, 
in order to examine the different branches in that harbour, a river 
was found, but the want of provisions obliged us to return without 
being able to trace it to its source, which has since been done; and 
in the sixteen days we were then out all those bi'anches which had 
any depth of water were traced as far as the boats could proceed. 


The river, whicli I named Hawkesbury, after tlie Lord Hawkes- 1790 
bury,* is laid down in the cliart from an eye-sketch made by 13 Fci). 
Captain Hunter, as we rowed up it. Tlie breadth of this river ,j.,^g 
is from three Imndred to eight hundred feet, and it appears from Hawkes- 
the soundings we Jiad to be navigable for the largest merchant ' '' 
ships to the foot of Richmond Hill ; but as the water near the 
liead of the river sometimes rises, after very heavy rains, thirty 
feet above its co nmon level, it would not be safe for ships to go far 
up ; but hftten or twenty miles below Richmond Hill they would 
lay in fresh water and perfectly safe. I speak of Richmond Hill 
as being the head of the river, it th.ere growing very shallow, and 
dividing into two branches.f 

The high rocky country which forms Broken Bay is lost as you 
proceed up the HawkesVjury, J and the banks of the river are then 
covered with timber, the soil a rich light mould, and judging from 
the little we saw of the country, I should suppose it good land to Good 'and. 
a very considerable extent ; the other branches of fresh water are 
shoal, but probably run many miles further into the country than 
we could trace them with our boats. Un these rivers we saw great 
numbers of wild ducks and some black swans ; and on the banks of Game, 
the Hawkesbury several decoys made by the natives for to catch 
the quail. 

Richmond Hill (near the foot of which a fall of water prevented 
our proceeding further with the boats) is the southern extremity 
of a range of hills, which, running to the nortliward, most jirob- 
ably join the mountains which lay nearly parallel to the coast, 
fi'om tifty to sixty miles inland. The soil of Richmond Hill is good, Rkiimv.ii.i 
and it lays well for cultivation. Our prospect from the hill was 
very extensive to the southward and eastward, the country appear- 
ing, from the height at which we were, to be a level covered with 
timber ; there is a flat of six or seven miles between Richmond Hill 
and a break in the mountains, which separates Lansdown and Car- 
marthen Hills; and in this flat I suppose the Hawkesbury continues 
its course, but which could not be seen for the timber that, with - 
very few exceptions, covers the country wherever the soil is good. 

The great advantages of so noble a river, when a settlement can a noWe 
be made on its banks, will be obvious to your Lordsliip. 

Broken Bay has been described in my former letters. Pitt- Broken Bay. 
water as having eighteen feet at low water over a bank which 
lays across its entrance ; and the south-west branch, as well as 
the we.stern branch, which runs ofl' from it (and leads to the 
Hawkesbury), as having water for the ships, and aifording 
perfect security for a thousand